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Number of Cervical Vertebre

7 (No exceptions)

C2-C7 Vertebral Body (Size and shape)

-Rectangular in shape
-Increasing in size from C2-C7
-Anterior Height less than Posterior Height

C2-C7 Superior Epiphyseal Rims

-Concave from side-to-side (Uncinate Process)
-Convex from front-to-back (Ant and Post grooves)

C2-C7 Inferior Epiphyseal Rims

-Convex from side-to-side (Lateral Grooves)
-Concave from front-to-back (Ant and Post Lips)

C2-C7 Pedicles

-Post. lat from Vert Body at 45 degree from sagittal plane
-With uncinate border forms Intervertebral Foramen (oblique at 45 angle and oval)

Cervical Spinal Nerves (Numbering)

-8 total
-Named to correlate with inferior border of IVF (except nerve C8)

Carotid Tubercle

-Found on C6
-Enlarged and scalloped to accommodate common carotid artery

Cervical Rib

-Mostly on C7 (from costal element)

C2-C7 Costotransverse bar

-Sulcus for the ventral primary ramus

C2-C7 Transverse Foramen

-Transmit Vertebral Artery
-60 degree antero-lateral from sagittal and 15 downward from horizontal

C2-C7 Articular Facets

-45 degree from horizontal
-Superior: BUM
-Inferior: FoLD
-Sulcus for the dorsal primary ramus

C2-C7 Vertebral Foramen

-Largest at C6

C1 Development

-2 primary centers of ossification (right and left lateral masses)
-1 secondary center (ant. arch)

Sulcus for the vertebral artery

-Posterior to the lateral mass
-Passage for vertevral artery AND 1st cervical spine nerve

Ponticulus Posticus

-Bony bridge over the sulcus (not always present)

C1 Transverse Foramen

-Largest of all cervical vertebre

C1 Articular Facets

-Superior: Peanut-shaped. BUM
-Inferior: Flattened and round. BMD

C2 Primary centers of ossification

-Centrum, Right and Left Neural Arches, Right and Left halves of Odontoid Process

C2 Secondary Centers of Ossification

-Inferior epiphyseal rim, apex of odontoid process

C2 Articular facets

-Superior: Asymmetrical and convex. BUL
-Inferior: Typical. FoLD

C2 Spinous Process

-Large and Always Bifid

C7 (other name)

-Vertebra Prominens
-Transitional vertebra (Top like cervical, Bottom like thoracic

C7 Articular Processes (Differences)

-No Articular PIllar
-Facets 10 degrees from the vertical plane
-IAF: ForMeD

C7 Spinous Process (Differences)

-Long and Horizontal

Thoracic Count

-12 +/- 1

T2-T8 Vertebral Body (Size and Shape)

-Posterior Height greater than Anterior
-Increase in size T3-T12

Costal Demi-facet

-Two on each side, 1 superior and 1 inferior
-Articulation with capitulum of rib
-Superior articulates with same-numbered rib

Aortic Impression

-Left side of vertebral body flattened because of aorta.
-Major difference between upper and lower typical thoracics

Thoracic Vertebrae (Grouping)

T1, T2-T4, T5-T8, T9, T10, T11, T12

Cervical Vertebrae (Grouping)

C1, C2, C3-C5, C6, C7

Typical Thoracic Intervertebral Foramen

-Faces Directly Laterally
-Spindal nerve exiting identified according to vertebra making up superior border


-Laminae of adjacent vertebrae overlap eachother
-Helps protect cord

Thoracic Transverse Process

-Gets shorter from T1-T12
-T2-T4: more laterally oriented, T5-T8: posteriorly oriented

Transverse Costal Facet

-Articulates with articular facet of the tubercle of the same-numbered rib
-Oriented Anteriorly and Laterally

Typical Thoracic Articular Facet

-Superior: BUL
-Inferior: ForMeD

Pars Interarticularis

-Region between Superior and Inferior Articular processes (T1-T12)


-Going down T2-T8, spinous processes overlap eachother.

Typical Thoracic Spinous Process (Angles)

-T2-T4: 20-40 degrees from horizontal
-T5-T8: 40-60 degrees from horizontal

T1 Vertebral Body

-Slightly concave superiorly forming "Bunny Ears"

T1 Transverse Process (Differences)

-More Horizontal and Anterior than in typical thoracic

Vertebral Prominence

-Surface bulge at the posterior-inferior aspect of the neck
-Could be C7 or T1 when palpated

Thoracic Spinous Process (Angle progression)

-T1-T8: 0 --> 60 degrees
-T9-T12: 60 --> 0 degrees

T10 Transverse Costal Facet

-May be absent if tenth rib doesn't form synovial joint with thransverse process

T10 Lamina

-Para-articular processes more common and more developed on {this} vertebrae

T11 and T12 Vertebral Body Shape

-Reniform in shape (Kidney Bean)

T12 Superior Costal Facet (Location)

-Drifted lower on the vertebral body
-Lies partly on the vertebral body, partly on the pedicle

T12 Superior Tubercle (Homologue)

-Homologue of the lumbar mamillary process

T12 Lateral Tubercle (Homologue)

-Homologue of the lumbar transverse process

T12 Inferior Tubercle (Homologue)

-Homologue of the lumber accessory process

T12 Articular Facets

-Superior: BUL
-Inferior: FoLD (Convex)

T12 Spinous Process

-Like those of lumbar vertebrae, "Hatchet shaped"

Lumbar Count

5 +/- 1

Lumbar vertebre (Ossification)

-7 secendary centers of ossification; Sup/Inf epiphyseal rims, right/left transverse processes, spinous process, right and left mamillary processes

Typical Lumbar Vertebral body shape

Reniform (Vertebral Body shape)

Lumbar Intervertebral Foramen spinal nerves

-Identified according to the vertebra making up the superior border

Lumbar Lamina Shingling

-Diminishes from L1 to L5

Lumbar Vertebral foramen (shape and size)

-Triangular (Vertebral foramen shape)
-Smaller than cervicals but larger than thoracics

Lumbar Transverse Processes (Size)

-Increase in length from L1 to L3 and decrease from L3 to L5. Iliac crests get in the wayof L4 and L5

Lumbar Articular Facets

-Superior: BUM and concave
-Inferior: FoLD and convex

Occasionally develops at the L1 level

Lumbar RIb

Lumbar Pars Interarticularis

-Larger than in thoracic region.
-Consists entirely of compact bone

Lumbar Articular Facets (Distance between)

-Right and Left SAF's farther apart than Right and Left IAF's
SAF distance > IAF distance

L5 Vertebral Body (Size and height)

-Largest of lumbar vertebrae
-Ant. height greater than Post. Height

L5 Spinous process (Size)

-Shortest of all the lumbar vertebrae

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