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64 terms

Spinal Anatomy Exam II (Supplements Diagrams)

Number of Cervical Vertebre
7 (No exceptions)
C2-C7 Vertebral Body (Size and shape)
-Rectangular in shape
-Increasing in size from C2-C7
-Anterior Height less than Posterior Height
C2-C7 Superior Epiphyseal Rims
-Concave from side-to-side (Uncinate Process)
-Convex from front-to-back (Ant and Post grooves)
C2-C7 Inferior Epiphyseal Rims
-Convex from side-to-side (Lateral Grooves)
-Concave from front-to-back (Ant and Post Lips)
C2-C7 Pedicles
-Post. lat from Vert Body at 45 degree from sagittal plane
-With uncinate border forms Intervertebral Foramen (oblique at 45 angle and oval)
Cervical Spinal Nerves (Numbering)
-8 total
-Named to correlate with inferior border of IVF (except nerve C8)
Carotid Tubercle
-Found on C6
-Enlarged and scalloped to accommodate common carotid artery
Cervical Rib
-Mostly on C7 (from costal element)
C2-C7 Costotransverse bar
-Sulcus for the ventral primary ramus
C2-C7 Transverse Foramen
-Transmit Vertebral Artery
-60 degree antero-lateral from sagittal and 15 downward from horizontal
C2-C7 Articular Facets
-45 degree from horizontal
-Superior: BUM
-Inferior: FoLD
-Sulcus for the dorsal primary ramus
C2-C7 Vertebral Foramen
-Largest at C6
C1 Development
-2 primary centers of ossification (right and left lateral masses)
-1 secondary center (ant. arch)
Sulcus for the vertebral artery
-Posterior to the lateral mass
-Passage for vertevral artery AND 1st cervical spine nerve
Ponticulus Posticus
-Bony bridge over the sulcus (not always present)
C1 Transverse Foramen
-Largest of all cervical vertebre
C1 Articular Facets
-Superior: Peanut-shaped. BUM
-Inferior: Flattened and round. BMD
C2 Primary centers of ossification
-Centrum, Right and Left Neural Arches, Right and Left halves of Odontoid Process
C2 Secondary Centers of Ossification
-Inferior epiphyseal rim, apex of odontoid process
C2 Articular facets
-Superior: Asymmetrical and convex. BUL
-Inferior: Typical. FoLD
C2 Spinous Process
-Large and Always Bifid
C7 (other name)
-Vertebra Prominens
-Transitional vertebra (Top like cervical, Bottom like thoracic
C7 Articular Processes (Differences)
-No Articular PIllar
-Facets 10 degrees from the vertical plane
-IAF: ForMeD
C7 Spinous Process (Differences)
-Long and Horizontal
Thoracic Count
-12 +/- 1
T2-T8 Vertebral Body (Size and Shape)
-Posterior Height greater than Anterior
-Increase in size T3-T12
Costal Demi-facet
-Two on each side, 1 superior and 1 inferior
-Articulation with capitulum of rib
-Superior articulates with same-numbered rib
Aortic Impression
-Left side of vertebral body flattened because of aorta.
-Major difference between upper and lower typical thoracics
Thoracic Vertebrae (Grouping)
T1, T2-T4, T5-T8, T9, T10, T11, T12
Cervical Vertebrae (Grouping)
C1, C2, C3-C5, C6, C7
Typical Thoracic Intervertebral Foramen
-Faces Directly Laterally
-Spindal nerve exiting identified according to vertebra making up superior border
-Laminae of adjacent vertebrae overlap eachother
-Helps protect cord
Thoracic Transverse Process
-Gets shorter from T1-T12
-T2-T4: more laterally oriented, T5-T8: posteriorly oriented
Transverse Costal Facet
-Articulates with articular facet of the tubercle of the same-numbered rib
-Oriented Anteriorly and Laterally
Typical Thoracic Articular Facet
-Superior: BUL
-Inferior: ForMeD
Pars Interarticularis
-Region between Superior and Inferior Articular processes (T1-T12)
-Going down T2-T8, spinous processes overlap eachother.
Typical Thoracic Spinous Process (Angles)
-T2-T4: 20-40 degrees from horizontal
-T5-T8: 40-60 degrees from horizontal
T1 Vertebral Body
-Slightly concave superiorly forming "Bunny Ears"
T1 Transverse Process (Differences)
-More Horizontal and Anterior than in typical thoracic
Vertebral Prominence
-Surface bulge at the posterior-inferior aspect of the neck
-Could be C7 or T1 when palpated
Thoracic Spinous Process (Angle progression)
-T1-T8: 0 --> 60 degrees
-T9-T12: 60 --> 0 degrees
T10 Transverse Costal Facet
-May be absent if tenth rib doesn't form synovial joint with thransverse process
T10 Lamina
-Para-articular processes more common and more developed on {this} vertebrae
T11 and T12 Vertebral Body Shape
-Reniform in shape (Kidney Bean)
T12 Superior Costal Facet (Location)
-Drifted lower on the vertebral body
-Lies partly on the vertebral body, partly on the pedicle
T12 Superior Tubercle (Homologue)
-Homologue of the lumbar mamillary process
T12 Lateral Tubercle (Homologue)
-Homologue of the lumbar transverse process
T12 Inferior Tubercle (Homologue)
-Homologue of the lumber accessory process
T12 Articular Facets
-Superior: BUL
-Inferior: FoLD (Convex)
T12 Spinous Process
-Like those of lumbar vertebrae, "Hatchet shaped"
Lumbar Count
5 +/- 1
Lumbar vertebre (Ossification)
-7 secendary centers of ossification; Sup/Inf epiphyseal rims, right/left transverse processes, spinous process, right and left mamillary processes
Typical Lumbar Vertebral body shape
Reniform (Vertebral Body shape)
Lumbar Intervertebral Foramen spinal nerves
-Identified according to the vertebra making up the superior border
Lumbar Lamina Shingling
-Diminishes from L1 to L5
Lumbar Vertebral foramen (shape and size)
-Triangular (Vertebral foramen shape)
-Smaller than cervicals but larger than thoracics
Lumbar Transverse Processes (Size)
-Increase in length from L1 to L3 and decrease from L3 to L5. Iliac crests get in the wayof L4 and L5
Lumbar Articular Facets
-Superior: BUM and concave
-Inferior: FoLD and convex
Occasionally develops at the L1 level
Lumbar RIb
Lumbar Pars Interarticularis
-Larger than in thoracic region.
-Consists entirely of compact bone
Lumbar Articular Facets (Distance between)
-Right and Left SAF's farther apart than Right and Left IAF's
SAF distance > IAF distance
L5 Vertebral Body (Size and height)
-Largest of lumbar vertebrae
-Ant. height greater than Post. Height
L5 Spinous process (Size)
-Shortest of all the lumbar vertebrae