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Chapter 4 Vocab - TEST 2

Light Microscope

Visible light is passed through a specimen, such as a microorganism or a thin slice of animal or plant tissue, and then through glass lenses.

Cell theory

States that all living things are composes of cells and that all cells come from other cells.

Electron Microscope

Focuses a beam of electrons through a specimen or onto its surface.

Scanning Electron Microscope

Used to study the detailed architecture of cell surfaces.

Transmission Electron Microscope

Used to study the details of internal cell structure.

Prokaryotic Cells

In Bacteria and Archea.

Eukaryotic Cells

Have membrane-encolused nucleas, which houses DNA. In protists, fungi, plants, and animals.


Carry genes made of DNA.


Tiny structures that make proteins according to instructions from the genes.


Interior of both types of cell.


Region where DNA is coiled into.


Long projections that propel a prokaryotic cell through its liquid enviornment.


"little organs" which perform specific functions in the cell.

Cellular Metabolism

Chemical activities of cells.


Contains most of the cells DNA.


Complex of proteins and DNA that appears as a diffuse mass.

Nuclear Envelope

Double membrane that encloses the nucleus.


Prominent structure in the nucleus is the site where a special type of RNA called ribosomal RNA is synthesized.

Endomembrane System

System containing many of the membranes of the eukaryotic cell.


Sacs of membrane.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

The extensive network of flattened sacs and tubules.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Smooth because it lacks attatched ribosomes.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Has ribosomes that stud the outer surface of the membrane; thus it appears rough in the electron micrograph.


Membranous sac of digestive enzymes.


Metabolic compartments that do not originate from the endomembrane system.


Organelles that carry out cellular respiration in nearly all eukaryotic cells, converting the chemical energy of foods such as sugars to the chemical energy of the molecule called ATP.

Mitochonrial Matrix

Contains mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.


Folds that increase the membrane's surface area, enhancing the mitochondrian's ability to produce ATP.


The photosynthesizing organelles of all photosynthetic eukaryotes.


Thick fluid help in the compartment inside the inter membrane space.


A network of interconnected sacs.


Thylakoid stacks.

Endosymbiont Theory

States that mitochondria and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes that began living within larger cells.


Network of protein fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm of a cell.


Also called actin filaments. Solid rods composed mainly of globular proteins called acting, arranged in a twisted double chain.

Intermediate Filaments

Serve mainly to reinforce cell shape and to anchor certain organelles.


Straight, hollow tubes composed of globular proteins called tubulins.




The short, numerous appendages that propel protists.

Extracelluar Matrix

Layer that helps hold cells together in tissues and protects and supports the plasma membrane.


Span the membrane, attaching to the other side of proteins connected to micro filaments of the cytoskeleton.

Cell Wall




Plasma Membrane

Forms a flexible boundary between the living cell and its surroundings.


Short chains of sugars often linked to the polpeptide.

Transport Vesicle

Vesicle that moves from one part of the cell to another.

Gogli Apparatus

Serves as a molecular warehouse and finishing factory for products manufactured by the ER.


Large vesicles that have a variety of functions.

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