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48 terms

Biological Proccesess - Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Vocab - TEST 2
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Light Microscope
Visible light is passed through a specimen, such as a microorganism or a thin slice of animal or plant tissue, and then through glass lenses.
Cell theory
States that all living things are composes of cells and that all cells come from other cells.
Electron Microscope
Focuses a beam of electrons through a specimen or onto its surface.
Scanning Electron Microscope
Used to study the detailed architecture of cell surfaces.
Transmission Electron Microscope
Used to study the details of internal cell structure.
Prokaryotic Cells
In Bacteria and Archea.
Eukaryotic Cells
Have membrane-encolused nucleas, which houses DNA. In protists, fungi, plants, and animals.
Chromosomes
Carry genes made of DNA.
Ribosomes
Tiny structures that make proteins according to instructions from the genes.
Cytoplasm
Interior of both types of cell.
Nucleoid
Region where DNA is coiled into.
Flagella
Long projections that propel a prokaryotic cell through its liquid enviornment.
Organelles
"little organs" which perform specific functions in the cell.
Cellular Metabolism
Chemical activities of cells.
Nucleus
Contains most of the cells DNA.
Chromatin
Complex of proteins and DNA that appears as a diffuse mass.
Nuclear Envelope
Double membrane that encloses the nucleus.
Nucleolus
Prominent structure in the nucleus is the site where a special type of RNA called ribosomal RNA is synthesized.
Endomembrane System
System containing many of the membranes of the eukaryotic cell.
Vesicles
Sacs of membrane.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
The extensive network of flattened sacs and tubules.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Smooth because it lacks attatched ribosomes.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Has ribosomes that stud the outer surface of the membrane; thus it appears rough in the electron micrograph.
Lysome
Membranous sac of digestive enzymes.
Peroxisomes
Metabolic compartments that do not originate from the endomembrane system.
Mitochondria
Organelles that carry out cellular respiration in nearly all eukaryotic cells, converting the chemical energy of foods such as sugars to the chemical energy of the molecule called ATP.
Mitochonrial Matrix
Contains mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
Cristae
Folds that increase the membrane's surface area, enhancing the mitochondrian's ability to produce ATP.
Chloroplasts
The photosynthesizing organelles of all photosynthetic eukaryotes.
Stroma
Thick fluid help in the compartment inside the inter membrane space.
Thylakoids
A network of interconnected sacs.
Granum
Thylakoid stacks.
Endosymbiont Theory
States that mitochondria and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes that began living within larger cells.
Cytoskeleton
Network of protein fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm of a cell.
Microfilaments
Also called actin filaments. Solid rods composed mainly of globular proteins called acting, arranged in a twisted double chain.
Intermediate Filaments
Serve mainly to reinforce cell shape and to anchor certain organelles.
Microtubles
Straight, hollow tubes composed of globular proteins called tubulins.
Centrioles
...
Cilia
The short, numerous appendages that propel protists.
Extracelluar Matrix
Layer that helps hold cells together in tissues and protects and supports the plasma membrane.
Integrins
Span the membrane, attaching to the other side of proteins connected to micro filaments of the cytoskeleton.
Cell Wall
...
Plasmodesmata
...
Plasma Membrane
Forms a flexible boundary between the living cell and its surroundings.
Glycoprotein
Short chains of sugars often linked to the polpeptide.
Transport Vesicle
Vesicle that moves from one part of the cell to another.
Gogli Apparatus
Serves as a molecular warehouse and finishing factory for products manufactured by the ER.
Vacuoles
Large vesicles that have a variety of functions.