According to the text, there are three differing views of crime.
Consensus, Interactionist, and Conflict
The view of crime that accepts the idea that criminal law defines the actions that constitue a crime and that is being influenced by people who hold social power.
The _______ view states that criminal law is made to protect the haves from the have nots.
When Talking about the nature of crime, _______ behavior is one of the common denominators.
The _______ view looks at the crimes as behaviors that are harmful to the majority of citizens and is against the norms of society.
Classical Criminology is based on the concept of deterrence. True or False
To understand the nature of crime, we must first understand the nature of the Criminal Law. True or False
One major issue in the study of the crime is the lack of the consensus surrounding it's development and it's cause. True or False
For many years, criminlology was a subfield of __________.
Criminology is narrow in it's scope and not very multidisciplinary. True or False
Criminology has 5 specialty areas.
Sociology of Law, Criminology Theory, Penology, Justificology, and Victimology.
While Criminology has 5 specialty areas, it also encompasses 5 models which are?
Legal Model, Medical Model, Political Model, Sociological Model, and Interdisplinary Model.
These 5 Models fall into 3 different schools of thought.
Classical, Positive, and Neo-Classical
The tenets of the Classical School
Crime can be controlled by punishing the identified offenders in a way that makes potential offenders fearful of the consequences of committing crime.
The tenets of the Positive School
1. Denial of free will. 2. Multiple causes of criminal behavior. 3. Causes are biological and environmental. 4. Use scientific methods to look at cause. 5. Actions toward the criminal should be to correct not punish.
The tenets of The Neo-Classical School
Identical Punishment for Identical Crimes. Concept of free will and Rationality.
Definition of Crime
Is that which a democratically selected legislative body has determined to be unlawful activity (commission) or inactivity (omission), for which there is legal sanction.
Definition of Criminal Behavior
Any action or failure to act as defined by criminal law.
Characteristics Of A Sociopath
Repeat offenders who does not respond appropriately to treatment, rehab, incarceration.
When speaking of psychopaths there are 3 classifications: Primary Secondary, and Dyssocial. Which is considered a true psychopath?
Theory that concentrates on the mental process.
Characteristics Of The Anti Social Personality (ASP)
A failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors.
Theory that experiences from childhood are buried in the unconscious.
Theory that behavior is developed through learning experiences.
Psychological Theories are classified into 3 areas.
Psychodynamic, Behavioral, Cognitive
Definition of Personality
An individual's unique and relatively unchanging psychological characteristics and behavior patterns.
________ plays a major role in the psychological theories.
Psychological Theories are part of what school of Criminology?
Biochemical, Neurophysical Factors, Hormones and Crime
Body Type, Genetics and Crime, Chromosomal, and Intelligence and Crime
Some of the Characteristics of Early Theories
Physical Features, Heredity, Feeblemindedness, and Gender
Biological Theories fall into 3 areas
Early, Transitional, and Contemporary
Which school of criminology does the U.S. operate from?
Circumstances sometimes cause similar crimes to differ in significant ways. True or False
What are Aggravating Circumstances?
Circumstances that cause the offender to be punished more severely than normal.
What are Mitigating Circumstances?
Those that will result in more leniency.
Definition of Criminology
The scientific approach to the study of crime as a social phenomenon, that is the theoretical application involving the study of the nature and extent of criminal behavior.
Definition of Criminality
Occurs when certain Behaviors have been transformed by society into crimes and people engage in those behaviors have been I.D. as criminals.