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32 terms

Psychiatry- Lecture 1 Terminology

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Hallucinations
(Occurs in the waking state) a sensory perception that does not result from external stimulus. Auditory, gustatory, olfactory, tactile or visual.
Suicidal ideation
thinking about killing self, relating to self destruction
Homicidal ideation
thinking about killing or harming another
Internal stimuli
From within, voices. Responding to these voices
Psychosis
mental disorder of organic or emotional origin with a gross impairment in reality testing. Individual has incorrect evaluation of accuracy with perceptions, thoughts and incorrect references about external reality: even when contrary evidence is present
Neurosis
Emotional disturbance or mental disorder with various anxiety symptoms thought to be related to unresolved conflicts
Affective
pertaining to emotional, mood, or feeling
Tangential
Expressions or responses that have a tendency to digress from the original topic of conversation
Confabulatory
fabrication of experiences or situations, often recounted in a detailed and plausible way to fill in and cover gaps in memory. Often a defense mechanism
Tardive Dyskinesia
Involuntary, repetitious movements of the muscles of the face, limbs, and trunk. Usually in patients treated for extended periods with phenothiazine
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
Complication of psychotherapy with neuroleptic medications in therapeutic doses. Hypertonicity, pallor, dyskinesia, hyperthermia, incontinence, unstable BP, pulmonary congestion
Anhedonia
Inability to feel pleasure or happiness from experiences that are usually pleasurable
Neoglisms
Word coined by a psychotic or delirium pt that is only meaningful to the pt
Aphasia
Language function is defective or absent because of an injury. Receptive, expressive, sensory
Loosening of Associations
Disturbance of thinking, association of ideas and thought patterns. Vague, diffuse, and unfocused as to lack any logical sequence or relationship to any preceding concepts or themes
Akathisia
pathologic condition with restlessness and agitation
Flight of Ideas
Continuous stream of talk with rapid switching from one topic to another. Topics are incoherent and not related to the preceding or stimulated by some environmental circumstance. Often from acute mania or schizophrenia
Somatization
A mental event is expressed in a body disorder or physical symptom
Somatization disorder
Recurrent, multiple, physical complaints and symptoms for which there is no organic cause. Involves complaints from many organ symptoms. GI, reproductive, neurologic symptoms or pain. Increased stress worsens symptoms. F>M. Usually start in adolescence or <30. 1/2 have a comorbid disorder. Regularly monthly visit, group and individual psychotherapy
Body dysmorphic disorder
Preoccupation w/an imagined defect in physical appearance or exaggerated distortion of a minor flaw. Facial. Self-conscious and fear humiliation: hide the anomaly. Dermatologist, plastic surgeon. 15-30. F>M. Tx Serotonin-modulating drugs: fluoxetine (Prozac), clomipramine (Tofranil:TCA). COexisting with major depressive disorder at times or anxiety disorder
Malingering
Willful and deliberate feigning of the symptoms of a disease (physical or psychological symptoms) or injury to gain come consciously desired end. Avoid responsibility, police, legal action, punishment or difficult situations. Vague, poorly defined complaints and claim that these symptoms cause great distress and impaired functioning. uncooperative and refuse to accept clean bill of health. Symptoms improve when the objective is met or ruse exposed.
Conversion Disorder
Repressed emotional conflicts are converted into sensory, motor or visceral symptoms having no underlying organic cause. 1 or more neurologic complaints that can't be explained. Symptoms not initially produced: and may be motor (involuntary movement, tics, blepharospasm, weakness) sensory (paresthesia, +/- anesthesia, tunnel vision, deafness), seizure activity, or mixed (psychogenic vomiting, syncope). Most common are shifting paralysis, blindness, and mutism. Unexpected lack of concern or indifference to the symptoms. Episodic. 20-25% of the population. F>M. Adolescence or young adults. TX: Psychotherapy: Insight-oriented or behavioral. Hypnosis, anxiolytics, relaxation. Lorazepam if traumatic event.
Psychotic
Pertaining to psychosis
Neurotic
Pertaining to neurosis
Functional
Condition marked by signs or symptoms of an organic disease or disorder although there is no evidence or structural or physiologic abnormalities. Symptoms are as real as with an organic disorder.
Factitious Disorder
Condition or disease symptoms caused by deliberate efforts of a person to gain attention. Intentionally fake the S&Sx's of medical or psychiatric disease. To assume the sick role. Early adulthood. Poor prognosis. Confrontation angers the pt. RULE OUT TRUE DISEASE PROCESSES. Related: Munchausen syndrome and Munchhausen by proxy. Munchausen has mainly physical complaints. TX: Psychotherapy, early recognition, SSRI's
Factitious disorder by proxy
Parent will continuously seek medical attention for their child. The child endures multiple medical treatments and unnecessary procedures
Hypochondriasis
Chronic, abnormal concern about the health of the body w/ extreme anxiety, depression and an unrealistic interpretation of real or imagined physical symptoms as indication of a serious illness or disease. Preoccupation w/ the belief of having or the fear of contracting a serious illness. Not delusional. Normal body sensations are manifested as a disease. Anxiety and depression sx's coexist. Fear continues even though no medical reasoning. Generally chronic. TX: group and insight-oriented psychotherapy. Coping mechanisms for stress without reinforcing their perceived illness. Regular appt. Pharmacotherapy for anxiety or major depressive disorder
Pain disorder
Pain in one or more areas w/o any identifiable cause and results in significant distress and impaired fxn. Atypical facial pain, LBP, HA, pelvic pain, and other types of chronic pain syndromes. (If medical condition exists: pain still not fully explained). Pts view pain as a cause of all problems. Abrupt onset and increase intensity over time. Long hx of medical and surgical TX. 30-50 F>M. TX: psychotherapy, behavioral therapy. Pain control program. Pain reduction may not be feasible, focus on rehab. Analgesics, sedatives are not beneficial. SSRI, TCA. Possibly amphetamines with SSRI
Organic
Any disease associated w/ detectable or observable changes in one or more body organs
Primary
Not derived from any other source or cause, specifically the original condition or set of symptoms in diseased processes
Secondary
Second in incidence