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117 terms

Part 1

STUDY
PLAY
Anterior and Ventral
Towards the front, or away from the back
Posterior and Dorsal
toward the back, away from the front
Superior
upper
Inferior
lower
Superficial
towards the surface
Deep
away from the surface
Chephalad and Cranial and Rostral
towards the head
Caudal
towards the tail
External
towards the outer surface
Internal
towards the inner surface
Medial
towards the axis or midline
Lateral
away from axis or midline
Proximal
towards the body or the root of a free extremity (shoulder, hip region)
Distal
away from the body or away from the root of a free extremity
Planes of Reference
Front-coronal, Transverse, Sagittal
Front-coronal (crown)
divides the structure into front and back halves
Transverse
horizontal or cross section
Sagittal
cuts the body into right or left halves
Prone
laying face down
Supine
laying on your back, anatomic position
Flexion
bending of a part, decreasing an angle between two parts
Extention
straightening, or increasing an angle between two parts
Abduction
movement away from the axis, apart (vocal folds)
Adduction
movement toward the median plane, together (vocal folds)
Bone
rigid matrix composed of inorganic salts (calcium), living tissue that supports the body, proficient movement, produce blood cells
Remodeling
process of being broken down and rebuilt, result of two processes, stronger bones with use
Osteoclasts
parts that absorb the bone
Osteoblasts
form new bone
Osteoperosis
bone matrix becomes weaker, breakdown of the mineral and protein content of bone matrix
Periosteum
very thin-like membrane, allows for the attachment of tendons and ligaments
Condyle
rounded knucklike process
Crest
a prominent ridge
Head
an enlargement at one end of the bone beyond the neck
Process
a bony prominence
Spine
A sharp projection
Trochanter
a very large bony projection
Tubercle
a small rounded projection
Tuberosity
a large rounded projection
Elevations
condyle, crest, head, process, spine, trochanter, tubercle, tuberosity
Depressions
fissure, foramen, fossa, fovea, groove, meatus, neck, sinus, sulcus
Fissure
a cluft or deep groove
Foramen
an opening or perforation in a bone or cartilage
Fossa
a pit or hollow
Fovea
a small pitlike depression
Groove
a furrow
Meatus
a tube or passageway (EAM)
Neck
a constrition near one end (the head) of a bone
Sinus
cavity within a bone
Sulcus
a groove or furrow
Cartilage
softer, more flexible then bone
Hyaline
covers surfaces of joints, forms the framework for the lower respiratory tracks and becomes harder with age.
Elastic
rubbery, found in the EAM and epiglottis and Eustachian tube.
Fibrous
known to form the inter vertebral disks of your vertebral column
Connective Tissue
connects or bind structures in order to support the body and aids in certain matinence in the body
Ligaments
parallel fibers (run int he same direction) that have elastic fibers embedded in them, makes them suitable for connecting bones to bones, bones to carts, and carts. to carts.
Tendons
parallel fibers, closely packed (dense) and non elastic. Always ass. with a muscle mech.: in which most muscles attach to bones, sometimes attach bones to carts. and mus. to mus.
Muscles
All human movement is the result of this, provides motor function
Muscle Tissue Types
Striated (skeletal), smooth muscles, and Cardiac.
Striated (skeletal)
Voluntary muscle fibers, you continuously move the muscles. Volitional control can override the reflexes
Smooth muscles
innervated by the autonomic nervous system
Cardia
combination of autonomic and striated
Geometric
reflect the shape of a muscle. ex-"Traps"
General Form
the names of the muscles describe the muscle in some way. ex- Digastricus (two bellied)
Location
reflect where in the body they may be found. ex-Intercostals (between the ribs)
Descriptive Terms
Major, minor, external, internal
Number of heads
on the muscle at the origin. ex-BIcept, TRIcept
Attachments
The muscles may be named according to which bones the muscles are attached (ex.-sternocleidomastoid)
Function
the function of the muscle may be described (ex.- Tensor tympani- makes the eardrum tight, tense)
Endomysium
The fine connective tissue sheath surrounding a muscle fiber.
perimysium
The fibrous sheath enveloping each of the primary bundles of skeletal muscle fibers.
Epimysium
The external sheath of connective tissue surrounding a muscle.
Skeletal muscle contractions 2 types
Isometric and Isotonic
Isometric
muscle develops tension, but does not change in size, in constant length
Isotonic
a contraction causes the muscle to shorten
Strength
3.5 Kg per cm squared
Muscle tone
at rest, you have a certain amount of tension that remains with your muscles
Fatigue
decline in muscle tension, as a result of previous activity slower rate of relaxing, how quickly you fatigue and rate of fatigue dependent on the muscle fiber and the intensity of the fiber
Agonist
the prime mover that initiates and maintains an action, (bicept)
Antagonist
a poses the prime mover
(tricep)
Synergist
stabilizing the muscles, other muscles. Trunk, legs,...
Glands
Tissues that produce chemical secretion or excretions
Endocrine glands
produce internal secretions that go directly into the bloodstream
Exocrine glands
produce external secretions
Lymphoid Tissue
part of the immune system (fights off infections)
antibodies
generated by the lymph tissue, Joe: counteract antigens
antigens
the disease causing agents
Membranes
thin layers of connective tissue, that coats cells, organs, joints, cavities, etc...
Epithelial tissue
lines most of the body's surfaces, and protects other tissues from damage/dehydration
Epidermis
outside skin, epithelial cells, karaten-protein, produce melanin (pigment)
Dermis
Functional layer of the skin that lies just beneath the epidermis, contains nerve cells, blood vessels, and hair folicals.
Subcutaneous Tissue
made mostly of fat, lies just beneath the Dermis
Internal Membranes
are continuous to the skin (mucus membrane(gut respiratory tract))
Simple squamous
single layer of flattened cells, found in blood vessel walls; air sacs of lungs. Function: Diffusion
diffusion
movement of mol., from high concentrations to lower concentrations
simple cuboidal
single layer of cubelike cells; may have microvilli at its free surface, part of the gut lining, part of respiratory tract lining
Cilia
hairlike substances found on a free surface of a cell
Simple Columnar
single layer of tall, slender cells; may have microvilli at its free surface, part of gut lining and respiratory tract
Goblet Cells
variation of the cuboidal cell, also found in the res./dig tracts. Designed to secrete mucin (type of mucus)
Joints
points of articulation in the body: some have high mounts of movement, some have low, and some have none at all
Fibrous
immovible joints *structures (skull)
Cartilaginous Joints
synchondrosis and symphysis
Synchondrosis
ossify through aging (calcifies)
Symphysis
when you have bone connected by fibro cartilage (disks between vertebra)
High mobility (synovial)
fluid inside these joints, cracking your joints, knuckles
Gliding joints
sliding movements between joints, *vertebra (articulatory) you want movement
Hinge joints
permit movement in one plane, usually just backwards and forwards *fingers
Pivot joints
one:permits a pivot of pully like movement *head
Condyloid joints
permit all type of movement except rotation *ancle/wrist
Saddle joints
*between the mallues/incus in your middle ear
Ball and socket
joint that consists of a rounded ball like and that ifts into a cup like cavity shoulder hip
Levers
fulcrum, load, effort
Fulcrum
the point about which the lever rotates
Load
the resistance
Effort
the force applied by the user of a system
Type 1
pivot is between the effort and the load, ROM and speed are attained at the expense of power (allow for greater power, giving up your speed and range of motion)
Type 2
fulcrum (joint) is at one end of the lever arm (bone) and the force applied. (the muscle attachment is at the other end and the load is in between) *jaw opening against resistance, allows little people to move big things.
Type 3
The fulcrum is at one end, the lead at the other, and the force is applied between. Operate with a mechanical disadvantage, power is lost and speed and range of motion is gained. *most common type of lever in the body.