Anterior and Ventral
Towards the front, or away from the back
Posterior and Dorsal
toward the back, away from the front
towards the surface
away from the surface
Chephalad and Cranial and Rostral
towards the head
towards the outer surface
towards the inner surface
towards the axis or midline
away from axis or midline
towards the body or the root of a free extremity (shoulder, hip region)
away from the body or away from the root of a free extremity
Planes of Reference
Front-coronal, Transverse, Sagittal
divides the structure into front and back halves
horizontal or cross section
cuts the body into right or left halves
laying on your back, anatomic position
bending of a part, decreasing an angle between two parts
straightening, or increasing an angle between two parts
movement away from the axis, apart (vocal folds)
movement toward the median plane, together (vocal folds)
rigid matrix composed of inorganic salts (calcium), living tissue that supports the body, proficient movement, produce blood cells
process of being broken down and rebuilt, result of two processes, stronger bones with use
parts that absorb the bone
form new bone
bone matrix becomes weaker, breakdown of the mineral and protein content of bone matrix
very thin-like membrane, allows for the attachment of tendons and ligaments
rounded knucklike process
an enlargement at one end of the bone beyond the neck
a bony prominence
a very large bony projection
a small rounded projection
a large rounded projection
condyle, crest, head, process, spine, trochanter, tubercle, tuberosity
fissure, foramen, fossa, fovea, groove, meatus, neck, sinus, sulcus
a cluft or deep groove
an opening or perforation in a bone or cartilage
a small pitlike depression
a tube or passageway (EAM)
a constrition near one end (the head) of a bone
cavity within a bone
a groove or furrow
softer, more flexible then bone
covers surfaces of joints, forms the framework for the lower respiratory tracks and becomes harder with age.
rubbery, found in the EAM and epiglottis and Eustachian tube.
known to form the inter vertebral disks of your vertebral column
connects or bind structures in order to support the body and aids in certain matinence in the body
parallel fibers (run int he same direction) that have elastic fibers embedded in them, makes them suitable for connecting bones to bones, bones to carts, and carts. to carts.
parallel fibers, closely packed (dense) and non elastic. Always ass. with a muscle mech.: in which most muscles attach to bones, sometimes attach bones to carts. and mus. to mus.
All human movement is the result of this, provides motor function
Muscle Tissue Types
Striated (skeletal), smooth muscles, and Cardiac.
Voluntary muscle fibers, you continuously move the muscles. Volitional control can override the reflexes
innervated by the autonomic nervous system
combination of autonomic and striated
reflect the shape of a muscle. ex-"Traps"
the names of the muscles describe the muscle in some way. ex- Digastricus (two bellied)
reflect where in the body they may be found. ex-Intercostals (between the ribs)
Major, minor, external, internal
Number of heads
on the muscle at the origin. ex-BIcept, TRIcept
The muscles may be named according to which bones the muscles are attached (ex.-sternocleidomastoid)
the function of the muscle may be described (ex.- Tensor tympani- makes the eardrum tight, tense)
The fine connective tissue sheath surrounding a muscle fiber.
The fibrous sheath enveloping each of the primary bundles of skeletal muscle fibers.
The external sheath of connective tissue surrounding a muscle.
Skeletal muscle contractions 2 types
Isometric and Isotonic
muscle develops tension, but does not change in size, in constant length
a contraction causes the muscle to shorten
3.5 Kg per cm squared
at rest, you have a certain amount of tension that remains with your muscles
decline in muscle tension, as a result of previous activity slower rate of relaxing, how quickly you fatigue and rate of fatigue dependent on the muscle fiber and the intensity of the fiber
the prime mover that initiates and maintains an action, (bicept)
a poses the prime mover
stabilizing the muscles, other muscles. Trunk, legs,...
Tissues that produce chemical secretion or excretions
produce internal secretions that go directly into the bloodstream
produce external secretions
part of the immune system (fights off infections)
generated by the lymph tissue, Joe: counteract antigens
the disease causing agents
thin layers of connective tissue, that coats cells, organs, joints, cavities, etc...
lines most of the body's surfaces, and protects other tissues from damage/dehydration
outside skin, epithelial cells, karaten-protein, produce melanin (pigment)
Functional layer of the skin that lies just beneath the epidermis, contains nerve cells, blood vessels, and hair folicals.
made mostly of fat, lies just beneath the Dermis
are continuous to the skin (mucus membrane(gut respiratory tract))
single layer of flattened cells, found in blood vessel walls; air sacs of lungs. Function: Diffusion
movement of mol., from high concentrations to lower concentrations
single layer of cubelike cells; may have microvilli at its free surface, part of the gut lining, part of respiratory tract lining
hairlike substances found on a free surface of a cell
single layer of tall, slender cells; may have microvilli at its free surface, part of gut lining and respiratory tract
variation of the cuboidal cell, also found in the res./dig tracts. Designed to secrete mucin (type of mucus)
points of articulation in the body: some have high mounts of movement, some have low, and some have none at all
immovible joints *structures (skull)
synchondrosis and symphysis
ossify through aging (calcifies)
when you have bone connected by fibro cartilage (disks between vertebra)
High mobility (synovial)
fluid inside these joints, cracking your joints, knuckles
sliding movements between joints, *vertebra (articulatory) you want movement
permit movement in one plane, usually just backwards and forwards *fingers
one:permits a pivot of pully like movement *head
permit all type of movement except rotation *ancle/wrist
*between the mallues/incus in your middle ear
Ball and socket
joint that consists of a rounded ball like and that ifts into a cup like cavity shoulder hip
fulcrum, load, effort
the point about which the lever rotates
the force applied by the user of a system
pivot is between the effort and the load, ROM and speed are attained at the expense of power (allow for greater power, giving up your speed and range of motion)
fulcrum (joint) is at one end of the lever arm (bone) and the force applied. (the muscle attachment is at the other end and the load is in between) *jaw opening against resistance, allows little people to move big things.
The fulcrum is at one end, the lead at the other, and the force is applied between. Operate with a mechanical disadvantage, power is lost and speed and range of motion is gained. *most common type of lever in the body.
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