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Exam 1- Computer in Business
Terms in this set (182)
The terms "data" and "information" mean the same thing.
Companies are implementing open information systems that can be linked to other systems owned by business partners such as suppliers and clients.
Information systems whose purpose is to glean from raw data relationships and trends that might help organizations compete better are called business intelligence (BI) systems.
Geographic Information Systems can be used to manage daily operations as well as for planning and decision making.
While accounting systems focus on recording and reporting financial changes and states, the purpose of human resource management systems is to facilitate financial planning and business transactions.
A _____ is an array of components that work together to achieve a common goal, or multiple goals, by accepting input, processing it, and producing output in an organized manner.
______ refers to the buying and selling goods and services via a telecommunications network.
_____ are normally responsible for developing cost analyses, design considerations, implementation timelines, and feasibility studies of a computer system before making recommendations to senior management.
A _____ is responsible for the databases and data warehouses of an organization—a very sensitive and powerful position.
In most organizations, the chief security officer (CSO) reports to the _____.
chief information officer (CIO)
Practically any mobile-based system that gives a company competitive advantage is a strategic information system.
Switching costs can be explicit or implicit.
An alliance can be created to enable customers to use the same technology for purchases from different companies.
In a highly competitive industry that traditionally has had a narrow profit margin, JetBlue managed to gain strategic advantage by reducing cost and therefore reducing the price to the customer.
For an information system to be a strategic information system, one of the conditions is that the information system must serve an organizational goal rather than simply provide information.
The word "strategy" originates from the Greek word strategos, meaning "_____."
In a _____, a market rarely remains the domain of one organization for long; thus, competition ensues almost immediately.
Which of the following patents does Priceline.com hold that prevents competitors from entering its business space?
Online reverse auctioning
_____ involves adoption of new machinery and elimination of management layers.
The most important metric in the airline industry is _____, which is how much it costs to fly a passenger one mile of the journey.
cost per available seat-mile (CASM)
Consumers of the final goods and services are involved in B2B trading.
Traditional retailers, often called brick-and-mortar businesses, have extended their "storefront" by launching an e-tailing arm.
Affiliates are compensated in many ways such as pay per sale, pay per click, and pay per lead.
The electronic bill presentment and payment allows bills to be presented automatically, directly from the companies' information systems to payers' email addresses, and therefore save labor, paper, and postage.
In dedicated hosting the host dedicates a server to the client, and the client can fully control the content on the server's disks.
While blogging is publishing text and other visual material, _____ is publishing sound and video.
In the context of B2B trading, online advertising is done mainly in two ways: through _____ and through banners.
The most basic metric that can be measured at a site is the number of _____.
If a student team decides to conduct a synchronous virtual meeting, it may choose to use any of the following tools EXCEPT ________.
Which of the following is said to be the first and most important step in problem solving?
DEFINE THE PROBLEM
The purpose of marketing is to track every financial transaction within a company—from a few cents expenditure to a multimillion-dollar purchase, from salaries and benefits to the sale of every item.
Material requirements planning (MRP) programs use long-range forecasts to put long-lead material on order.
The most important development in hardware to support supply chain management has been a technology called radio frequency identification (RFID).
Modern customer relationship management (CRM) systems can help capture the entire customer experience with an organization, from response to an online advertisement to automatic replenishment of products to proactive service.
Small businesses cannot use targeted marketing due to their low budget.
_____ is determined by the relationship between resources expended and the benefits gained in achieving a goal.
The combination of customer relationship management (CRM) and supply chain management (SCM) systems is referred to as _____.
enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems
_____, which are used to accumulate data about expenditures involved in producing specific products, make excellent use of IT to compile pricing data.
_____ are used to execute transactions in which financial institutions transfer huge amounts of money using electronic funds transfer (EFT).
Cash management systems (CMSs)
_____ participate in physical activities such as cutting and welding in the manufacturing process.
Computer-aided manufacturing systems
Usually, a table in a relational database must have a primary key, and most relational DBMSs enforce this rule.
From a technical point of view, online databases that are used with Web browsers are different from other databases.
Data warehouses replace transactional databases.
A data warehouse is a large, typically relational, database that supports management decision making.
The three phases involved in building a data warehouse from transactional data are extraction, transforming, and loading.
There are two overall approaches to maintaining data: the traditional file approach—which has no mechanism for tagging, retrieving, and manipulating data—and the _____, which does have this mechanism.
A collection of related records, such as all the records of a college's students, is called a(n) _____.
A repeated field that links records between two tables, is a primary key in one table, and a(n) _____ in the other field.
The conceptual blueprint of a database is called a(n) _____.
entity relationship diagram (ERD)
_____ helps the users know what they can find and analyze in the data warehouse.
Binary counting system uses only two digits. What are they?
0 & 1
a given or fact
-Can be number, statement, or picture
facts or conclusions that have meaning within context.
Composed of data that has been manipulated
array of components that work together to achieve goal or goals
component of a larger system
-Has subgoal that contributes to main goal
-Can receive input from and transfer output to other subsystems
has no connections with other systems
interfaces and interacts with other systems
all components that work together to process data and produce information
information system (IS)
large collection of electronic records
-connects to web
a business event, usually entered as input
changing and manipulating the data
get information out of the IS
maintaining vast amounts of data and information
communication that occurs between computers over distances
sequence of activities involved in producing and selling products or services
-For products, activities include:
-Marketing, purchasing raw materials, manufacturing and assembly, packing and shipping, billing, collection, and after-sale services
-For services, activities include:
-Marketing, document management, and monitoring customer portfolios
help manage relations with customers
-Used in combination with telephones to provide customer service
-Often linked to Web applications that track online transactions
Customer Relationship Management Systems (CRM)
ties data to physical locations
-May use information from global positioning system (GPS) satellites (Mapquest, Google Earth)
-represents data on map
Geographic Information System (GIS)
-Help record transactions
-Produce periodic statements
-Create required reports for law
-Create supplemental reports for managers
-Contain controls to guarantee adherence to standards
Facilitate financial planning and business transactions
-Tasks include organizing budgets, managing cash flow, analyzing investments, and making decisions
purpose is to pinpoint likely customers and promote products
-Analyze demand for products in regions and demographic groups
-Identify trends in demand for products/services
-Determine how advertising campaigns affect profit
human resource management
buying and selling goods and services through Internet
-Starts career as programmer or programmer/analyst
-Researches, plans, and recommends software and systems choices
-Responsible for developing cost analyses, design considerations, implementation timelines, and feasibility studies
responsible for databases and data warehouses
-Develops and acquires database applications
-Must adhere to federal, state, and corporate regulations to protect privacy of customers and employees
-Responsible for securing the database
database administrator (DBA)
manages an organization's computer operating systems
-Must ensure that operating systems work together, support business requirements, and function properly
-Responsible for backup and recovery, adding and deleting user accounts, and performing system upgrades
creates and maintains Web site
-Must be familiar with Web transaction software, payment-processing software, security software
-Manages both the intranet and extranet
supervises security of information system
-Also called chief information security officer (CISO)
-Usually reports to chief information officer (CIO)
Chief Security Officer (CSO)
responsible for all aspects of information system
-Often a corporate vice president
-Must have technical understanding of information technologies as well as business knowledge
Chief Information Officer (CIO)
framework, or approach, to obtaining an advantageous position
expenses incurred when customer stops buying from one company and starts buying from another
charge customer for switching (early termination of contract)
indirect costs over period of time, such as implementation of new product, staff retraining
organization that is first to offer a new product or service
-Usually results in superior brand name, better technology, more experience, or critical mass
persuading customers that your product is better than competitors'
-Usually achieved through advertising and customer experience
-Exemplified by brand name success
-EX) Levi Jeans
body of clients that is large enough to attract other clients
increase value to consumer
Enhance existing products or services
two companies combining services
-Makes product more attractive
-Provides one-stop shopping
linking to other companies and rewarding the linker for click-throughs
eliminating and rebuilding operations from the ground up
-Often involves new machinery and elimination of management layers
-Frequently involves information technology
-Goal is to achieve huge efficiency improvements
airline company that entered a formerly hurting market with great success
-Automation with IT
-developed Open Skies software to automate ticket handling
enters the market later than other competitors
-Can be viewed as advantage
-Implements latest available technologies
-Not burdened with legacy systems
money owed by a company to its creditors.
money owed to a company to its creditor
support supply chain activities
-eliminates need to reenter data captured elsewhere in organization
enterprise resource planning system (ERP)
large database that usually stores transnational records
where products, prices & services are determined by market, not government
to lower prices
-customers want to pay as little as possible
-raise barriers to entrants
-obtain legal protection of intellectual property
two companies decide to share resources to accomplish specific, mutually beneficial project
serve organization goal & collaboration with other functional units of company
strategic information system (SIS)
measurement & analysis of unique physical or behavioral characteristics especially as a means of verifying personal ID
measurement used to compare various airlines
-dividing operating cost of an airline by available seat miles (ASM)
Cost per available seat-mile (CASM)
unique address given to each web site
-IP address: a special numeric address
Uniform Resource Locator (URL):
-contraction of "web log"
-Invites surfers to post opinions and art
-Focuses on a topic or set of topics
publishing sound and video on the web for download
-Usually on a subscription basis
Instant messaging (IM)
traces and reports online behavior
advertisements placed on a search site result page
images placed on web sites that link to a company site selling a product or service
occurs when a page with a banner is downloaded
network used only by employees of an organization
network shared by employees of different organizations, e.g., business partners
activities picking, packing, shipping
know customers better by gathering information about their online activities
-Some consider this a violation of privacy
retailers operate only online
type of fraud involving a fake web site
transfers data requests from a busy server to a less busy server
stores the client's Web site on the same physical server as other clients
the client can fully control the content on a rented dedicated server's disks
server owned and managed by a client is co-located with other clients' servers in a secure physical location
customer's ability to determine the timing and services of their needs from a business organization through a website
-Encourages customer loyalty
A group of people working together, all doing essentially the same type of work, to accomplish a job
A group of people working together to achieve a common goal via a process of feedback and iteration
able to collaborate with your team but little support from software. Collaboration with text only.
-(ie. e-mail files back & forth, multiparty text chat)
ability to conduct multiparty audio and video virtual meetings and support for concurrent access do files.
-(ie. Google Drive, Google Calendar, discussion boards, blogs...)
includes content management and control, work-flow control, and online meetings with sharing. Best of the three for collaboration.
-(ie. Skype, SharePoint with built in discussion boards, surveys, wikis, blogs, video sharing)
commercial message sent to a large amount of recipients or posted in large number of places
EX) Facebook, Twitter
new version of a piece of computer hardware or software.
different perspectives can produce for superior result. Work proceeds in series of stages, revising after shared review of ideas
6 problem solving steps
1. shared definition
2. possible solution
3. criteria for evaluating
4. evaluating alternatives
5. selecting a solution
-uses word & powerpoint
-Team Surveys "virtual meeting"
program which allows members to hold discussions online. started by 1 member by posting topic & others rely
telephone call which someone talks to several people at same time
Alternatives for sharing content
-email with attachments
-shared files on a server
alternatives for sharing content
Alternatives for sharing content
-microsoft shared point
-free with Google Account
-allows via comments, chats, & Email
-live collaboration in document
-free with microsoft, hotmail
-provides version management & participant tracking
-access to all office web aps
-accepts process description
-controls execution of process instances
the degree to which a goal is achieved
the relationship between resources expended and benefits gained in achieving a goal
-its operating costs are lower for the same or better quality product
____________ = Benefit / Costs
efficiency of human resources
-improves when fewer workers are required to achieve the same goal
accumulate data about costs involved in producing specific products
systems that deal specifically with cash
Cash management systems (CMSs):
electronic transfer of cash from one bank account to another
Electronic funds transfer (EFT)
time between generating an idea for a product and completing a prototype
time to market
tools to create, modify, and store designs and drawings electronically
Computer-aided design (CAD):
systems that instruct machines how to manufacture parts and assemble products
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM):
supply chain 3 phases
1. consists of procurement of raw materials
2. processing materials into goods
3. delivering goods
-Determines when inventory needs to be restocked
-Can predict future need based on demand forecasts
-Takes customer demand as input, then works back to calculate resources needed to produce goods
Material requirements planning (MRP):
list of all raw materials and subcomponent demands to produce a product
Bill of materials (BOM):
optimal quantity of a raw material that minimizes overstocking and saves cost, without missing production deadlines
-Considers cost, discounts for large quantities, cost of warehousing material, cost of alternative uses of money, etc.
Economic order quantity (EOQ):
a technology containing circuitry that allows recording of information about a product
Radio frequency identification (RFID)
a code on an RIFD tag that provides more information than the universal product code (UPC)
-Information may include date of manufacturing, plant location, expiration date, destination, etc.
Electronic product code (EPC)
helps discover populations and regions that are most likely to purchase product
market research systems
promotes to people most likely to purchase products
Human resource management (HRM) classified into 5 main activities
1. Employee record management
2. Promotion and recruitment
5. Compensation and benefits management
provides powerful mechanism for managing and manipulating data
smallest piece of data
-A single letter or a digit
single piece of information about entity
collection of related fields
collection of related records
message to the database requesting data from specific records and/or fields
general logical structure
-How records are stored in the database
-How relationships between records are established
field by which records are uniquely identified
-Each record in the table must have a unique key value
field that matches to a primary key in another table
-Used to link the tables
additional details about the data
-Source of the data
-Tables related to the data
-Field and index information
-Programs and processes that use the data
-Population rules: what is inserted, or updated, and how often
graphical representation of all entity relationships
Entity relationship diagram (ERD):
large repository database that supports management decision making
-Data is collected from transactional databases
smaller collection of data focusing on a particular subject or department
phases in transferring data from a transactional database to a data warehouse
3 phases in data warehousing (ETL)
create files from transactional database and save on the data warehouse server
"cleanse" and modify the data format
transfer files to data warehouse (database)
manages daily operations & facilities planning
enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems
-contains only current not historical data
-not suitable for business analysis
magnification or expansion of amount, types & level of detail of data that is collected & stored
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