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What is Psychology Essentials

Psychology is defined as the

scientific study of behavior and mental process

Psychologists attempt to understand behavior and mental processes by

using the scientific method

Most of the information presented in our textbook is

rooted in scientific research

It is generally believed that scientific psychology began

Leipzig, Germany

The best example of a structuralist approach would be a

chemist attempting to determine what elements combine to create different substances

Dr. Moosbichler is a psychologist who believes that the best way to understand the mind is to look at how specific mental processes and behaviors help an organism live in and adapt to its environment. Dr. Moosbichler's point of view is most compatible with the approach to psychology known as


Sigmund Freud's ideas led to his formulation of _____________theory


John Watson conditioned an infant named Albert to

fear a white rat

The social movements in the U.S. in the 1960's and the rise of humanism at the same time in psychology were similar in their

emphasis on freedom of choice and self-dertermination

cognitive psychologists acknowledge that mental processes are not directly observable to the eye, but assert that they

can be inferred from performance outcomes

The sociocultural and behavioral perspectives are similar in that they both focus on

the enviornment

Which is NOT one of the goals of psychology? describe, observe, control or predict


A hypothesis is

a statement describing what the researchers expect to find in a study

Reactivity presents the biggest problem in

naturalistic observations

Compared to neurons, glia cells are

less well understood


speeds up neural signals

The part of the neuron that receives signals from other neurons is(are) the


The junction between adjoining neurons is called the


The vesicles at the end of an axon contains


A telephone wire that carries a telephone signal from the telephone pole to your home is most analogous to which part of the neuron?


Which of the following axon membrane potentials represents the greatest amount of polarization? -70millivolts, -45millivolts, 0millivolts, 5millivolts


In mammals, the threshold of excitation is about ? 55mv, -70mv, -55mv, 70mv


If neurotransmitters are being releases by a presynaptic neuron into the synapse, it is because

action potentials have occurred in the presynaptic neuron

Rick is given a medication that makes his neurons more positive in their resting potential. What effect will this most likely have on Rick's nervous system?

He will have less inhibitions in his nervous system.

If you take a drug that causes neurons in your brain to stop firing, the drug is said to have__________effects


Reuptake describes the

recycling and returning of neurotransmitters to the presynaptic neuron.

If you are currently taking a drug that affects your behavior, most likely it is affecting the

activity occurring within your synapses

The two main divisions of nervous system are the ________and the _______

central; peripheral

The central nervous system includes the

brain and spinal cord

If you are unable to remember any of the events or episodes of your life, it may be because of damage to your


Learning is

a relatively permanent change in behaviour, or the potential for behavior, that results from experience.

The orienting reflex describes

the attention we give stimuli.

When we are presented with a new stimulus that repeats itself, at first we would_________, and then after awhile we would exhibit__________.

the orienting reflex; habitation

When your dog's continual barking leads you to eventually be able to pay less attention to it, ________has occurred.


Pavlovian conditioning is same as

classical conditioning.

Sam recently lost his grandmother. Now Sam feels sad whenever he smells the perfume his beloved grandmother used to wear. In this example, the loss of his grandmother is the: US, CS, UR, or CR


When a stimulus that originally did not cause a particular response now begins to cause that response,_________

classical conditioning.

Where would the placement of neutral stimulus most likely yield the strongest classical conditioning outcome?

a neutral stimulus that is consistently presented immediately before an unconditioned stimulus

Which of the following responses can be classically conditioned into humans?


When stimulus generalization occurs,

a stimulus begins to cause a wide variety of responses.

Stimulus discrimination should lead to

fewer varieties of a stimulus that cause a specific response.

Extinction occurs when the

conditioned stimulus is presented without the unconditioned stimulus.

Negative reinforcement leads to

an increase in behavior

Operant conditioning is to____as classical conditioning is to _______

active; passive

In a Skinner box,

animals learn to hit a bar in order to receive a reward.

When an extinction burst occurs, it suggests that the organism

has learned to expect reinforcement

Ratio schedules deliver reinforcement according to

the number of responses emitted by the organism.

Primary reinforcers

are directly reinforcing

Which of the following is a secondary reinforcer?


Strict behaviorism tends to

ignore the influence of cognitive processes.

Social learning theory differs from behaviorism in what way?

Social learning theory acknowledges that learning can occur without any observable change in behavior.

Behaviorism is to ______, as social learning is to _____.

Skinner; Bandura

What would represent Bandura's 4-step process in his social learning theory?

attention, retention, reproduction, motivation

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