53 terms

Psychology Chapter 2 - Practice test

What is Psychology Essentials
Psychology is defined as the
scientific study of behavior and mental process
Psychologists attempt to understand behavior and mental processes by
using the scientific method
Most of the information presented in our textbook is
rooted in scientific research
It is generally believed that scientific psychology began
Leipzig, Germany
The best example of a structuralist approach would be a
chemist attempting to determine what elements combine to create different substances
Dr. Moosbichler is a psychologist who believes that the best way to understand the mind is to look at how specific mental processes and behaviors help an organism live in and adapt to its environment. Dr. Moosbichler's point of view is most compatible with the approach to psychology known as
Sigmund Freud's ideas led to his formulation of _____________theory
John Watson conditioned an infant named Albert to
fear a white rat
The social movements in the U.S. in the 1960's and the rise of humanism at the same time in psychology were similar in their
emphasis on freedom of choice and self-dertermination
cognitive psychologists acknowledge that mental processes are not directly observable to the eye, but assert that they
can be inferred from performance outcomes
The sociocultural and behavioral perspectives are similar in that they both focus on
the enviornment
Which is NOT one of the goals of psychology? describe, observe, control or predict
A hypothesis is
a statement describing what the researchers expect to find in a study
Reactivity presents the biggest problem in
naturalistic observations
Compared to neurons, glia cells are
less well understood
speeds up neural signals
The part of the neuron that receives signals from other neurons is(are) the
The junction between adjoining neurons is called the
The vesicles at the end of an axon contains
A telephone wire that carries a telephone signal from the telephone pole to your home is most analogous to which part of the neuron?
Which of the following axon membrane potentials represents the greatest amount of polarization? -70millivolts, -45millivolts, 0millivolts, 5millivolts
In mammals, the threshold of excitation is about ? 55mv, -70mv, -55mv, 70mv
If neurotransmitters are being releases by a presynaptic neuron into the synapse, it is because
action potentials have occurred in the presynaptic neuron
Rick is given a medication that makes his neurons more positive in their resting potential. What effect will this most likely have on Rick's nervous system?
He will have less inhibitions in his nervous system.
If you take a drug that causes neurons in your brain to stop firing, the drug is said to have__________effects
Reuptake describes the
recycling and returning of neurotransmitters to the presynaptic neuron.
If you are currently taking a drug that affects your behavior, most likely it is affecting the
activity occurring within your synapses
The two main divisions of nervous system are the ________and the _______
central; peripheral
The central nervous system includes the
brain and spinal cord
If you are unable to remember any of the events or episodes of your life, it may be because of damage to your
Learning is
a relatively permanent change in behaviour, or the potential for behavior, that results from experience.
The orienting reflex describes
the attention we give stimuli.
When we are presented with a new stimulus that repeats itself, at first we would_________, and then after awhile we would exhibit__________.
the orienting reflex; habitation
When your dog's continual barking leads you to eventually be able to pay less attention to it, ________has occurred.
Pavlovian conditioning is same as
classical conditioning.
Sam recently lost his grandmother. Now Sam feels sad whenever he smells the perfume his beloved grandmother used to wear. In this example, the loss of his grandmother is the: US, CS, UR, or CR
When a stimulus that originally did not cause a particular response now begins to cause that response,_________
classical conditioning.
Where would the placement of neutral stimulus most likely yield the strongest classical conditioning outcome?
a neutral stimulus that is consistently presented immediately before an unconditioned stimulus
Which of the following responses can be classically conditioned into humans?
When stimulus generalization occurs,
a stimulus begins to cause a wide variety of responses.
Stimulus discrimination should lead to
fewer varieties of a stimulus that cause a specific response.
Extinction occurs when the
conditioned stimulus is presented without the unconditioned stimulus.
Negative reinforcement leads to
an increase in behavior
Operant conditioning is to____as classical conditioning is to _______
active; passive
In a Skinner box,
animals learn to hit a bar in order to receive a reward.
When an extinction burst occurs, it suggests that the organism
has learned to expect reinforcement
Ratio schedules deliver reinforcement according to
the number of responses emitted by the organism.
Primary reinforcers
are directly reinforcing
Which of the following is a secondary reinforcer?
Strict behaviorism tends to
ignore the influence of cognitive processes.
Social learning theory differs from behaviorism in what way?
Social learning theory acknowledges that learning can occur without any observable change in behavior.
Behaviorism is to ______, as social learning is to _____.
Skinner; Bandura
What would represent Bandura's 4-step process in his social learning theory?
attention, retention, reproduction, motivation