Bisc 130 Kemege test 2 vocab

active transport
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Terms in this set (57)
Hypotonicsituation in which extracellular fluid has a lower osmolarity than the fluid inside the cell, resulting in water moving into the cellIntegral Proteinprotein integrated into the membrane structure that interacts extensively with the membrane lipids' hydrocarbon chains and often spans the membraneIsotonicsituation in which the extracellular fluid has the same osmolarity as the fluid inside the cell, resulting in no net water movement into or out of the cellOsmosistransport of water through a semipermeable membrane according to the water's concentration gradient across the membrane that results from the presence of solute that cannot pass through the membraneSolutesubstance dissolved in a liquid to form a solutiontonicitysubstance dissolved in a liquid to form a solutionActivation energyenergy necessary for reactions to occurAnabolic(also, anabolism): pathways that require an energy input to synthesize complex molecules from simpler onesCatabolicalso, catabolism): pathways in which complex molecules break down into simpler onesChemical energypotential energy in chemical bonds that releases when those bonds are brokencoenzymesmall organic molecule, such as a vitamin or its derivative, which is required to enhance an enzyme's activitycofactorinorganic ion, such as iron and magnesium ions, required for optimal enzyme activity regulationCompetitive inhibitiontype of inhibition in which the inhibitor competes with the substrate molecule by binding to the enzyme's active siteendergonicdescribes chemical reactions that require energy inputexergonicdescribes chemical reactions that release free energyfeedback inhibitiona product's effect of a reaction sequence to decrease its further production by inhibiting the first enzyme's activity in the pathway that produces itFree Energyaka Gibbs free energy: the usable energy, or energy that is available to do workMetabolismall the chemical reactions that take place inside cells, including anabolism and catabolismPotential energyenergy type that has the potential to do work; stored energyAerobic Respirationprocess in which organisms convert energy in the presence of oxygenAnaerobicprocess that does not use oxygenAnaerobic cellular respirationprocess in which organisms convert energy for their use in the absence of oxygenChemiosmosisprocess in which there is a production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in cellular metabolism by the involvement of a proton gradient across a membraneFermintationprocess of regenerating NAD+ with either an inorganic or organic compound serving as the final electron acceptor; occurs in the absence of oxygenOxidative phosphorylationproduction of ATP using the process of chemiosmosis in the presence of oxygenSubstrate-level Phosphorylationproduction of ATP from ADP using the excess energy from a chemical reaction and a phosphate group from a reactantAutotrophorganism that gets carbon from inorganic sourcesCarbon fixationprocess of converting inorganic CO2 gas into organic compoundscarotenoidphotosynthetic pigment (yellow-orange-red) that functions to dispose of excess energyChlorophyllform of chlorophyll that absorbs violet-blue and red light and consequently has a bluish-green color; the only pigment molecule that performs the photochemistry by getting excited and losing an electron to the electron transport chainChlorophyll baccessory pigment that absorbs blue and red-orange light and consequently has a yellowish- green tintHeterotrophorganism that consumes organic substances or other organisms for foodLight-dependent reactionsfirst stage of photosynthesis where certain wavelengths of the visible light are absorbed to form two energy-carrying molecules (ATP and NADPH)Light-independent reactionsecond stage of photosynthesis, through which carbon dioxide is used to build carbohydrate molecules using energy from ATP and NADPHPigmentmolecule that is capable of absorbing certain wavelengths of light and reflecting others (which accounts for its color)apoptosisprogrammed cell deathAutocrine signalsignal that is sent and received by the same or similar nearby cells - E.g. heart cells communicatebiofilma matrix of proteins and sugars protects colonies of pathogenic bacteria from the host immune systemCell-surface receptorcell-surface protein that transmits a signal from the exterior of the cell to the interior, even though the ligand does not enter the cellEndocrine Signallong-distance signal that is delivered by ligands (hormones) traveling through an organism's circulatory system from the signaling cell to the target cellInternal receptor (also, intracellular receptor)receptor protein that is located in the cytosol of a cell and binds to ligands that pass through the plasma membraneKinaseenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to another moleculeLigandmolecule produced by a signaling cell that binds with a specific receptor, delivering a signal in the processparacrine signalsignal between nearby cells that is delivered by ligands traveling in the liquid medium in the space between the cellsPhosphateenzyme that removes the phosphate group from a molecule that has been previously phosphorylatedsecond messangersmall, non-protein molecule that propagates a signal within the cell after activation of a receptor causes its releaseSignal Transductionpropagation of the signal through the cytoplasm (and sometimes also the nucleus) of the cell