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Chapter 16 Vocab

Social Psychology

study of how people relate, influence, and think about one another

Attribution Theory

the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
Behavior=situation or disposition
Heider theory

Fundamental attribution error

Tendency for observers when analyzing another to underestimate impact of the situation and overestimate impact of disposition


feelings that influence our beliefs and how we respond to objects, people, and events

central route to persuasion

occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts

Peripheral route to persuasion

occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
Product placement
some you identify with

foot-in-the-door phenomenon

the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
Robert Cialdini


a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave

cognitive dissonance theory

the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
Leon Festinger


adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
Soloman Asch

normative social influence

influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval

informational social influence

influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality (deals with safety and uncertainty)


acting in accord with a direct order or command
Stanley Milgrim- shocks

Social Facilitation

stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others

Social Loafing

the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
Bib Latane


the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity (males)

group polarization

the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group

Group think

the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
Irving Janis


an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members
(belief that is subtle automatic and unconscious)


a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people (comes from prejudice)


unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members (action not just belief)


"Us" - people with whom one shares a common identity


"them"—those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup.

ingroup bias

the tendency to favor one's own group

scapegoat theory

the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

other-race effect

the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races (cross-race effect or own-race bias)

just-world phenomenon

the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get


any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy (interaction, biology and situation)

frustration-aggression principle

the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger which can generate aggression

Observing models of aggression

see aggression more likely to act aggressively towards others

mere-exposure effect

the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them


feeling of being drawn toward another and desiring the company of a person
(people attracted to feminized face, young looking women, mature affluent men)

passionate love

an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship

companionate love

the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined


a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it


revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others


unselfish regard for the welfare of others

bystander effect

the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
John Darley and Bib Latane

social exchange theory

the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs (money given = happiness)

reciprocity norm

an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them (christmas gifts)

social-responsibility norm

an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them


a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas


a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior (whales)

mirror-image phenomenon

mutual views often held by conflicting people each side sees themselves as ethical and peaceful and believes other side evil and aggressive

self-fulfilling prophecy

an expectation that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation come true. (finger poke - leads to you poking harder b/c you believe they will poke harder)

superordinate goals

shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
Muzafer Sherif


Graduate and Reciprocate Initiatives in Tension-Reduction (strategy designed to decrease international tensions

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