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AP World: Chapter 9 State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India
Tradition and World 4th Edition Cerritos High School student
Terms in this set (28)
Jain term for the principle of nonviolence to other living things or their souls.
Hindu concept for the pursuit of economic well-being and honest prosperity.
Ancient Indian political treatise from the time of Chandragupta Maurya; its authorship was traditionally ascribed to Kautalya, and it stressed that war was inevitable.
The ancient region stretching from the Hindu Kush mountain range to the ancient Ganhara region of the Indian subcontinent.
"Song of the Lord," an Indian short poetic work drawn from the lengthy Mahabharata that was finished around 400 C.E. and that expressed basic Hindu concepts such as karma and dharma.
Buddhist concept regarding individuals who had reached enlightenment but who stayed in this world to help people.
The "enlightened one," the term applied to Siddhartha Gautama after his discoveries that would form the foundation of Buddhism.
Religion, based on Four Noble Truths, associated with Siddhartha Gautama (563--483 B.C.E.), or the Buddha; its adherents desired to eliminate all distracting passion and reach nirvana.
Social class system in which distinctions and restrictions on marriage, occupation, handling of food, and other matters are transferred through generations or through class. The term usually refers to the social system of India.
Four Noble Truths
The foundation of Buddhist thought: (1) life is pain, (2) pain is caused by desire, (3) elimination of desire will bring an end to pain, (4) living a life based on the Noble Eightfold Path will eliminate desire.
Indian dynasty (320-550 C.E.) that briefly reunited India after the collapse of the earlier Mauryan dynasty.
Branch of Buddhism known as the "lesser vehicle," also known as Theravada Buddhism; its beliefs include strict, individual path to enlightenment, and it is popular in south and southeast Asia.
Main religion of India, a combination of Dravidian and Aryan concepts; Hinduism's goal is to reach spiritual purity and union with the great world spirit; its important concepts include dharma, karma, and samsara.
Indian religion associated with the teacher Vardhamana Mahavira (ca. 540-468 B.C.E.) in which every physical object possessed a soul; Jains believe in complete nonviolence to all living beings.
Indian word for a Hindu subcaste.
Massive ancient Indian epic that was developed orally for centuries; it tells of an epic civil war between two family branches.
The "greater vehicle," a more metaphysical and more popular northern branch of Buddhism.
Indian dynasty (321-185 B.C.E.) founded by Chandragupta Maurya and reaching its peak under Ashoka.
Noble Eightfold Path
Final truth of the Buddhist Four Noble Truths that called for leading a life of balance and constant contemplation.
Ancient Indian masterpiece about the hero Rama that symbolized the victory of dharma (order) over adharma (chaos).
Sacred language of the early Aryans
Hindu caste of landless peasants and serfs.
Indian kshatriya who achieved enlightenment and became known as the Buddha, the founder of Buddhism.
Ancient trade routes that extended from the Roman empire in the west to China in the east.
Indian reflections and dialogues (800-400 B.C.E.) that reflected basic Hindu concepts.
Hindu caste of cultivators, artisans, and merchants.
Invaders who weakened the empire of the Guptas.
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