1. The historic or chronological "when" 2. The systems people have invented to stabilize their interaction, from the economic to the political "how" 3. The geographic-the spatial "where"
Criteria for Geographic Relams
Physical and Human Functional Historical
A place or region by providing the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the region with respect to the Earth's grid coordinates
It's location with reference to other regions
The city is the heart, the core of this region, and we call the surrounding zone of interaction
Is forged by a structured, urban-centered system of interaction. It has a core and a periphery
The current epoch of this ice age, on average the coldest yet
The truly warm phases, when the ice recedes poleward and mountain glaciers melt away, are known as interglacials. We are living in these interglacials today called Halocene
"The immediate state of the atmosphere" In a certain place at a given time
The aggregate, total record of weather conditions at a place, or in a region, over the entire period during which records have been kept
Four Major Population Clusters
1. East Asia 2. South Asia 3. Europe 4. Eastern North America
The distinctive attributes of a society imprinted on its portion of the world's physical stage
A minimum of 15 language families. They are groups of languages with a shared but usually distant origin. The most widely distributed language family, the Indo-European, includes English, French, Spanish, Russian, Persian, and Hindi
European State Model
A state consisting of a legally defined territory inhabited by a population governed from a capital city by a representative government
A core-periphery world
Anchored by North America and flanked by Europe to the east and Japan and Australia to the west, not only constitutes an assemblage of the most affluent states and the most prospective cities. The core contains about 15 percent of the world's population. The population earns 75 percent of total annual income. Only 3 percent of the world's population live in a country other than the core in which they were born.
The gradual reduction of regional contrasts at the world scale, resulting from increasing international cultural, economic, and political exchanges
World Trade Organization
The case of the Philippines
When the Philippines joined the WTO they assumed that their farm markets would be in high demand because of their markets cheap costs. However, now they are in competition with North America and European farmers who received subsidies toward the production as well as the export of their products.
Globalization viewed as a cultural threat
Globalization constitutes Americanization, these protesters, say eroding local traditions, endangering moral standards, and menacing the social fabric. Example: Mc Donald
First Globalization Revolution
Occured during the 19th and early twentieth centuries, when Europe's colonial expansion spread ideas, inventions, products, and habits around the world.
Topical or Systematic Fields of Geography
Marine Science, Geology, Meteorolgy, planning urban studies, history, economics, health science, anthropology and sociology, demography, psychology, political science, biology
Why systematic fields of geography are so named
These systematic fields of geography are so named because their approach is global, not regional
A diversity of ancestral and traditional background
Rain shadow effect
Moisture -laden air arrives from the ocean, the mountain wall forces the air upward, cools it, condenses the moisture in it, and produces rain- the rain for which Seattle and Portland and other cities of the Northwest. By the time the air crosses the mountains and descends on the landward side, most of the moisture has been drawn from it, and the forests of the ocean side give way to shrub and brush.
What Native Americans are called in Canada
Also called the indigenous people of Canada asterisk
Eastern Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole
Three zones of mineral resources
The Canadian Shield north of the Great Lakes, the Appalachian Mountains in the east, and the Mountain Ranges of the West
The three leading oil-producing areas in the U.S.
1. Along and off-shore from the Gulf Coast, where the floor of the Gulf of Mexico is yielding a growing share of the output.
2. In the Midcontinent District, from western Texas to eastern Kansas
3. Along Alaska's "North Slope" facing the Arctic Ocean
The Canadian Crescent of oil fields
Where oil is being drawn from the deposit of tar sands in the vicinity of the boomtown of Fort McMurray
Canada's tar sand
The process is expensive and can reward investors only when the price of oil is comparatively high, but the reserves of oil estimated to be contained in the tar sands may exceed those in Saudi Arabia
Distribution of Natural Gas and who leads the world in volume of production
Reserves resembles that of oil fields because petroleum and natural gas tend to be found in similar geological formation. Russian and Iran leads the world
Three main producing coal regions in the U.S.
1. North America's reserves-in Appalachia, 2. Under the Great Plains of the United States as well as Canada 3. The Southern Midwest among other places
The popular name given to the southern tier of the United States, which is anchored by the mega-States of California, Texas, and Florida
6 major migrations of the past century
1. The persistent growth of metropolitan areas, Industrial Revolution 2. The massive movement of African Americans from the rural South to the urban North during the period of industrialization and in response to labor shortages in the North when the United States in the 1920's sharply curtailed immigration 3. The shift of of tens of millions of urban residents from central cities to suburbs and subsequently to "exurbs" even farther away from the urban core 4. The return migration of millions of Africa Americans from the deindustrializing North back to the growing opportunities in the South 5. The strong influx of immigrants from outside North America that waxed and waned over time and brought to North America, in addition to those in bondage from Africa, Europeans....
Estimated number of illegal immigrants
Motivate people to move away from an undesirable locale that may be afflicted by famine, armored conflict, religious persecution, or some other adversity
Attract them to destinations perceived to hold a promise of security, opportunity, or another desired goal
The one extending along the Atlantic seaboard from north of Boston to south of Washington, D.C.,. This was the economic anchor of the North American core area: the seat of the U.S. government, the nucleus of business and finance, the hearth of culture, and the transAtlantic trading interface between much of the realm and Europe
Canada's Main Street
Most highly urbanized zone extending from Windsor through Toronto to Montreal and Quebec City
8 metropolitan regions
1. Pacific Northwest 2. California 3. Texas 4. Florida 5. Piedmont 6. Lower Great Lakes 7. Main Street 8. Atlantic Seaboard
A significant concentration of major urban activities around a highly accessible suburban location, including retailing, light industry, and a variety of leading corporate and commercial operations
How is Canada different from the U.S.
Most Canadian cities still remain more compact than the far-flung U.S. metropolis
Americans visiting Canadian Cities
Canadians have fewer impoverished neighborhoods, no ethnic ghettos ( they do exists) lower crime rates, better public transportation and central business districts is better than U.S.
Form the majority across the U.S. Southeast from Texas to Virgina
In the Upper Midwest and northern Great Plains
In a belt across the Lower Midwest
In the interior West centered on Utah
Prevails in most of Canada as well the U.S. Northeast and Southwest
The extractive sector of the economy in which workers and the environment come into direct contact, especially in mining and farming
The sector in which raw materials are transformed into finished industrial products, the process of manufacturing
The sector encompassing a wide range of activities such as retailing, education, finance, entertainment, and hospitality, collectively known as servies
Today's increasingly dominant sector, involving the collection, processing, manipulation of information
High-technology, white collar, office-based activities are the leading growth industries of the postindustrial economy
Overall decline in support for Quebec's secession
1. The implication of provincial laws that firmly established the use of French and the primacy of Quebecois culture
2. A substantial and reassuring increase in the bilingual abilities of Quebec's Anglophone
3. The arrival of a new wave of immigrants-
James Bay Hydroelectric project
A massive scheme of dikes and dams that has transformed much of northwestern Quebec and generates electric power for a huge market within and outside and outside the province
Centrifugal Forces: How many Canadas are there?
Canada's leading high technology center
Five cross-border linkage
1. The Atlantic Provinces with neighboring New England 2. Quebec with New York 3. Ontario with Michigan and adjacent Midwestern States 4. The Prairie Provinces with the Upper Midwest 5. The British Columbia with the (U.S.) Pacific Northwest
The Core dominance declining or increasing?
The core dominance is declining
Where would you find long lots?
near French towns
What do the Arcadians of New Brunswick promote?
Promote all efforts to keep Quebec within the Canadian federation
Which two regions represents the Old South?
Appalachia and rural Mississippi
What is the Southwest's region identity based on?
The air conditioner and the electricity to power it; the water to satisfy demand that includes irrigated golf courses and ubiquitous swimming pools; and the automobile that has enabled the wide dispersal of population in vast low-density communities
What port is the largest?
Los Angeles/Long Beach
What is the Largest single metropolitan manufacturing complex?
Greater Los Angeles
The regional name referring to the four large islands in the northern sector of the Caribbean Sea: Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico; two countries, Haiti and the Dominican Republic
Form an extensive arc of smaller islands from the Virgin Islands off Puerto Rico to the Netherlands Antilles near the northwestern coast of Venezuela
Strip of land; bends eastward so that Panama's orientation is east-west
Extended southeast from the vicinity of present-day Mexico City to central Nicaragua
Valley of Mexico
The area surrounding what is now Mexico City, A functioning city as well as a ceremonial center, named Tenochtitlan, was soon to become the greatest city in the Americas and the capital of a large powerful state
Market square, around which both the local church and government buildings were located
Any insurrections by the resettled Amerindians could be contained by the resettled Amerindians could be contained by having a small military force seal off the affected blocks and then root out the troublemakers
The twofold regionalization of the Middle American realm based on its modern cultural history,
Consisted on continental Middle America from Mexico to Panama, excluding the Caribbean coastal belt from mid-Yucatan southeastward
Included this coastal zone as well as the islands of the Caribbean
A large estate in the spanish speaking country
A large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop.
5 difference between a Hacienda and a Plantation
1. Plantations are located in the humid tropical coastal lowlands 2. Plantations produce for export almost exclusively-usually a single crop 3. Capital and skills are often imported so that foreign ownership and an outflow of profits occur 4. Labor is seasonal 5. With its "factory-in-the-field" operation, the plantation is more efficient in its use of land and labor than the hacienda
Mexico City: ciudades perdidas
The "lost cities" where newly arrived peasants live in miserable poverty and squalor
Landless, constantly indebted serfs on the haciendas
The government holds title to the land, but the rights to use it are parceled out to the village communities and then to individuals for cultivation
A radical group of Mayan peasant farmers in Chiapas calling themselves the Zapatista National Liberation Army launched a guerrilla war with coordinated attacks on several towns
Factories based in Mexico could assemble imported, duty-free raw materials and components into finished products, which were then exported back to the U.S. market
Mexican factories and China
When NAFTA happened it made a far-reaching impact to Mexico by helping them get jobs with less pay. However, a decision was made to relocate the factories from Northern mexico to East and Southeast Asia where wages were even lower. Which caused Mexican workers to become unemployed and move to the U.S.
Site of the Colon Free Zone, a huge trading entrepot designed to transfer and distribute goods bound for South America
The Miami of the Caribbean because of the waterfront location and skyscrapered skyline