APUSH Period 6 Vocab
Terms in this set (92)
A group of corporations that unite in order to reduce competition and control prices in a business or an industry.
John D. Rockefeller
Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history
An influential banker and businessman who bought and reorganized companies. His US Steel company would buy Carnegie steel and become the largest business in the world in 1901
Knights of Columbus
Founded as a life insurance program. Associated with the rising sense of nationality (Columbus = Americanism...a catholic who contributed to American history) promoted Columbianism. Educated the members in the Catholic culture, provided a place where people could come together and share concerns. most popular labor union in the US in the 1880s. Unlike the Knights of Labor, this group focused on Americanism, which appealed to many nationalities, which allowed it to become the most popular and still thrive today.
American Federation of Labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
Labor activist who was a member of the Knights of Labor union and who used publicity techniques to create awareness of the plight of mine workers and child laborers.
Buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
System of farming in which a person rents land to farm from a planter
America's oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization founded in 1892 in San Fransisco, Cali first President was John Muir group was pushed by the wealthy bc they wanted to conserve the nature (despite all the land the already own and "corrupted") for their later generations
Dept. of Interior
responsible for the management and conservation of most federal land, administered by sec of interior on pres cabinet (Babbit was Clintons)
Booker T Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
Ida B Wells
African American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcards or shop in white owned stores
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Wrote Looking Backward; said that captialism supported the few and exploited the many. character wakes up in 2000 after napping; says socialism will be on top in the end
San Fransisco journalist published a provocative book in 1879 that was an instant best seller. It jolted readers to look more critically at the effects of laissez-faire economics. The book is called "Progress and Poverty" and proposes on putting a single tax on land as the solution to poverty.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
American Protective Association
An organization created by nativists in 1887 that campaigned for laws to restrict immigration
Passed in 1903 created the department of commerce and helped make more jobs;
Federal government can regulate activities of the railroads;
forbade practices such as rebates and also set up the Interstate Commerce Commission to oversee railroads
A social and political philosophy based on the belief that democratic means should be used to evenly distribute wealth throughout a society
1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor.
A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.
a religious dance of native Americans looking for communication with the dead
Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations
1887 law which gave all Native American males 160 acres to farm and also set up schools to make Native American children more like other Americans
state educational institutions built with the benefit of federally donated lands
A government payment that supports a business or market
An association created for women to fight for women's suffrage.
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.
A party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
Colored Farmer's Alliance
separate organization of black farmers/workers who wanted higher wages
Las Gorras Blanca's
mexican american group that targeted the property of large ranch owners by cutting holes in barbed wire fences and burning houses
organization for American farmers that encourages farm families to band together for their common economic and political well-being
An involvement in risky business transactions in an effort to make a quick or large profit.
A cash refund given for the purchase of a product during a specific period
A business man that increased his power through by gaining control of the many different businesses that make up all phases of steel production development.
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
the merging of companies that make similar products
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
Interstate Commerce Act
1887 law passed to regulate railroad and other interstate businesses
Sherman Anti-trust Act
..., First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed.
An organized protest in 1886 which was then disrupted when anarchists threw a bomb into a mist of police. It quickely turned into a riot. Many were killed and futher ruined the image of anarrchists and unions.
Economic liberalism that believes in unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.
(439) Famous promoter of success story... Started as minister of small town (had sexual scandals..lol) but moved to NY and wrote +100 novels all about "rags to riches," which captured aspirations of many men.
A community experiencing a sudden growth in business or population
Helen Hunt Jackson
United States writer of romantic novels about the unjust treatment of Native Americans (1830-1885)
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
"Indian New Deal"; Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
head of the U.S. Forest Service under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them
(1838-1914) Naturalist who believed the wilderness should be preserved in its natural state. He was largely responsible for the creation of Yosemite National Park in California.
After the Civil War, southerners promoted a new vision for a self-sufficient southern economy built on modern capitalist values, industrial growth, and improved transportation. Henry Grady played an important role.
Editor of the Atlanta Constitution, preached about economically diversified South with industries and small farms, and absent of the influence of the pre-war planter elite in the political world.
Civil Rights Cases 1883
Judged that racial discrimination by private persons did not place the "badge of slavery" of African Americans nor keep them in servitude. Ruled that neither Congress nor the Court has the powers to deal with private acts of acts of discrimination.
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
African American progressive who rejected the previous ideology of Booker T. Washington (who said that self-improvement/education comes first, and then whites will learn to accept blacks on their own); this man argued that blacks need political rights in order to make any economic gains and he created the NAACP to make changes
Munn v Illinois
1876; The Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws. The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.
Wabash v Illinois
1886 - Stated that individual states could control trade in their states, but could not regulate railroads coming through them. Congress had exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce.
Ocala Platform 1890
National Farmers' Alliance started a new political party, gov ownership of railroads, banks and telegraphs, ban on large land-owning companies, graduated income tax(depending on wealth) 8 hour work day, immigration restriction, People's Party member's became known as Populists
Frederick Jackson Turner
American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.
Carrie Amelia Moore Nation was a radical member of the temperance movement, which opposed alcohol in pre-Prohibition America. She is particularly noteworthy for promoting her viewpoint through vandalism.
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be
Master of satire. A regionalist writer who gave his stories "local color" through dialects and detailed descriptions. His works include The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, "The Amazing Jumping Frog of Calaverus County," and stories about the American West.
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing
The early-twentieth-century school of artists supported progressive political and social reform. They turned to city streets, the slums, and the working class for subject matter.
A leading architect of skyscrapers in the late nineteenth century, stressed the need for building designs that followed function. His works combined beauty, modest cost, and efficient use of space.
Frank Lloyd White
Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect, interior designer, writer, and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 532.
He used yellow journalism in competition with Hearst to sell more newspapers. He also achieved the goal of becoming a leading national figure of the Democratic Party.
William R. Hearst
Printed sensationalized stories (Yellow Journalism) which provoked feeling in the reader to provoke the Spanish-American War
Jelly Roll Morton
African American pianist, composer, arranger, and band leader from New Orleans; Bridged that gap between the piano styles of ragtime and jazz; Was the first important jazz composer
"Rum Romanism & Rebellion"
Republican campaign tactic that blamed the Democrats for the Civil War; it was used successfully in campaigns from 1868 to 1876 to keep Democrats out of public office, especially the presidency.
Term applied to the one-party (Democrat) system of the South following the Civil War. For 100 years after the Civil War, the South voted Democrat in every presidential election.
loyal, reliable, and hardworking
republican reformers who were accused of backing reform simply to create openings for their own supporters.
A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.
Pendelton Act 1881
McKinley Tariff 1890
raised tariffs to the highest level they had ever been. Big business favored these tariffs because they protected U.S. businesses from foreign competition.
Wilson-Gorman Tariff 1894
1894 act setting the tariff at 41.3%; not as low as Democrats wanted it to be. Cleveland was outraged that it did not go by his campaign pledges. He had to sign it to have a lower tariff, but he was annoyed with its ineffectiveness. It also was the first bill to introduce an income tax, but that was later struck down as unconstitutional.
United States politician and member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Iowa as a member of the Greenback Party. He ran for President two times on third party tickets in the late 19th century. An opponent of the gold standard and national banks, he is most famous as the presidential nominee of the Populist Party in the 1892 election His close race for presidency showed the rise of a third party.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890
1890 act that was a compromise between the western silver agitators and the eastern protectionists. The Westerners agreed to support a higher tariff and the protectionists, this bill. It ordered the Treasury to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver monthly.
Bland-Allison Act 1878
A United States federal law enacted in response to the Fourth Coinage Act that demonetizing silver. It was an attempt to bring back silver because gold was the only metallic standard before this act
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver
Political agenda adopted by the populist party in 1892 at their Omaha, Nebraska convention. Called for unlimited coinage of silver (bimetallism), government regulation of railroads and industry, graduated income tax, and a number of election reforms.
march on washington dc. starts with 100 people then they gain 1000-2000 people when they start going through cities. police stopped this before it could reach dc in Pittsburgh
William Jennings Bryan
An industrialist and Republican politician from Ohio. The campaign manager of McKinley in the 1896, in what is considered the forerunner of the modern political campaign, and subsequently became one of the most powerful members of the U.S. Senate.
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