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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. canaliculi
  2. simple fracture
  3. resting (quiescent) zone
  4. Paget's disease
  5. bone markings (3 categories)
  1. a cartilage cells nearest the epiphysis are relatively small and inactive
  2. b "spider legs"
    - thin tubes
    - osteocytes (mature bone cells), their bodies occupy small cavities in the solid matrix called lacunae
    "little canals" run through the matrix, connecting neighboring lacunae to one another and to the nearest capillaries, such as those in the central canals
    - within the canaliculi, the extensions of neighboring osteocytes touch each other and form gap junctions
  3. c bone breaks cleanly but does not penetrate the skin
  4. d characterized by excessive rates of bone deposition and bone resorption
    - makes the bones soft and week
    - activity of soteoblasts outpaces that of osteoclasts: bones can thicken, but in an irregular manner, and the medullary cavities may fill with bone
  5. e - projections that are the attachment sites for muscles and ligaments
    - surfaces that form joints
    - depressions and openings

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. also called growth plates
    - responsible for lengthening the bones during the two decades following birth
  2. (1) a bone collar forms around the diaphysis
    (2) cartilage calcifies in the center of the diaphysis
    (3) periosteal bud invades the diaphysis, and the first bone trabeculae form; by the third month of development, bone tissue continues to form around the diaphysis from the periosteum and has begun to appear in the center of the diaphysis; this bone tissue makes up the primary ossification center
    (4) diaphysis elongates, and the medullary cavity forms; areas of bone formation in the epiphyses are called secondary ossification centers; larger long bones of the body can have several ossification centers in each epiphysis
    (5) epiphyses ossify, and cartilaginous epiphyseal plates separate diaphysis and epiphyses
  3. canal that runs through the core of each osteon
    - lined by endosteum
    - contains its own blood vessels, which supply nutrients to the bone cells of the osteon, and its own nerve fibers
    - endosteum that lines the central canal is an osteogenic layer
    - unlike the growth rings in trees, lamellae of bone tissue are added to the inner surface of the osteon, thus decreasing the diameter of the central canal
  4. similar to hyaline cartilage; matrix contains many elastic fibers along with the delicate collagen fibrils; more elastic than hyaline cartilage & better able to tolerate repeated bending; epiglottis and outer ear
  5. - (1) during week 8 of embryonic development, mesenchymal cells cluster within the connective tissue membrane and become bone-forming osteoblasts
    - (2) cells begin secreting the organic part of the bone matrix, called osteoid, which then becomes mineralized; once surrounded by their own matrix, the osteoblasts are called osteocytes
    - (3) new bone tissue forms between embryonic blood vessels, which are woven in a random network; result is woven bone tissue, with trabeculae arranged in networks; more mesenchyme condenses just external to the developing membrane bone and becomes the periosteum
    (4) trabeculae at the periphery grow thicker until plates of compact bone are present on both surfaces

5 True/False questions

  1. endosteumthinner connective tissue membrane that covers internal bone surfaces
    - covers the trabeculae of spongy bone
    - lines the central canals of osteons
    - is osteogenic, containing both osteoblasts and osteoclasts


  2. ricketsinternal spongy bone in flat bones


  3. medullary cavityvarious shapes
    - ex: vertebrae and hip bones


  4. compoundbroken ends of the bone prodtrude through the skin


  5. spongy bone akatrabecular bone