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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. short bones
  2. Perforating canals (Volkmann's canals)
  3. osteomalacia
  4. intramembranous ossification
  5. healing of a simple fracture
  1. a lie at right angles to the central canals and connect the blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the central canals and the marrow cavity
  2. b (1) hematoma formation
    (2) fibrocartilaginous callus formation
    (3) bony callus formation
    (4) bone remodeling
  3. c applies to a number of disorders in adults in which the bones are inadequately mineralized
    - even though osteoid matrix is produced, calcification does not occur, and the bones soften and weaken
    - main symptom: pain when weight is put on the affected bone
    - caused by inadequate amounts of vitamin D or calcium phosphate in the diet
    - cured by drinking vitamin D-fortified milk and exposing the skin to sunlight
  4. d roughly cube-shaped
    - occur in the wrist and ankle
  5. e membrane bones form directly from mesenchyme without first being modeled in cartilage
    - all bones of the skull, except a few at the base of the skull, are of this category
    - the clavicles (collarbones) are the only bones formed by intramembranous ossification that are not in the skull

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. long bones
    short bones
    flat bones
    irregular bones
  2. accomplished by osteoblasts
    - cells lay down organic osteoid on bone surfaces and calcium salts crystallize within this osteoid
  3. thinner connective tissue membrane that covers internal bone surfaces
    - covers the trabeculae of spongy bone
    - lines the central canals of osteons
    - is osteogenic, containing both osteoblasts and osteoclasts
  4. form of bone cancer
    - usually originates in a long bone of the upper or lower limb
  5. canal that runs through the core of each osteon
    - lined by endosteum
    - contains its own blood vessels, which supply nutrients to the bone cells of the osteon, and its own nerve fibers
    - endosteum that lines the central canal is an osteogenic layer
    - unlike the growth rings in trees, lamellae of bone tissue are added to the inner surface of the osteon, thus decreasing the diameter of the central canal

5 True/False questions

  1. osteogenesis, before week 8begins in the embryo, proceeds through childhood and adolescence as the skeleton grows, and then occurs at a slower rate in the adult as part of a continual remodeling of the full-grown skeleton


  2. osteoporosislow bone mass and a deterioration of the microscopic architecture of the bony skeleton
    - become porous and light
    - estrogen deficiency is strongly implicated in osteoporosis


  3. spongy bone is entirely replacedevery 3 or 4 years


  4. structure of short bones- similar to long bones, but have no diaphysis
    - contain bone marrow (between the trabeculae of their spongy bone), but no marrow cavity is present


  5. compact bone is entirely replacedevery 10 years


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