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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. intramembranous ossification process
  2. nutrient artery and nutrient vein
  3. bone markings (3 categories)
  4. fourth type of cell found within bone tissue
  5. fact: calcified cartilage is not bone
  1. a - (1) during week 8 of embryonic development, mesenchymal cells cluster within the connective tissue membrane and become bone-forming osteoblasts
    - (2) cells begin secreting the organic part of the bone matrix, called osteoid, which then becomes mineralized; once surrounded by their own matrix, the osteoblasts are called osteocytes
    - (3) new bone tissue forms between embryonic blood vessels, which are woven in a random network; result is woven bone tissue, with trabeculae arranged in networks; more mesenchyme condenses just external to the developing membrane bone and becomes the periosteum
    (4) trabeculae at the periphery grow thicker until plates of compact bone are present on both surfaces
  2. b osteoclasts
  3. c - projections that are the attachment sites for muscles and ligaments
    - surfaces that form joints
    - depressions and openings
  4. d main vessels serving the diaphysis
    - together run through a hole in the wall of the diaphysis, the nutrient foramen
  5. e bone and cartilage are always distinct tissues

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. "growth from outside"
    chondroblasts in the surrounding perichondrium produce the new cartilage tissue by actively secreting matrix
  2. between the dipahysis and each epiphysis of an adult long bone
    - line is a remnant of the epiphyseal plate, a disc of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood to lengthen the bone
  3. consists of a nutrient artery and vein, along with the cells that will form the bone marrow
    - contains bone-forming and bone-destroying cells (osteogenic stem cells and osteoclasts)
  4. mineral salts that invade the bony matrix, making bone tissue hard
  5. like osteomalacia for kids
    - more severe than osteomalacia
    - caused by inadequate amounts of vitamin D or calcium phosphate in the diet
    - cured by drinking vitamin D-fortified milk and exposing the skin to sunlight

5 True/False questions

  1. endochondral ossification, process(1) a bone collar forms around the diaphysis
    (2) cartilage calcifies in the center of the diaphysis
    (3) periosteal bud invades the diaphysis, and the first bone trabeculae form; by the third month of development, bone tissue continues to form around the diaphysis from the periosteum and has begun to appear in the center of the diaphysis; this bone tissue makes up the primary ossification center
    (4) diaphysis elongates, and the medullary cavity forms; areas of bone formation in the epiphyses are called secondary ossification centers; larger long bones of the body can have several ossification centers in each epiphysis
    (5) epiphyses ossify, and cartilaginous epiphyseal plates separate diaphysis and epiphyses

          

  2. resting (quiescent) zonebetween the dipahysis and each epiphysis of an adult long bone
    - line is a remnant of the epiphyseal plate, a disc of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood to lengthen the bone

          

  3. compact bone is entirely replacedstem cells that differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts

          

  4. diploeinternal spongy bone in flat bones

          

  5. periosteumconsists of a nutrient artery and vein, along with the cells that will form the bone marrow
    - contains bone-forming and bone-destroying cells (osteogenic stem cells and osteoclasts)