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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. open reduction
  2. deep layer (periosteal membrane)
  3. diaphysis
  4. inorganic components of bone
  5. diploe
  1. a bone ends are joined surgically with pins or wires; after the broken bone is reduced, it is immobilized by a cast or traction to allow the healing process to begin
  2. b shaft
    forms the long axis of a long bone
  3. c internal spongy bone in flat bones
  4. d mineral salts that invade the bony matrix, making bone tissue hard
  5. e osteogenic, containing bone-depositing cells (osteoblasts) and bone-destroying cells (osteoclasts)
    - indistinguishable from the fibroblasts within this layer

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. process of bone-tissue formation
  2. most abundant; provides support through flexibility and resilience; makes up the articular cartilage that covers the ends of adjoining bones in movable joints; forms the cartilaginous attachments of the ribs to the sternum; accounts for most of the cartilage found in the respiratory structures; forms the embryonic skeleton
  3. chondroblasts at the "top" of the stack that divide quickly, pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis, thereby causing the entire long bone to lengthen
  4. membrane bones form directly from mesenchyme without first being modeled in cartilage
    - all bones of the skull, except a few at the base of the skull, are of this category
    - the clavicles (collarbones) are the only bones formed by intramembranous ossification that are not in the skull
  5. (blank)

5 True/False questions

  1. endosteumconnective tissue membrane that covers the entire outer surface of each bone except on the ends of the epiphyses, where articular cartilage occurs
    - provides insertion points for the tendons and ligaments that attach to a bone


  2. resting (quiescent) zonethe older condrocytes deeper in the stack that enlarge and signal the surrounding matrix to calcify


  3. irregular bonesthin, flattened, and usually somewhat curved
    - most cranial bones of the skull, ribs, sternum, scapula


  4. appositional growth (cartilage)"growth from within"
    chondrocytes within the cartilage divide and secrete new matrix


  5. osteoblastsderived from a lineage of white blood cells
    - multinucleated
    - break down bone by secreting hydrochloric acid, which dissolves the mineral component of the matrix, and lysosomal enzymes, which digest the organic components