What is the percentage of nitrogen in the air we inhale and exhale?
79% in, 79% out
Why is there no change in the nitrogen content of air while it's in our body?
We cannot break apart the two nitrogen atoms
What is fixation?
Taking a molecule out of the gas state and shoving it into something else
What do nitrogen-fixing bacteria do?
Break apart the N2 and convert it to ammonia (NH3)
What happens to the ammonia after it is created by the nitrogen-fixing bacteria?
It dissolves in water as ammonium (NH4+)
How much energy is required to break the triple bond in N2?
What is the Latin name for nitrogen-fixing bacteria?
What do the genus Rhizobium use to break apart the N2?
99.9% of the time, if a molecule ends in -ase, it is a(n)...
What are enzymes?
Biological catalysts that lower the activation energy
What happens to catalysts/enzymes as a result of a reaction?
Why isn't nitrogen fixation performed without the enzyme?
It is VERY energy expensive
What do catalysts do for a reaction?
They speed it up
What is the activation energy of a reaction?
The energy needed to start the reaction
Where do genus Rhizobiums fall on the list of the most important organisms?
Where are genus Rhizobiums found?
On the nodules of legumes
What are nodules?
Bumps on the roots
Name some legumes
Peas, clover, alfalfa, soybeans, beans
What is the effect of crop rotation?
The genus Rhizobiums produce more ammonium than the plants need to function, so the soil becomes saturated with the ammonium. The next year, a non-legume is planted there, which uses the excess ammonium from the soil
What is it called when both parties benefit from a symbiotic relationship?
What is it called when one party benefits and the other is harmed from a symbiotic relationship?
What is it called when one party benefits and the other is unaffected in a symbiotic relationship?
What is obligate mutualism?
One organism cannot survive without the other
What is symbiosis?
A relationship where two or more organisms live in direct and intimate contact
What is facultative mutualism?
Both organisms can survive on their own
What is an endoparasite?
A parasite that is inside an organism's body
What is an ectoparasite?
A parasite that is outside an organism's body
Which symbiotic relationship is the least common and why?
Commensalism, because any action by one organism will usually have some sort of effect on the other
What are proteins located in?
Everything in your body except bones and fat
What is the formula for ribose?
What types of organisms don't use oxygen?
What is the general formula for carbohydrates?
List some examples of nucleotides
ATP ADP AMP DNA RNA
How do animals get nitrogen in their bodies?
By eating plants or other animals that already made proteins
How do plants get nitrogen in their cells?
By taking in ammonium or nitrates from the soil
What is assimilation biosynthesis?
A living organism taking in nitrogen compounds to make proteins
What is the name of the nitrogen cycle squirrel?
What organisms use ammonium to gain the nitrogen to create proteins?
Plants and bacteria
What three things from organisms are decomposed back into ammonium?
Pee, poo, and you
What are the two types of fertilizers?
Ammonium and nitrate
Which type of fertilizer is more expensive?
What do animals do with the proteins they consume?
Break them down into amino acids and build their own proteins
What is ammonification?
The process of nitrogenous residues being converted back into ammonium
What organisms do ammonification?
What is nitrification?
The conversion of ammonium to nitrites, and nitrites to nitrates
What does nitrification?
Is nitrification good or bad?
E. None of the Above. It's awesome
What is denitrification?
The conversion of nitrate to nitrous oxide (N2O) and then to nitrogen gas
What does denitrification?
Are denitrifying bacteria good or bad?
What would happen if there were no denitrifying bacteria?
Nitrogen would remain in the soil and the composition of the atmosphere would be thrown out of balance - bad
Besides denitrification, what else happens to nitrates in the soil?
They are lost due to leaching
What is leaching?
Nitrates being washed out of the soil by water
Where do leached nitrates go?
To a body of water
What is defecation?
The technical term for pooping
What percentage of the mass of poo is bacteria?
What causes poo to smell bad?
Chemicals excreted by the gallbladder
What does the prefix eu- mean?
Good or true
What does the prefix oligo- mean?
What does the prefix meso- mean?
Middle or moderate
What is an oligotrophic environment?
An aquatic environment with few nutrients to support life
What is a eutrophic environment?
A body of water with many nutrients that support a dense plant population
What happens when plants decompose in a eutrophic environment?
Animals die from the lack of oxygen
What is a mesotrophic environment?
An aquatic environment with a moderate amount of nutrients
Describe an oligotrophic environment (What would it look like?)
Crystal-clear water, no plants on top, big fish
Describe a eutrophic environment (What would it look like?)
Dense algae on top of the water, very murky if you can see the water at all
Describe a mesotrophic environment (What would it look like?)
Clear water with submerged bodies of aquatic plants
What is a necessary part of Dylan's diet?
How does Dylan get this caffeine?
He gets pop from the vending machines
How does Dylan afford this pop?
What is a redox reaction?
A chemical reaction in which all atoms have their oxidation state changed. There is an electron transfer between atoms
What does Leo do?
LEO goes GER
What is step one in describing a redox reaction?
Assign oxidation numbers to each atom
What is rule 1 for assigning oxidation numbers?
Atoms in their elemental forms always have oxidation numbers of 0
What is rule 2 for assigning oxidation numbers?
H is always +1 unless in elemental form
What is rule 3 for assigning oxidation numbers?
O is always -2 unless in elemental form
What is rule 4 for assigning oxidation numbers?
The other atoms are assigned so that the sum of all oxidation numbers is equal to the charge of the molecule or ion
What is the elemental state for oxygen?
What is the elemental state for hydrogen?
What is the elemental state for sulfur?
What is the elemental state for diatoms in general?
X2, for diatomic element X
In any reaction, if something is oxidized, what else must happen?
Something else must be reduced
What is oxidation in a redox reaction?
The atom loses electrons
What is reduction in a redox reaction?
The atom gains electrons
When writing a positive oxidation number, what is required?
The + sign
What is step 2 in describing a redox reaction?
Decide what happened. Which atom was oxidized and which was reduced?
What type of process is nitrogen fixation with respect to nitrogen?
What type of process is nitrification with respect to nitrogen?
What type of process is denitrification with respect to nitrogen?
What is N2O?
What is the charge on nitrate?
What is the charge on N2?
What is the charge on ammonia?
What is the charge on ammonium?
What is the charge on phosphate?
What is the charge on sulfate?
What is the formula for triose?
What are the 3 numbers on a bag of fertilizer?
Available Nitrogen, Available phosphates, available potash
What is melatonin?
A neurotransmitter produced by the brain when you go in the dark
What does melatonin do?
Makes you sleepy
Which ligand accepts the H+ when an amino acid ionizes?
What is vitamin B1?
What prevented the conversion of nitrogen gas to simpler compounds?
The strong bond
Where was one of the best and largest sources of fixed nitrogen?
What does the fox say?
No really. What does it say?
Why did Chile have so much fixed nitrogen?
Lots of birds lived and pooed along the coast
What were these natural deposits of bird poo called?
How thick did the Guano become?
What chemical was in the bird poo?
What was the world dependent on Chile for?
Fertilizers and high explosives
Who was denied access to the Chilean supply of bird feces?
In short, what did the fate of the world depend on?
Who could get their hands on the most bird sh**
Where did the first major naval battle of WWI occur?
Off the Chilean coast
What is the Haber-Bosch Process?
A method for synthesizing ammonia
When was the Haber-Bosch Process developed?
Shortly before the outbreak of WWI
By whom was the Haber-Bosch Process developed?
2 patriotic Germans, most likely named Haber and Bosch
How did the Haber-Bosch process work?
Nitrogen and hydrogen gases were pressurized in a chamber. A catalyst and heat were added to produce vast amounts of ammonia
What would have happened without the Haber-Bosch Process?
Germany would have run out of ammo and the war would have ended in 1916
After the war, what happened to ammonia production?
It continued because of its use as a fertilizer
In 1913, how much of the world's fixed nitrogen was supplied by Chile?
In 1934, how much of the world's fixed nitrogen was supplied by Chile?
Who played a large role in the design and building of ammonia plants?
Formula for Nitrous Oxide
Formula for Nitrogen Oxide
Formula for Nitrogen Dioxide
Formula for Potassium Nitrate
What is the common name for Nitrous Oxide?
What is the common name for Nitrogen Dioxide?
What is the common name for Potassium Nitrate?
What is the common name for Trinitrotoluene?
What color is Nitrous Oxide at room temperature?
What color is Nitrogen Oxide at room temperature?
What color is Nitrogen Dioxide at room temperature?
How is nitrogen oxide formed?
As a bi-product of internal combustion engines - High temperatures and pressures combine the nitrogen and oxygen from the air
How is nitrogen dioxide formed?
As nitrogen oxide that spontaneously oxidized in the atmosphere
What is potassium nitrate used for?
Fertilizer and a key ingredient in gunpowder
What is potassium nitrate combined with to form gunpowder?
Sulfur and Coal
What is Trinitrotoluene used for?
The explosive charge in shells and bombs
What is Nitroglycerin used for?
The main ingredient in dynamite
How much smoke is produced by nitroglycerin?
How much more powerful than gunpowder is nitroglycerin?
Who was an early producer of gunpowder?
Which is more powerful, Trinitrotoluene or nitroglycerin?
How does phosphate enter the soil?
Weathering of old rocks and deposits
From what do phosphorus deposits form?
From bone fossils and bird droppings
What important molecules contain phosphate?
ATP, DNA, RNA
What is the limiting reagent in the growth of aquatic plants and algae?
What happens to a large percentage of the phosphate in water?
It forms a precipitate as iron phosphate
After phosphorus becomes part of the seafloor, how does it re-enter the phosphorus cycle?
What do carnivores eat?
jk. They eat animals
What is apatite?
Calcium phosphate Ca3(PO4)2
How do humans obtain phosphorus?
What do we do with the phosphorus we mine?
What is used to convert apatite to fertilizer product?
Huge quantities of sulfuric acid
What makes up 80% of the phosphorus that is in humans?
Teeth and Bones
What is unique about the phosphorus cycle?
There is no significant gas stage
Where is the largest reservoir of phosphorus?
How does phosphorus enter the water?
Fertilizer runoff, sewage seepage, natural mineral deposits, industrial wastes
What is eutrophication?
Excess phosphate concentrations in water stimulate the growth of plants and algae, which use up the oxygen and block out the sun, killing fish and bottom-dwellers
In what form is phosphorus stored in the soil and rocks of earth?
How do plants absorb phosphate?
Directly through their roots
What causes excessive buildups of vital nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic environments?
In what major body of water did eutrophication occur?
The Baltic Sea
What is the scarcest element in the biosphere?
What do the small quantities of phosphoric acid in the atmosphere do?