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Unit 8A- Motivation
AP* Psychology for Myers, 9th edition. Vocabulary terms from Unit 8A: Motivation.
Terms in this set (36)
A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.
A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.
Hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
The form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
The point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
Basal metabolic rate
The body's resting rate of energy expenditure.
An eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
An eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.
Significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa.
Sexual response cycle
The four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson- excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
A resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.
Sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, _____ levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.
The most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional ____ in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation).
the brain area that when stimulated suppresses eating
loss of hunger
in animals, destruction of the lateral hypothalamus results in ______?
destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus results in ___?
when body weight rises above set point, hunger increases. true or false?
according to Masters and Johnson, only males experience a plateau period in the cycle of sexual arousal. true or false?
testosterone affects the sexual arousal of the male. true or false?
unlike men, women tend not to be aroused by sexually explicit material. true or false?
all taste preferences are conditioned. true or false?
separated or divorced people are half as likely as married people to say they are happy. true or false?
an increase in insulin increases blood glucose levels and triggers hunger. true or false?
most obese people who lose weight eventually gain it back. true or false?
one's sexual orientation is not voluntarily chosen. true or false?
Mary loves hang-gliding. It would be most difficult to explain Mary's behavior according to the _____?
Orlando's willingness to starve himself to make a political statement conflicts with the theory of motivation advanced by_____?
according to the James Lange theory,emotional states ______ physiological responses?
physical arousal and a cognitive label
Schachter's and Singer's two-factor theory emphasizes that emotion involves both_____?
When students studied others who were worse off then themselves, they felt greater satisfaction with their own lives. This is an example of the principle of ______?
Which theory of emotion emphasizes the simultaneous experience of the body's response and emotional feeling?
Izard believes that there are ____ basic emotions.
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