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Chapter 19 Quiz
Terms in this set (16)
Describes a overly crowded low rent apartment building in a large city where the poor lived--many stories, peeling paint, cracked windows, rickety stairs, dirty hallways, crime, pollution and disease potent.
Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives
He was a journalist and photographer working primarily in New York City. His book "How the Other Half Lives" provided poignant pictures that gave a human face to the poverty and despair experienced by immigrants living in New York City's Lower East Side.
Political Machines/ Tammany Hall
These were "bosses" who ran the machines in the cities. They appealed to most immigrants because most were 1st and 2nd generation immigrants so they could speak the language and understand them, and they helped new immigrants with naturalization, housing and jobs. In return immigrants gave them votes. Founded by anti-federalist William Mooney, it is the name for the New York Democratic Party machine, also known as the Tammany Society, whose supposed goal was to preserve democratic institutions. However, Tammany Hall gained a great reputation for its corrupt practices, and was opposed by reform groups. It began to gain power with the rise of Boss Tweed in 1868.
Jane Addams, Hull House
He is best known for founding Hull House in Chicago. Hull House and other settlement houses were dedicated to helping the urban poor. Settlement-house workers established day nurseries for working mothers, published reports condemning deplorable housing conditions, and taught literacy classes.
Mark Twain, The Gilded Age
He wrote the famous novel "The Gilded Age" in 1873, where he satirizes materialistic values and corruption in America. The idea was that the top layer was gilded with gold but underneath everything was bad and corrupted.
Henry George, Progress and Poverty
California writer and activist, he wrote the book "Progress and Poverty" in 1879. He blamed social problems on the ability of a few monopolists to grow wealthy as a result of rising land values and the increase in the value of the land was an unearned increment, produced by the growth of society, and that the profits belonged to the community.
William James, Pragmatism
American philosopher and psychologist who founded psychology in the United states and established the psychological school called functionalism. He studied pragmatism which was a distinctive American philosophy that emerged in the late nineteenth century around the theory that the true value of an idea lay in its ability to solve problems. The pragmatists thus embraced the provisional, uncertain nature of experimental knowledge.
Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward
He was the rival to Henry George. He wrote the Utopian novel "Looking Backward"in 1888. It describes the experiences of a young Bostonian who went into a hypnotic sleep in 1887 and awoke in 2000, finding a new social order in which want, politics and vice were unknown. The society had emerged through peace and evolution, and all of the trusts of the 1800's joined together to form one government controlled trust, which distributed the abundance of the industrial economy equally among all people. "Fraternal cooperation" replaced competition, there were no class divisions, and there was great nationalism.
Stephen Crane, Maggie
He was a realist who wrote the book "Maggie" in 1893. It was about a women who lived in a city and fell in love. In the end, she dies young and alone.
These were investigative reporters who promoted social and political reforms by exposing corruption and urban problems. They were the leading critics of urban bosses and corporate robber barons. The rise of mass-circulation newspapers and magazines enabled muckrakers to reach a large audience.
Progressive Governor of Wisconsin who fought against the big corporations and who introduced many state-level reform in his state. He became a major leader of the Progressives. Tried to run for President in 1912, but he was replaced on the Progressive Party ticket by Theodore Roosevelt.
Progressive Amendments: 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th
The Sixteenth Amendment gave Congress the power to lay and collect income taxes. The Seventeenth Amendment provided that senators shall be elected by popular vote. The Eighteenth Amendment forbade the sale or manufacture of intoxicating liquors. The Nineteenth Amendment granted women the right to vote. The twentieth Amendment advanced presidential inaugurations from March 4th to Jan. 20, shortened the "lame duck" period.
National Consumer's League: Florence Kelley, White Label
Formed in the 1890's under the leadership of Florence Kelley. This league attempted to mobilize the power of women as consumers to force retailers and manufacturing to improve wages and working conditions.
In 1899, Florence Kelley founded the this, which gave special labels to goods produced under fair, safe, and healthy working conditions and urged women to buy them and avoid products that did not have these labels. They also pushed for other reforms as well. It backed laws calling for the government to inspect meatpacking plants, to make workplaces safer, and to make payments to the unemployed.
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
He wrote the novel "The Jungle", graphically exposing abuses in the meatpacking industry. He helped convince Congress to pass the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 and the Pure Food and Drug Act.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Passed in 1906 by congress, it forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Refers to the expansion and changes of democracy. Poll taxes restricted the electorate to primarily whites and the elite. At the same time, the 17th Amendment expanded democracy by giving the electorate the ability to directly elect senators.
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