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RUSVM Pathology I Vocab

Dr. Fuentealba Introduction to Post-Mortem Changes
STUDY
PLAY
Pathology
Study of disease inclucing fuctional, biochemical and structural (morphological) alterations, causes of disease, and sequence of events in disease
Necropsy
Postmortem examination of the body to determine the nature of pathological processes that contribute to death or disease
Biopsy
The removal and examination of tissue from the living body to establish a precise diagnosis
Disease
Abnormal body process with characteristic signs which begins at the molecular and cellular level and may effect all or part of the body
Etiology
Cause of disease
Etiology Mnemonic
Double MINT (MMIINNTT)
Genetic/Intrinsic Etiology
Gene variant that is the cause of disease
Acquired/Extrinsic Etiology
Environmental cause of disease
Pathogenesis
Mechanism of disease development from initial stimulus to ultimate expression in response of cell/tissue to the etiology
Molecular & Morphologic Changes
Biochemical and structural alterations induced in the cells and organs of the body
Clinical Manifestations
Functional consequences of the changes
Diagnosis
Concise statement or conclusion concerning the nature, cause or name of a disease or a disease process
Clincal Diagnosis
Diagnosis based on case history, clinical signs and PE
Differential Diagnosis
List of diagnoses that could account for the evidence or lesions of the case
Different Diagnosis Mnemonic
VINDICATE or DAMNIT
Morphological Diagnosis
Diagnosis based on the predominant lesion(s) in the tissue(s)
Etiologic Diagnosis
More definitive diagnosis and names the specific cause of disease
Clinical Pathologic Diagnosis
Diagnosis based on changes observed in the chemistry of fluids and the hematology, structure and function of cells collected from the living patient
Prognosis
Prediction of how the disease will progress or resolve
Pathognomic
Characteristic or indictive of a specific disease
Cellular Swelling
Early, sub-lethal manifestation of cell damage, characterized by increased cell size and volume
Fatty Changes
Early, sub-lethal cell damage characterized by intracytoplasmic intracytoplasmic vacuolation due to the presence of vacuoles of fat
Coagulation necrosis
Cellular or tissue death in a living organism characterized by preservation of tissue architecture and cellular outline; Most common manifestation of cell death
Liquefactive Necrosis
A type of necrosis characterized by complete destruction of the tissue
Caseous Necrosis
A variant of coagulation necrosis characterized by loss of tissue architecture and cellular detail
Dry Gangrenous Necrosis
Form of coagulation necrosis follow by dehydration of affected area and mummification
Moist/Wet Gangrenous Necrosis
Type of necrosis modified by the liquefactive action of saprophytic bacteria causing putrefaction
Gas Gangrenous Necrosis
Type of necrosis characterized by production of gas bubbles in the necrotic tissue by invading bacteria
Fat Necrosis
Type of necrosis affecting the body of fat stores
Apoptosis
Individual cell death as a result of activation of a genetically programmed cell death pathway
Intrinsic Apoptosis
Activation of Caspase-9 then Caspases 3 & 6
Extrinsic Apoptosis
Activation of Caspase-8 then Caspases 3 & 6
Atrophy
Decrease in size of cells that have gained full development
Hypertrophy
Increase in the size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in cell size without an increase in the number of cells
Hyperplasia
Increase in organ size or tissue mass caused by an increase in the number of constituent cells
Aplasia
Lack of development of an organ or tissue
Hypoplasia
Incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ/tissue
Metaplasia
Reversible change in which one differentiated cell type is replace by another differentiated cell type
Dysplasia
Abnormal organization of cells or disordered growth of cells
Melanin
Brown pigment present in the epidermis and is responsible for the color of skin and hair
Lipofuscin
Accumulates in neurons, cardiac myocytes, thyroid epithelium, hepatocytes, with progressive increase with age and after chronic injury
Hemosiderin
Brown, amorphous, granular, iron-containing pigment formed as a result of lysis of erythrocytes
Bile Pigments
Yellow-brown or brown-green pigment
Anthracosis
Deposition of air pollutants such as coal dust, carbon particles into the lungs and local LN
Silicosis
Deposition of silica dust in the lungs
Asbestosis
Deposition of asbestos into lung producing chronic lung injury and associates with neoplasm
Rigor mortis
Contraction of muscles after death
Algor mortis
Gradual cooling of a cadaver to environmental temperature
Livor mortis
Gravitational pooling of blood to the down side of the body
Postmortem clotting
Clotting in the heart and vessels
Hemoglobin imbibition
Red staining of tissues due to postmortem lysis of RBCs with resulting release of hemoglobin
Bile imbibition
Leakage of bile from the gall bladder and major bile ducts which stains adjacent tisses green to yellow
Pseudomelanosis
Describes an artifactual black discoloration of tissues (similar in appearance to melanosis)
Autolysis/Decomposition
Depends on body temperature before death, size of body, fat stores, hair covering, environmental temperature, etc
Putrefaction
The enzymatic decomposition of organic materil with production of foul-smelling compounds
Postmortem emphysema
Distension of organs due to accumulation of gas
Postmortem rupture and organ displacement
Due to postmortem emphysema
Pyknosis
Shrunken and densely basophilic nuclei with irregularities in the nuclear membrane
Karyorrhexis
The nuclear membrane is ruptured and the nucleus is fragmented
Karyolysis
Complete dissolution of the nucleus with fading or loss of chromatin