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Restraining the liberties of an individual for violating prohibited behavior until they are brought to justice. An act of placing an person in custody for a suspected violation of criminal law.


Whether facts and circumstances are sufficient to warrant a prudent person to believe a crime is, has, or about to occur by the person being detained or arrested.


Subject is free to walk away if he or she so desires. It is the sole decision of the subject whether or not to cooperate with an officer.

Consensual Encounter

The officer may not exert any authority over the subject. Officers can continue to seek the subject's cooperation but cannot demand it.

Investigative Detention

Something less than an arrest but more than a consensual encounter. Generally, this is when a person thinks he or she cannot just walk away. (Terry v. Ohio)

Terry V. Ohio

Officer MUST articulate objective facts and circumstances that led him/her to believe a crime has, is or about to occur. Limited pat down for weapons. Never ever a search. Proceed expeditiously- avoid delay. Narrow scope for a Terry type investigation (Officer does not have the authority to go throughout premises of car. Must be within lunging area).


Means any of the five senses.

Graham V. Connor

Use of force permitted for DEFENSE AND CONTROL. Never to PUNISH.

Totality of Circumstances

Nature of crime, immediacy to the threat to officers or others, and active or attempted resisting.





Tennessee V Garner

Deadly force may not be used against an unarmed and fleeing suspect unless necessary to prevent the escape and unless the officer has probable cause to believe that the suspect poses a significant threat of death or serious injury to the officers or others.

Deadly Force Triangle

Ability, Opportunity and Jeopardy.

Miranda Warning

Only have to read Miranda rights when INTERROGATING.

Criminal Intelligence

The knowledge of past, present, or future criminal activity that results from the collection of information which, when evaluated, provides the user with a basis for rational decision making.

Intelligence over the years

Immigrants, Volstead Act, Arms Gangs, Post WWII, Vietnam Era and Patriot Act.

Intelligence Collection

Known affiliations, Geographic locations, and Types of criminal activity.


Identify yourself and ask questions.


Wiretaps, video, surveillance. Basically being secret about the intelligence we try to gather.

Strategic Intelligence

deals with long-term information. National or international.

Tactical Intelligence

Deals with short-term information. Usually local and deals with one event (I.e Superbowl)

Link Analysis

graphical design that shows relationships between individuals, groups, and organizations. (Pyramid showing hierarchy)


Event-Early in the investigation shows the sequence of activities that take place. Commodities- Drugs, money, and weapons.

RISS Program

1980 under the DOJ. 1700 agencies. 6 regions. 150,000 sworn officers. The goal is to provide state and local law enforcement with organizing and sharing criminal intelligence.

Domestic Terrorism

terrorism practiced in your own country against your own people.

International Terrorism

terrorism practiced by a in a foreign country by terrorists who are not native to that country.

Joint Terrorism Task Force

(JTTF) Mulitagency effort to keep us safe.

Big Brother

is watching- Body Scanners, Google searches, library material, camera, GPS, satellites, drones and radar checkpoints.

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