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41 terms

Nutrition

This set comes from the Nutrition Review document on Moodle.
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nutrition
the science that relates the health and well-being of people with the food they eat
fuel for energy, proper growth, maintenance, and functioning
4 reasons why your body needs nutrients
grains, dairy, meat/nuts, fruits, fats, and vegetables
6 basic food groups
carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water
6 nutrients
carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
3 energy nutrients
glucose
carbohydrates form of energy
sugars, starches, and fibers
3 types of carbohydrates
starches
type of carbohydrate that should that should be the body's main energy source
60%
percentage of caloric intake that should come from carbohydrates
protein
make up every cell in the body and do the cell's work; without it, fatigue and fewer antibodies can result
20%
maximum percentage of calories that should come from protein
15%
ideal percentage of calories that should come from protein
fats
used as a source of energy, help to dissolve and store certain bodies, manufacture blood clots, manufacture hormones, and cushion the body and internal organs
saturated and unsaturated
2 main types of fat
saturated fat
solid at room temperature and known to increase cholesterol/risk of heart disease; found in baked goods and animal sources (meat and dairy)
unsaturated fat
good fat; found in olive oil, peanut oil, avocado, soy beans, margarine, and sunflower oil
HDL
high density cholesterol; good cholesterol
LDL
reduces blood flow to heart by sticking to blood vessel walls and forming plaque; increases risk of heart disease
60%
percentage of body weight that water makes up
water
no nutritional value but most important component in diet
water
brings nutrients to cells and waste to kidneys, is needed for chemical reactions in digestion, helps control body temperature, helps conduct heat efficiently and cools the body through sweat evaporating, and cushions the body and vital organs
Vitamin B, Vitamin C, and Folic Acid
3 water-soluble vitamins
water soluble vitamins
dissolve in water and can be excreted from the body
Vitamins A, D, E, and K
4 fat-soluble vitamins
fat soluble vitamins
stay in the body
minerals
essential to sustain life
iron
transports oxygen and makes use of it
iron deficiency
affects half of all people, especially children, teens, and women, and can lead to anemia (fatigue and weakness/bruising easily)
calcium
keeps bones and teeth hard and strong, and performs vital body functions, helping with muscle and heart contractions
osteoporosis
calcium deficiency; occurs more often in women than men; causes bones to become brittle
11-24
ages most important for calcium consumption
congestive heart failure
disease linked to excessive salt intake
9
calories of fat in 1 g
4
calories of protein in 1 g
4
calories of carbohydrates in 1 g
multiply
grams to calories
divide
calories to grams
calorie
a measure of energy found in food and the amount of energy your body needs
Eat a variety of foods, balance your diet with moderate physical activity, eat a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, eat plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grain products, choose a diet moderate in sugar and salt intake, and drink plenty of water.
recommendations/dietary guidelines
Eat regularly and don't skip meals, eat appropriate portion size, avoid concentration sweets, eat several small meals a day if possible, maintain a regular exercise program, and set reasonable, healthy goals.
healthy eating habits
yo-yo dieting
losing lots of weight and then gaining it all back quickly, then repeating the cycle