Pharm I - week 1 test 1

Term
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Clinical pharmacology is the study of

a. the biological effects of chemicals.
b. drugs used to treat, prevent, or diagnose disease.
c. plant components that can be used as medicines.
d. binders and other vehicles for delivering medication.
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Terms in this set (50)
The generic name of a drug is

a. the name assigned to the drug by the pharmaceutical company developing it.
b. the chemical name of the drug based on its chemical structure.
c. the original name assigned to the drug at the beginning of the evaluation process.
d. the name that is often used in advertising campaigns.
Healthy young women are sometimes not able to be involved in phase I studies of drugs because

a. male bodies are more predictable and responsive to chemicals.
b. females are more apt to suffer problems with ova, which are formed only before birth.
c. males can tolerate the unknown adverse effects of many drugs better than females.
d. there are no standards to use to evaluate the female response.
A patient has been taking fluoxetine (Prozac) for several years, but when picking up the prescription this month found that the tablets looked different and became concerned. The nurse, checking with the pharmacist, found that fluoxetine had just become available in the generic form and the prescription had been filled with the generic product. The nurse should tell the patient

a. that the new tablet may have similar effects or may not so the patient should carefully monitor response.
b. that generic drugs are available without a prescription and they are just as safe as the brand name medication.
c. that the law requires that prescriptions be filled with the generic form if available to cut down the cost of medications.
d. that the pharmacist filled the prescription with the wrong drug and it should be returned to the pharmacy for a refund.
Multiple Answers

When teaching a patient about OTC drugs, which points should the nurse include?

a. These drugs are very safe and can be used freely to relieve your complaints.
b. These compounds are called drugs, but they aren't really drugs.
c. Many of these drugs were once prescription drugs but are now thought to be safe for use without a prescription when used as directed.
d. Reading the label of these drugs is very important; the name of the active ingredient is prominent; you should always check the ingredient name.
e. It is important to read the label and to see what the recommended dose of the drug is; some of these drugs can cause serious problems if too much of the drug is taken.
f. It is important to report the use of any OTC drug to your healthcare provider because many of them can interact with drugs that might be prescribed for you.
c. Many of these drugs were once prescription drugs but are now thought to be safe for use without a prescription when used as directed.
d. Reading the label of these drugs is very important; the name of the active ingredient is prominent; you should always check the ingredient name.
e. It is important to read the label and to see what the recommended dose of the drug is; some of these drugs can cause serious problems if too much of the drug is taken.
f. It is important to report the use of any OTC drug to your healthcare provider because many of them can interact with drugs that might be prescribed for you.
Multiple Answers

A patient asks what generic drugs are and if he should be using them to treat his infection. Which of the following statements should be included in the nurse's explanation?

a. A generic drug is a drug that is sold by the name of the ingredient, not the brand name.
b. Generic drugs are always the best drugs to use because they are never any different from the familiar brand names.
c. Generic drugs are not available until the patent expires on a specific drug.
d. Generic drugs are usually cheaper than the well-known brand names, and some insurance companies require that you receive the generic drug if one is available.
e. Generic drugs are forms of a drug that are available over the counter and do not require a prescription.
f. Your physician may want you to have the brand name of a drug, not the generic form, and DAW will be on your prescription form.
g. Generic drugs are less likely to cause adverse effects than brand-name drugs.
a. A generic drug is a drug that is sold by the name of the ingredient, not the brand name.
c. Generic drugs are not available until the patent expires on a specific drug.
d. Generic drugs are usually cheaper than the well-known brand names, and some insurance companies require that you receive the generic drug if one is available.
f. Your physician may want you to have the brand name of a drug, not the generic form, and DAW will be on your prescription form.
Chemotherapeutic agents are drugs that a. are used only to treat cancers. b. replace normal body chemicals that are missing because of disease. c. interfere with foreign cell functioning causing cell death, such as invading microorganisms or neoplasms. d. stimulate the normal functioning of a cell.c. interfere with foreign cell functioning causing cellReceptor sites a. are a normal part of enzyme substrates. b. are protein areas on cell membranes that react with specific chemicals. c. can usually be stimulated by many different chemicals. d. are responsible for all drug effects in the body.b. are protein areas on cell membranes that react with specific chemicals.Selective toxicity is a. the ability of a drug to seek out a specific bacterial species or microorganism. b. the ability of a drug to cause only specific adverse effects. c. the ability of a drug to cause fetal damage. d. the ability of a drug to attack only those systems found in foreign or abnormal cells.d. the ability of a drug to attack only those systems found in foreign or abnormal cells.When trying to determine why the desired therapeutic effect is not being seen with an oral drug, the nurse should consider a. the blood flow to muscle beds. b. food altering the makeup of gastric juices. c. the weight of the patient. d. the temperature of the peripheral environment.b. food altering the makeup of gastric juices.Much of the biotransformation that occurs when a drug is taken occurs as part of a. the protein-binding effect of the drug. b. the functioning of the renal system. c. the first-pass effect through the liver. d. the distribution of the drug to the reactive tissues.c. the first-pass effect through the liver.The half-life of a drug a. is determined by a balance of all pharmacokinetic processes. b. is a constant factor for all drugs taken by a patient. c. is only influenced by the fat distribution of the patient. d. can be calculated with the use of a body surface nomogram.a. is determined by a balance of all pharmacokinetic processes.J.B. has Parkinson's disease that has been controlled for several years with levodopa. After he begins a healthy food regimen with lots of vitamin B6, his tremors return, and he develops a rapid heart rate, hypertension, and anxiety. The nurse investigating the problem discovers that vitamin B6 can speed the conversion of levodopa to dopamine in the periphery, leading to these problems. The nurse would consider this problem a. a drug-laboratory test interaction. b. a drug-drug interaction. c. An accumulation effect. d. a sensitivity reaction.b. a drug-drug interaction.Multiple Answers \When reviewing a drug to be given, the nurse notes that the drug is excreted in the urine. What points should be included in the nurse's assessment of the patient? a. The patient's liver function tests b. The patient's bladder tone c. The patient's renal function tests d. The patient's fluid intake e. Other drugs being taken that could affect the kidney f. The patient's intake and output for the dayc. The patient's renal function tests d. The patient's fluid intake e. Other drugs being taken that could affect the kidneyMultiple Answers When considering the pharmacokinetics of a drug, what points would the nurse need to consider? a. How the drug will be absorbed b. The way the drug affects the body c. Receptor site activation and suppression d. How the drug will be excreted e. How the drug will be metabolized f. The half-life of the druga. How the drug will be absorbed d. How the drug will be excreted e. How the drug will be metabolized f. The half-life of the drugMultiple Answers Drug-drug interactions are important considerations in clinical practice. When evaluating a patient for potential drug-drug interactions, what would the nurse expect to address? a. Bizarre drug effects on the body b. The need to adjust drug dose or timing of administration c. The need for more drugs to balance the effects of the drugs being given d. A new therapeutic effect not encountered with either drug alone e. Increased adverse effects f. The use of herbal or alternative therapiesb. The need to adjust drug dose or timing of administration e. Increased adverse effects f. The use of herbal or alternative therapiesAn example of a drug allergy is a. dry mouth occurring with use of an antihistamine. b. increased urination occurring with use of a thiazide diuretic. c. breathing difficulty after an injection of penicillin. d. urinary retention associated with atropine use.c. breathing difficulty after an injection of penicillin.A patient taking glyburide (an antidiabetic drug) has his morning dose and then does not have a chance to eat for several hours. An adverse effect that might be expected from this would be a. a teratogenic effect. b. a skin rash. c. an anticholinergic effect. d. hypoglycemia.d. hypoglycemia.A patient with a severe infection is given gentamicin, the only antibiotic shown to be effective in culture and sensitivity tests. A few hours after the drug is started intravenously, the patient becomes very restless and develops edema. Blood tests reveal abnormal electrolytes and elevated blood urea nitrogen. This reaction was most likely caused by a. an anaphylactic reaction. b. renal toxicity associated with gentamicin. c. superinfection related to the antibiotic. d. hypoglycemia.b. renal toxicity associated with gentamicin.Patients receiving antineoplastic drugs that disrupt cell function often have adverse effects involving cells that turn over rapidly in the body. These cells include a. ovarian cells. b. liver cells. c. cardiac cells. d. bone marrow cells.d. bone marrow cells.A woman has had repeated bouts of bronchitis throughout the fall and has been taking antibiotics. She calls the clinic with complaints of vaginal pain and itching. When she is seen, it is discovered that she has developed a yeast infection. You understand that a. her bronchitis has moved to the vaginal area. b. she has developed a superinfection, because the antibiotics kill bacteria that normally provide protection. c. she probably has developed a sexually transmitted disease related to her lifestyle. d. she will need to take even more antibiotics to treat this new infection.b. she has developed a superinfection, because the antibiotics kill bacteria that normally provide protection.Knowing that a patient is taking a loop diuretic and is at risk for developing hypokalemia, the nurse would assess the patient for a. hypertension, headache, and cold and clammy skin. b. decreased urinary output and yellowing of the sclera. c. weak pulse, low blood pressure, and muscle cramping. d. diarrhea and flatulence.c. weak pulse, low blood pressure, and muscle cramping.Multiple answers A patient is taking a drug that is known to be toxic to the liver. The patient is being discharged to home. What teaching points related to liver toxicity and the drug should the nurse teach the patient to report to the physician? a. Fever; changes in the color of urine b. Changes in the color of stool; malaise c. Rapid, deep respirations; increased sweating d. Dizziness; drowsiness; dry mouth e. Rash; black or hairy tongue; white spots in the mouth or throat f. Yellowing of the skin or the whites of the eyesa. Fever; changes in the color of urine b. Changes in the color of stool; malaise f. Yellowing of the skin or the whites of the eyesMultiple answers Pregnant women should be advised of the potential risk to the fetus any time they take a drug during pregnancy. What fetal problems can be related to drug exposure in utero? a. Fetal death b. Nervous system disruption c. Skeletal and limb abnormalities d. Cardiac defects e. Low-set ears f. Deafnessa. Fetal death b. Nervous system disruption c. Skeletal and limb abnormalities d. Cardiac defects e. Low-set ears f. DeafnessMultiple answers A client is experiencing a reaction to the penicillin injection that the nurse administered approximately ½ hour ago. The nurse is concerned that it might be an anaphylactic reaction. What signs and symptoms would validate her suspicion? a. Rapid heart rate b. Diaphoresis c. Constricted pupils d. Hypotension e. Rash f. Client report of a panicky feelinga. Rapid heart rate b. Diaphoresis e. Rash f. Client report of a panicky feelingMultiple answers A client is experiencing a serum sickness reaction to recent rubella vaccination. Which of the following interventions would be appropriate when caring for this client? a. Administration of epinephrine b. Cool environment c. Positioning to provide comfort d. Ice to joints as needed e. Administration of anti-inflammatory agents f. Administration of topical corticosteroidsb. Cool environment c. Positioning to provide comfort d. Ice to joints as needed e. Administration of anti-inflammatory agentsTerms: controlled substanceDrugs with abuse potential Schedule I (C-I): High abuse potential and no accepted medical use (heroin, marijuana, LSD) Schedule II (C-II): High abuse potential with severe dependence liability (narcotics, amphetamines, and barbiturates) Schedule III (C-III): Less abuse potential than schedule II drugs and moderate dependence liability (nonbarbiturate sedatives, nonamphetamine stimulants, limited amounts of certain narcotics) Schedule IV (C-IV): Less abuse potential than schedule III and limited dependence liability (some sedatives, antianxiety agents, and nonnarcotic analgesics) Schedule V (C-V): Limited abuse potential. Primarily small amounts of narcotics (codeine) used as antitussives or antidiarrheals. Under federal law, limited quantities of certain schedule V drugs may be purchased without a prescription directly from a pharmacist. The purchaser must be at least 18 years of age and must furnish suitable identification. All such transactions must be recorded by the dispensing pharmacist.Terms: adverse effectdrug effects, sometimes called side effects, that are not the desired therapeutic effects; may be unpleasant or even dangerousTerms: allergyformation of antibodies to a drug or drug protein; causes an immune response when the person is next exposed to that drugTerms: pharmacokineticsAction of the body on a drugTerms: half-lifethe time it takes for the amount of drug in the body to decrease to one half of the peak level it previously achievedTerms: pharmacodynamicsthe study of genetically determined variations in the response to drugsTerms: teratogeniccausing adverse effects to a fetusTerms: loading doseuse of a higher dose than what is usually used for treatment to allow the drug to reach the critical concentration soonerTerms: placebo effectdocumented effect of the mind on drug therapy; if a person perceives that a drug will be effective, the drug is much more likely to actually be effectiveTerms: Distributionmovement of a drug to body tissues; the places where a drug may be distributed depending on the drug's solubility, perfusion of the area, cardiac output, and binding of the drug to plasma proteinsTerms: Excretionremoval of a drug from the body; primarily occurs in the kidneys, but can also occur through the skin, lungs, bile, or fecesTerms: absorptionwhat happens to a drug from the time it enters the body until it enters the circulating fluid; intravenous administration causes the drug to directly enter the circulating blood, bypassing the many complications of absorption from other routesTerms: first pass effecta phenomenon in which drugs given orally are carried directly to the liver after absorption, where they may be largely inactivated by liver enzymes before they can enter the general circulation; oral drugs frequently are given in higher doses than drugs given by other routes because of this early breakdownTerms: glomerular filtrationthe passage of water and water-soluble components from the plasma into the renal tubuleTerms: toleranceThe body may develop a tolerance to some drugs over time. Tolerance may arise because of increased biotransformation of the drug, increased resistance to its effects, or other pharmacokinetic factors. When tolerance occurs, the drug no longer causes the same reaction. Therefore, increasingly larger doses are needed to achieve a therapeutic effect.Terms: therapeutic effectThe preferred and expected effect for which a medication is administeredList the sources of individual variation (gender, weight, genetics, age, ethnicity, physiologic factors, etc.) that may impact the body's response to a medication.-Weight -Age -Gender -Physiological factors—diurnal rhythm, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, hydration -Pathological factors—disease, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, gastrointestinal dysfunction, vascular disorders, low blood pressure -Genetic factors -Immunological factors—allergy -Psychological factors—placebo effect, health beliefs, compliance -Environmental factors—temperature, light, noise -Drug tolerance -Accumulation effects -InteractionsExplain pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics.pharmacodynamics— how the drug affects the body—and pharmacokinetics—how the body acts on the drug.What is Stevens Johnson Syndrome?fatal erythema multiforme exudativum (Stevens-Johnson syndrome), which is characterized by dark red papules appearing on the extremities with no pain or itching, often in rings or disk-shaped patches.Define the term poisonPoisoning occurs when an overdose of a drug damages multiple body systems, leading to the potential for fatal reactions. Assessment parameters vary with the particular drug. Treatment of drug poisoning also varies, depending on the drug. Throughout this book, specific antidotes or treatments for poisoning are identified, if known. Emergency and life support measures often are needed in severe cases.