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There are __ antibodies.


These antibodies bind with high __ and __.

Specificity; affinity.

Antibodies are produced by the __ lymphocyte.

B lymphocyte.

Antibodies circulate as a major component of the __ in the blood and in the __.

Plasma; lymph.

Antigens are bound to by __ and are usually __.

Antibodies; proteins and carbohydrates.

The __ B cells express Igs such as the B cell receptor or __.

Mature; BCR.

The B cell becomes a plasma cell when __.

The antigen binds to the Igs and allows B cell to proliferate.

This plasma cell will now secrete __ which have the same __ as __.

Antibodies; specificity; BCR (membrane bound Igs).

Antibodies are __.


Antibodies have __ polypeptide chains.

Four; two light and two heavy.

Their bonding is __.

Covalent disulfide bridges; and non covalent interactions.

The heavy chains are __ and the light chains are __.

Identical; identical.

Arms of the Y consists of the L chain paired with the __ pair of H-chain.

N-Terminal .

Stem consists of paired __ H-chain.

C-Terminal .

The variable region is concentrated in the __ terminal region.

N-Terminal .

The paired V regions of the __ and __ chain form the __.

H-chain; L-chain; antigen binding site.

The two antigen binding sites made are __.

Identical .

The C region is the __ region and determines __.

Consant; the fate of the antibody.

The C region contains less __.

Variation in amino acid sequences.

Affinity is __.

Tightness of binding of an antibody binding site to an antigen.

Antibodies produced by a __ response have a higher __ than those in __ response.

Secondary memory response; affinity; primary response.

Valence of an antibody is __.

The maximum number of antigenic determinants with which the antibody can react.

Avidity is increased by __.

Multiple binding sites .

Avidity is the __.

Firmness of association between multideterminant antigen and the antibodies produced against it.

The combined effect of avidity results __.

Synergy of the binding strengths of each binding site.

The protease __ cleaves the antibody into three pieces __.

Papain; IgG into three pieces Fab (2) and Fc (1).

The Fab are __.

Fragment antigen binding fragments antigen binding part.

The Fc is __.

Fragment crystallizable part responsible for effector functions.

IgA is the most common antibody found in __.

Mucosal secretions.

IgM is mainly found in the __.


In the five main isotypes IgGAMED the differences are defined by the __.

Heavy chain constant regions where the differences lie in the length and sugars of the heavy chain.

The __ isotypes of the light chain are __.

Two; kappa and lambda.

Each antibody has either __.

Kappa or lambda, not both.

The antigen binding site is composed of two __ regions called __.

Variable; VL and VH.

Constant domains are called __.

CL and CH .

The heavy chain of IgG has __ domains while others may have four.

Three .

IgG has __ different subclasses.

4; IgG1-4.

Each class contains different __ chains and corresponding differences in their __.

H-Chains; function.

IgG is the most abundant in the __.

Blood .

It is the only antibody known to cross the __ and provide __ to a newborn.

Placenta; passive humoral (innate) immunity to a developing and newborn infant.

The IgA is connected as a dimer by a __.

J-chain .

IgA is a major Ig present in __ such as __.

External secretions, colostrum, milk, and saliva.

IgA contains two other __.


The chains are __ and __.

J-Chain and Secretory component (SC).

SC is part of the molecule __.

Poly-Ig receptor involved in transepithelial transport of exocrine IgA and stabilizes IgA against proteolytic degradation.

J-Chain holds the __.

Two four-chain units together through disulfide bridges.

IgA is the first line of __.

Defense against microbes entering through mucosal surfaces.

IgA is secreted __ and is synthesized locally by __.

Dimerically; plasma cells in mammary and salivary glands.

IgA prevents __ by pathogens and mediates their __.

Colonization of mucosal surfaces; phagocytosis.

IgM is the __ antibody secreted produced by __.

First; B cells .

IgM is the __.

Membrane bound Ig (BCR).

IgM is expressed as a __ chain unit with __ chains.

Four; Two H-Chains and Two L-Chains.

IgM is also present when secreted as a __ in __.

Soluble molecule; blood .

The J-Chain is associated with IgM in the __.

Blood to help it polymerize into a pentamer.

In circulation IgM has __ four-chain subunits and have __ combining sites.

Five; ten.

IgM is efficient __.

Early before IgG has been produced.

IgD is present in __ quantities in __.

Low; circulation.

IgD functions primarily as a __ in __.

Antigen receptor; B cells.

B cells express both __ and __ that are specific for the SAME antigen.

IgM; IgD.

IgM and IgD interact with a pathogen this leads to being __ and then __.

Presented to helper T cells; proliferation and differentiation into plasma cells.

Humoral pertains to __.

Extracellular fluid including the plasma and lymph.

IgE is present in the serum at __ levels.

Low .

Plays significant roles in __ (2).

Enhancing acute inflammation; protection from infection by worms.

Allergic reactions are associated with __.


IgE binds to __.

Mast cells which then release histamine.

Sometimes the isotypes may differ in the length of __.

Heavy chain C-Regions and locations of the disulfide bonds.

The hinge region is present in __ (3).

IgG, IgA, IgD.

Isotypes differ in the distribution of __.

N-linked carbohydrate groups .

In their membrane bound form all isotypes are __.

Monomers .

Soluble, secreted form of IgD, IgE, IgG are all __.

Monomers .

IgA forms __ and __.

Monomers and dimers.

IgM forms __.

Pentamers .

Hinge region is a __ region allowing for __.

Flexible; independent movement of the Fab arms (0, 60, 90).

The V domains of heavy and light chains have __ regions flanked by __ regions.

Hypervariable (HV); Framework .

Three HV regions in each domain so a total of __.

Six make one complete variable domain.

The bringing together of these hypervariable loops creates a __ surface that forms the __.

Composite hypervariable; antigen-binding site.

Hypervariable loops are also called __.

Complimentary determining regions (CDRs).

Antigens that have more than one epitope are called __.

Multivalent .

You can have antigens with multivalent __ and __ type epitopes.

Repeated different or repeated same .

Epitopes can be __ or __.

Linear; discontinuous.

Linear epitopes are __.

Where the amino acid sequence is linear.

Discontinuous epitopes are __.

Where the amino acid sequence is not linear, but folding causes them to be together.

The binding strength is known as __.


The type of antigen bound by an antibody depends on __.

The shape of the antigen-binding site.

Small antigens will bind to __.

Deep pockets.

Linear epitopes will bind to __.


Binding of conformation epitopes of folded proteins takes place over an __.

Extended surface area.

Kohler and Milstein produced a procedure to create __.

Cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies mAb.

Monoclonal antibodies mAb are produced from __.

Antibody-producing cells.

The __ allows for individual cells to be identified by surface molecules.

Flow cytometer.

A one dimensional plot is a __.


Ig genes are in a __ form that cannot be expressed in all cells except __.

Fragmented; B cells.

Ig H-chain and L-chain loci consists of families of gene segments containing __.

Alternative versions of parts of the Ig variable region.

Germ-line DNA contains __.

Multiple gene segments that code for portions of a single Ig heavy or light chain.

B cells __ DNA is rearranged into functional genes.

Germ-line .

Mature B cells now contain __ that is no longer identical to __.

Chromosomal DNA; germ-line DNA.

This rearrangement takes place in __.

The variable region genes.

DNA encoding Igs is found in __.

Thee unlinked gene groups.

These three groups are __.

Kappa light chain, lambda light chain, and one heavy chain.

Light chain can consist of __ or __.

Kappa or lambda .

Constant kappa is only __ gene.

One .

Constant lambda are __ genes.

Four .

During development a single B cell randomly selects from its H-Chain gene group __.

One V, D, and J.

The B cell will then select for its light chain from the __ or __ group selecting __.

Kappa; lambda; V and J.

Rearrangement occurs only in __ cells.

B cells.

It occurs during their __ from __ in the __.

Development; precursors; bone marrow.

When rearrangement is complete membrane bound Ig is __.

Expressed .

A mature B cell has __ and __.

IgM; IgD.

B cell is activated in the __.

Secondary lymphoid tissue .

A Pre-B cell has a __ chain and __ chain.

Heavy; light.

An immature B cell has __.

IgM .

After change in __ the Mature B cell has __ and __.

RNA processing; IgM; IgD.

In the peripheral lymphoid organs the Mature B cell becomes an __ and differentiates into __.

Activated B cell; plasma cell.

Class switching will allow it to secrete __ (3).

IgG, IgA, and IgE.

The Heavy-chain locus is on chromosome __.

14 .

Kappa light-chain is on chromosome __.

2 .

Lambda light-chain is on chromosome __.

22 .

First genes that go under rearrangement are the __ genes.

V genes.

Different segments encode __, __, and __.

Leader peptide (L), variable region (V), and constant regions (C).

The first and second hypervariable regions (CDR) of light-chain are encoded by different __ and the third CDR is determined by the __.

V segments; V/J junction.

L-chain has __ recombination.

Single VJ.

H-chain has __ recombinations first __ and then __.

Two; DJ; VDJ.

These recombinations are called __ which taking place in the __.

Somatic recombination; DNA .

At this point __ is not rearranged.

C-regions .

The __ chain has the most combinations that can be created.


After the primary RNA transcript has been made splicing rearranges the __.


The RSS are __ that flank __ (3).

Recombination signal sequences; 3' V, 5' J, and both sides of D.

Each RSS contains a conserved __ and __ sequence.

Palinodromic heptamer; conserved AT-rich nonamer sequence.

Either can cut 23/12 or 1/2 turn rule.


RAG-1 and RAG-2 are only made in __.

Lymphocytes .

First step in gene rearrangement is the binding of the __ to the RSS.

RAG complex.

When RAG binds one to each spacer and it cleaves the DNA the circular DNA produced is called __.

Signal joint and serves no purpose.

The DNA molecules are cleaved at the ends of the __.

Heptamer sequences.

The __ and __ additions provide __.

N nucleotide; P nucleotide; junctional diversity.

This diversity is in the __ HV region.

Third .

Rearrangements can be either __ or __.

Productive: Nonproductive (STOP codon).

If this is the case the cell will __ through __.

Die; apoptosis.

B cells are __ and contain both __ chromosomes.

Dipload; maternal and paternal.

When __ this is called allelic exclusion.

Rearranged heavy chain or light chain is expressed from only one chromosome.

Allelic exclusion shuts down __.

Recombination machine and stopping shuts RAG 1 and RAG 2 down which is why BCR are exactly the same.

Transcription begins with __ promoter and extends through __.

VH; mu and delta C genes.

The long primary transcript is processed by __ (3).

Cleavage, polyadenylation, and splicing.

Upon encountering a specific antigen, many B cells change the isotype that to produce to __ (3).

IgG, IgA, and Ig E.

Any other isotype switching other than IgM and IgD is going to take place in the __.


Membrane-bound Igs are associated with two other proteins __ and __.

IgAlpha and IgBeta .

IgAlpha and IgBeta have longer __.

Cytoplasmic tails than Ig and interact with intracellular signaling molecules.

Gene rearrangement of immature B cell leads to the expression of __.

Functional heavy and light chains.

Mature (naive) B cell expresses surface __ and __.

IgM and IgD .

After encountering an antigen IgM and IgD are produced as __.

Secreted antibodies.

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