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Immunology Chapter 4
There are __ antibodies.
These antibodies bind with high __ and __.
Antibodies are produced by the __ lymphocyte.
Antibodies circulate as a major component of the __ in the blood and in the __.
Antigens are bound to by __ and are usually __.
Antibodies; proteins and carbohydrates.
The __ B cells express Igs such as the B cell receptor or __.
The B cell becomes a plasma cell when __.
The antigen binds to the Igs and allows B cell to proliferate.
This plasma cell will now secrete __ which have the same __ as __.
Antibodies; specificity; BCR (membrane bound Igs).
Antibodies are __.
Antibodies have __ polypeptide chains.
Four; two light and two heavy.
Their bonding is __.
Covalent disulfide bridges; and non covalent interactions.
The heavy chains are __ and the light chains are __.
Arms of the Y consists of the L chain paired with the __ pair of H-chain.
Stem consists of paired __ H-chain.
The variable region is concentrated in the __ terminal region.
The paired V regions of the __ and __ chain form the __.
H-chain; L-chain; antigen binding site.
The two antigen binding sites made are __.
The C region is the __ region and determines __.
Consant; the fate of the antibody.
The C region contains less __.
Variation in amino acid sequences.
Affinity is __.
Tightness of binding of an antibody binding site to an antigen.
Antibodies produced by a __ response have a higher __ than those in __ response.
Secondary memory response; affinity; primary response.
Valence of an antibody is __.
The maximum number of antigenic determinants with which the antibody can react.
Avidity is increased by __.
Multiple binding sites .
Avidity is the __.
Firmness of association between multideterminant antigen and the antibodies produced against it.
The combined effect of avidity results __.
Synergy of the binding strengths of each binding site.
The protease __ cleaves the antibody into three pieces __.
Papain; IgG into three pieces Fab (2) and Fc (1).
The Fab are __.
Fragment antigen binding fragments antigen binding part.
The Fc is __.
Fragment crystallizable part responsible for effector functions.
IgA is the most common antibody found in __.
IgM is mainly found in the __.
In the five main isotypes IgGAMED the differences are defined by the __.
Heavy chain constant regions where the differences lie in the length and sugars of the heavy chain.
The __ isotypes of the light chain are __.
Two; kappa and lambda.
Each antibody has either __.
Kappa or lambda, not both.
The antigen binding site is composed of two __ regions called __.
Variable; VL and VH.
Constant domains are called __.
CL and CH .
The heavy chain of IgG has __ domains while others may have four.
IgG has __ different subclasses.
Each class contains different __ chains and corresponding differences in their __.
IgG is the most abundant in the __.
It is the only antibody known to cross the __ and provide __ to a newborn.
Placenta; passive humoral (innate) immunity to a developing and newborn infant.
The IgA is connected as a dimer by a __.
IgA is a major Ig present in __ such as __.
External secretions, colostrum, milk, and saliva.
IgA contains two other __.
The chains are __ and __.
J-Chain and Secretory component (SC).
SC is part of the molecule __.
Poly-Ig receptor involved in transepithelial transport of exocrine IgA and stabilizes IgA against proteolytic degradation.
J-Chain holds the __.
Two four-chain units together through disulfide bridges.
IgA is the first line of __.
Defense against microbes entering through mucosal surfaces.
IgA is secreted __ and is synthesized locally by __.
Dimerically; plasma cells in mammary and salivary glands.
IgA prevents __ by pathogens and mediates their __.
Colonization of mucosal surfaces; phagocytosis.
IgM is the __ antibody secreted produced by __.
First; B cells .
IgM is the __.
Membrane bound Ig (BCR).
IgM is expressed as a __ chain unit with __ chains.
Four; Two H-Chains and Two L-Chains.
IgM is also present when secreted as a __ in __.
Soluble molecule; blood .
The J-Chain is associated with IgM in the __.
Blood to help it polymerize into a pentamer.
In circulation IgM has __ four-chain subunits and have __ combining sites.
IgM is efficient __.
Early before IgG has been produced.
IgD is present in __ quantities in __.
IgD functions primarily as a __ in __.
Antigen receptor; B cells.
B cells express both __ and __ that are specific for the SAME antigen.
IgM and IgD interact with a pathogen this leads to being __ and then __.
Presented to helper T cells; proliferation and differentiation into plasma cells.
Humoral pertains to __.
Extracellular fluid including the plasma and lymph.
IgE is present in the serum at __ levels.
Plays significant roles in __ (2).
Enhancing acute inflammation; protection from infection by worms.
Allergic reactions are associated with __.
IgE binds to __.
Mast cells which then release histamine.
Sometimes the isotypes may differ in the length of __.
Heavy chain C-Regions and locations of the disulfide bonds.
The hinge region is present in __ (3).
IgG, IgA, IgD.
Isotypes differ in the distribution of __.
N-linked carbohydrate groups .
In their membrane bound form all isotypes are __.
Soluble, secreted form of IgD, IgE, IgG are all __.
IgA forms __ and __.
Monomers and dimers.
IgM forms __.
Hinge region is a __ region allowing for __.
Flexible; independent movement of the Fab arms (0, 60, 90).
The V domains of heavy and light chains have __ regions flanked by __ regions.
Hypervariable (HV); Framework .
Three HV regions in each domain so a total of __.
Six make one complete variable domain.
The bringing together of these hypervariable loops creates a __ surface that forms the __.
Composite hypervariable; antigen-binding site.
Hypervariable loops are also called __.
Complimentary determining regions (CDRs).
Antigens that have more than one epitope are called __.
You can have antigens with multivalent __ and __ type epitopes.
Repeated different or repeated same .
Epitopes can be __ or __.
Linear epitopes are __.
Where the amino acid sequence is linear.
Discontinuous epitopes are __.
Where the amino acid sequence is not linear, but folding causes them to be together.
The binding strength is known as __.
The type of antigen bound by an antibody depends on __.
The shape of the antigen-binding site.
Small antigens will bind to __.
Linear epitopes will bind to __.
Binding of conformation epitopes of folded proteins takes place over an __.
Extended surface area.
Kohler and Milstein produced a procedure to create __.
Cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies mAb.
Monoclonal antibodies mAb are produced from __.
The __ allows for individual cells to be identified by surface molecules.
A one dimensional plot is a __.
Ig genes are in a __ form that cannot be expressed in all cells except __.
Fragmented; B cells.
Ig H-chain and L-chain loci consists of families of gene segments containing __.
Alternative versions of parts of the Ig variable region.
Germ-line DNA contains __.
Multiple gene segments that code for portions of a single Ig heavy or light chain.
B cells __ DNA is rearranged into functional genes.
Mature B cells now contain __ that is no longer identical to __.
Chromosomal DNA; germ-line DNA.
This rearrangement takes place in __.
The variable region genes.
DNA encoding Igs is found in __.
Thee unlinked gene groups.
These three groups are __.
Kappa light chain, lambda light chain, and one heavy chain.
Light chain can consist of __ or __.
Kappa or lambda .
Constant kappa is only __ gene.
Constant lambda are __ genes.
During development a single B cell randomly selects from its H-Chain gene group __.
One V, D, and J.
The B cell will then select for its light chain from the __ or __ group selecting __.
Kappa; lambda; V and J.
Rearrangement occurs only in __ cells.
It occurs during their __ from __ in the __.
Development; precursors; bone marrow.
When rearrangement is complete membrane bound Ig is __.
A mature B cell has __ and __.
B cell is activated in the __.
Secondary lymphoid tissue .
A Pre-B cell has a __ chain and __ chain.
An immature B cell has __.
After change in __ the Mature B cell has __ and __.
RNA processing; IgM; IgD.
In the peripheral lymphoid organs the Mature B cell becomes an __ and differentiates into __.
Activated B cell; plasma cell.
Class switching will allow it to secrete __ (3).
IgG, IgA, and IgE.
The Heavy-chain locus is on chromosome __.
Kappa light-chain is on chromosome __.
Lambda light-chain is on chromosome __.
First genes that go under rearrangement are the __ genes.
Different segments encode __, __, and __.
Leader peptide (L), variable region (V), and constant regions (C).
The first and second hypervariable regions (CDR) of light-chain are encoded by different __ and the third CDR is determined by the __.
V segments; V/J junction.
L-chain has __ recombination.
H-chain has __ recombinations first __ and then __.
Two; DJ; VDJ.
These recombinations are called __ which taking place in the __.
Somatic recombination; DNA .
At this point __ is not rearranged.
The __ chain has the most combinations that can be created.
After the primary RNA transcript has been made splicing rearranges the __.
The RSS are __ that flank __ (3).
Recombination signal sequences; 3' V, 5' J, and both sides of D.
Each RSS contains a conserved __ and __ sequence.
Palinodromic heptamer; conserved AT-rich nonamer sequence.
Either can cut 23/12 or 1/2 turn rule.
RAG-1 and RAG-2 are only made in __.
First step in gene rearrangement is the binding of the __ to the RSS.
When RAG binds one to each spacer and it cleaves the DNA the circular DNA produced is called __.
Signal joint and serves no purpose.
The DNA molecules are cleaved at the ends of the __.
The __ and __ additions provide __.
N nucleotide; P nucleotide; junctional diversity.
This diversity is in the __ HV region.
Rearrangements can be either __ or __.
Productive: Nonproductive (STOP codon).
If this is the case the cell will __ through __.
B cells are __ and contain both __ chromosomes.
Dipload; maternal and paternal.
When __ this is called allelic exclusion.
Rearranged heavy chain or light chain is expressed from only one chromosome.
Allelic exclusion shuts down __.
Recombination machine and stopping shuts RAG 1 and RAG 2 down which is why BCR are exactly the same.
Transcription begins with __ promoter and extends through __.
VH; mu and delta C genes.
The long primary transcript is processed by __ (3).
Cleavage, polyadenylation, and splicing.
Upon encountering a specific antigen, many B cells change the isotype that to produce to __ (3).
IgG, IgA, and Ig E.
Any other isotype switching other than IgM and IgD is going to take place in the __.
Membrane-bound Igs are associated with two other proteins __ and __.
IgAlpha and IgBeta .
IgAlpha and IgBeta have longer __.
Cytoplasmic tails than Ig and interact with intracellular signaling molecules.
Gene rearrangement of immature B cell leads to the expression of __.
Functional heavy and light chains.
Mature (naive) B cell expresses surface __ and __.
IgM and IgD .
After encountering an antigen IgM and IgD are produced as __.
All classes of an Ig can be made as __.
Membrane form and secreted form .
Difference between membrane-bound and secreted lies in the __.
C-carboxy terminus of H-chain.
Secreted antibody has a __ sequence.
Membrane-bound antibody has a __ sequence.
This difference between membrane-bound and secreted is determined by __.
Expression of membrane or secreted forms of IgM and IgD depends on __.
IgM and IgD are the only two that can be __.
On the surface at the same time.
After B cell activation __ of __ occurs.
Diversification; V-domain coding region.
Somatic hypermutation induces __.
Point mutations in the variable regions at a very high rate.
Acts __ on certain __ found in __.
Selectively; DNA; CDRs.
Mechanism involves __.
AID - Activation-induced cytidine deaminase an enzyme that converts cytidine to uracil for excision and replacement with non-templated nucleotides.
IgM has limited __ but activates __.
Effector functions; compliments through the classical pathway.
Flanking 5' side of each C gene except delta are highly repetitive sequences called __ that mediate __.
Switch regions; recombination .