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305 terms

Biology Midterm

BY 111-2 creation/evolution and chapters 1-4
STUDY
PLAY
biology
the study of living things
bios
life
logy
study of
organisms
living things
habitat
regions where particular organisms normally live
botany
the study of plants
zoology
the study of animals
human anatomy and physiology
the study of the physical structure and function of the human body
botany, zoology, and human anatomy
the 3 major fields of biology
diet, medicine,and industry
3 reasons why the study of botany is important
Flowers, Leaves, Stems, and Roots
the 4 basic parts of a plant
taproot system
one in which the main root grows straight down and remains larger than the secondary roots that branch off from it
fibrous root system
one in which the primary root remains small and many slender secondary roots from it in all directions
angiosperms
flowering seed plants
composite family
one of the largest families of the angiosperms, also called the sunflower family
disk flowers
ones in the center
ray flowers
arranged around the disk flowers
daisy
one of the best known and most beautiful of the composite family
annual
a plant which develops from a seed and produces new seeds in a single growing season
biennial
plants that live through two growing seasons
perennial
plants which live from year to year and bloom each season
disk and ray
what two types of flowers make up a composite flower
grasses
may be considered the most important group of plants on earth
turf grasses
those grasses that are used as coverings for lawns, athletic fields, golf courses and playgrounds
poison sumac, poison ivy, and poison oak
the three most common poisonous plants
legumes
members of the pea family are commonly referred to as
deciduous
lose their leaves each fall and are bare all winter
evergreen
retain their leaves throughout the winter
stolon
a creeping stem that grows above the ground
sheath
wraps partially around the stem at the base of the leaf
wheat, corn, and rice
the three most important cereal crops
1 cotyledon, parallel veins, petals in multiples of 3, fibrous root system
name the 4 characteristics of monocots
2 cotyledons, broad, flat leaves with branching veins, petals in multiples of 4 or 5, taproot system
name the 4 characteristics of dicots
nitrogen cycle
the movement of nitrogen from the air, into the soil, and back into the air
nitrifying bacteria
provides nitrates to the soil from decomposing plants and animals
daisy, oxeye daisy, asters, goldenrod
name some members of the Composite family
peppermint, spearmint, oregano, basil, sage, lavendar, marjoram, rosemary, thyme, balm
name some members of the Mint family
poison hemlock, water hemlock, queen anne's lace
name some members of the Parsley family
blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, apple, apricot, cherry, nectarine, peach, pear, plum. almond tree
name some members of the Rose family
English peas, beans, peanuts, lentils, alfalfa, clover, vetch, kudzu
name some members of the Pea family
cabbage, collards, kale, turnips, radish, brussels sprouts
name some members of the Mustard family
day lilies, tulip, trillium, hyacinth, aloe vera, yucca
name some members of the Lily family
tomatoes, Irish potatoes, peppers, eggplants, tobacco, petunia
name some members of the Nightshade family
poison sumac, poison ivy, poison oak, cashew tree
name some members of the Cashew family
Cashew
the three most common poisonous plants, poison sumac, poison ivy and poison oak come from what family
graminoids (or grasses)
among the most important group of flowering seed plants
grasses
is considered the most important group of plants on earth
wheat, barley, rye, oats, rice, corn
name some cereal crops
turf grasses
those grasses that are used as coverings for lawns, athletic fields, golf courses, and playgrounds
fibrous
what type of root system does grass have
crown
the leaves of a tree form its bushy head called what
catkins
"flowers in disguise"
root system
what system is the part of the plant that is usually underground
shoot system
what system is the part of the plant that is usually found above ground, holding up the leaves toward the sun
shoot system
leaves are part of what system of the plant
organ
a structure within a system which has a definite form and performs a definite function or functions for the system
broad and flat, long and narrow, needle-like or scale-like
name the 3 basic leaf shapes
blade
the flat, green portion of the leaf
petiole
the leafstalk
sessile
leaves which lack a petiole are referred to as what
stipules
small leaf-like or scale-like structures that helped to cover the leaf when it was developing
buds
what contain developing leaf or stem structures
simple leaves
have one blade on every petiole
compound leaves
have more than one blade on every petiole
leaflet
each small blade on a compound lead is referred to a a
nodes
the points at which leaves grow from the stem are referred to as what
alternate
what type of arrangement has only one leaf growing from each node
whorled
what type of arrangement has 3 or more leaves growing from each node
rosette
what type of arrangement has a cluster of leaves growing around the base of the plant
opposite
what type of arrangement has 2 leaves growing from each node
phototropism
the growth response of a plant stimulated by light
structural, vascular, meristematic
name the 3 types of plant tissues
epidermal, cork, parenchyma, support and strengthening
name the 4 types of structural tissue
epidermal
what tissue protects and covers leaves, roots, stems, and other exposed areas
cuticle
consists of a waxy substance that helps to seal in water
root hairs
absorb water and nutrients for the root
cork
what tissue protects and waterproofs the stems and certain roots of woody plants
parenchyma
what tissue makes and stores food
support and strengthening
what tissue consists of fibers that run through roots, stems, and large veins of leaves
vascular
what tissues are composed of elongated, tubular cells; they are also sap-conducting cells
sap
the sweet liquid found within the vascular tissue of plants
xylem and phloem
two types of vascular tissues
xylem
transports water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots to the leaves
phloem
transports food manufactured on the leaves downward
growth and repair of plants
what is the purpose of meristematic tissue
cambium tissue
one of the most important types of meristematic tissue
vascular cambium
produces new vascular tissue (xylem and phloem)
cork cambium
produces new cork tissue
epidermis
provides covering and protection for both the upper and lower leaf surfaces
stomata
tiny openings on the lower epidermis, main purpose is to allow air to move into and out of the leaves
transpiration
the loss of water vapor from leaves and stems
guard cells
two crescent-shaped cells that expand and contract in order to open and close each stoma
mesophyll
the middle portion of the leaf, which also forms the great bulk of the leaf
mesophyll
which part of the plant does most of the photosynthesis take place
inter-cellular air spaces
the air spaces between the spongy mesophyll cells
palisade and spongy
what two layers is mesophyll divided into
cell
the basic structural unit of all living things
cell membrane
surrounds the cell, separates it from its environment, and regulates what enters and leaves the cell
lumen
the cavity surrounded by a membrane
nucleus
a spherical body often located near the center of the cell, controls the cell's activities
cytoplasm
serves as the fluid medium for the many molecules and organelles that make up the cell
organelles
"little organs"
cell wall
found around the outside of the cell membrane
cellulose
a complex carbohydrate made up of long chain of glucose molecules
lignin
a substance that adds stiffening to the walls of the woody cells in tress and shrubs
chloroplasts
tiny chemical "factories" that use the light of the sun to manufacture food
chlorophyll
the green pigment which give plants their color and enables them to capture the energy of the sun
vacuoles
the storage structures in cells, stores food materials, fluid substances, and minerals
venation
what is the pattern of the veins within its leaves called
parallel, pinnate, palmate
name the 3 main types of venation
parallel
what venation has the veins usually parallel to each other along the length of the leaf
pinnate
what venation has the veins in a branching pattern, characterized by one major vein (midrib) with smaller veins extending outward from it
palmate
what venation is characterized by two or more major veins extending outward from one point like the fingers extending from the palm of a hand
autotrophs
also called producers, are capable of making their own food
heterotrophs
also called consumers, are not capable of making their own food, and must obtain it from other organisms
photosynthesis
"putting together with light"; the process whereby a plant's chloroplasts capture the radiant energy of sunlight and convert it into the chemical energy of food
thylakoids
photosynthesis occurs within the chloroplasts which contain specialized disks called what
C6 H12 O6
glucose
glucose
hydrogen atoms from NADPH are combined with carbon dioxide from the air to produce what simple sugar
cellular respiration
enables the plant to "burn" sugars as fuel for energy.
sucrose
much of the glucose produced through photosynthesis is converted in what, also known as table sugar
starch
long, chainlike molecules consisting of thousands of glucose molecules linked together
water, carbon dioxide, sunlight, temperature, and the health of the plant
the most important factors in the process of photosynthesis
indirect
what kind of bearing does water have on the process of photosynthesis
intensity of the sunlight striking the leaf
the single most important factor affecting photosynthesis
deterioration of chlorophyll
what causes leaves to lose their green color
xanthophyll
produces yellowish colors
carotene
produces yellowish-orange colors
anthocyanin
produces bright red, blue, and purple colors
abscission layer
special layer of cells that form at the base of the petiole, severing the connections between the petiole and stem
cellulase
a special enzyme what weakens the cell walls of the abscission layer, allowing the leaf to break off under its own weight
tugor pressure
the water within the guard cells produce what kind of pressure
turgid
when the guard cells are filled with water, they are defined as what
temporary wilting
occurs when transpiration takes place faster than the roots can absorb soil water, causing the plan cells to lose their turgor
permanent wilting
occurs when there is a drought and there is not sufficient soil water to replace that lost by transpiration
tendrils
special leaves which have the unique function of holding the vine upright by coiling around some support structure
Venus' flytrap, sundew, pitcher plant, bladderwort
name some types of special leaves
observable, testable, repeatable
3 qualities of empirical (true) science
Adam
who is identified as the 1st biologist
Bible
the ultimate foundation for the study of science
Biblical
what world view is centered on God and founded on creation
humanistic
what world view is centered on man and founded on evolution
Charles Darwin
Father of Evolution
1859
what year did he write the Origin of Species
1925
what year was the Scopes Trial
Time
the magic factor for evolution
transitional forms
what must exist if evolution is to be true
punctuated equilibrium
what says that evolution occurs in sudden spurts
Archaeopteryx
what is the form between a reptile and a bird
Ex Nihilo
what means "from nothing"
earth, space, time, light, and angels
what did God create on Day 1
atmosphere, firmament (expanse)
what did God create on Day 2
dry land and plants
what did God create on Day 3
sun, moon, and stars
what did God create on Day 4
flying and sea creatures
what did God create on Day 5
land animals and man
what did God create on Day 6
supernovas, salt in the seas, magnetic fields
give 3 evidences for a young earth
irreducible complexity
something that is so amazing complex it had to be fully formed and fully functional from the beginning or it could not exist at all
DNA, bacterial flagellum, specially designed animals
give 3 examples of irreducible complexity
root, stem, leaf and flower
name the four plant organs
tissue
living material constructed in such a way as to perform a particular task for the organs of an organism.
Robert Hooke
who founded the cell
smooth, toothed, lobed
name the 3 type of leaf margins
2/3
what fraction of the food we eat comes directly from plants
PGAL
the final product of photosynthesis
flowers
made up the reproductive parts of flowering seed plants
receptacle
the floral parts (sepals, petals) are attached to the end of the flower stalk called the what, also designed to hold the developing seeds
sepals
usually green in color, are the leaf-like structures attached to the edge of the receptacle
petals
the most conspicuous part of a flower
stamens
organs which produce the pollen, male part of the flower
filament and anther
each stamen consists of a what
filament
a slender, elongated stalk
anther
enlarged structure at the tip of the filament, produces the pollen
pistil
elongated, vase-shaped structure of a flower
stigma, style, and ovary
a pistil is divided into what 3 parts
ovary
swollen base of the pistil, contains the ovules
style
the stalk-like structure that connects the ovary to the tip of the pistil
stigma
the tip of the pistil, the part of the flower which receives the pollen grains at the time of pollination
complete flowers
one which has sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils
incomplete flowers
lacks one or more of these four basic flower parts
bracts
special leaves
staminate
flowers which lack pistils and bear only stamens
pistillate
flowers which lack stamens and bear only pistils
monoecious
any plant on which both staminate and pistillate flowers are produces in the same plant
dioecious
plants on which the staminate and pistillate flowers are located on different plants
length of day and night
the chief factor for most plants
photoperiodism
many plants require a definite period of light and darkness called
horticulturists
agricultural technicians who specialize in growing flowers, fruits, vegetables, and shrubs
fruit
a fully ripened ovary, functions as the seed-bearing structure of flowering plants
pollination
the transfer of pollen from an anther to the stigma portion of the pistil
self-pollination
pollination that occurs within the same flower
cross-pollination
pollination that occurs between two plants
hybrid
...
nectar
a sweet-tasting watery liquid produced by plants
fertilization
ovules begin developing into seeds only after a sperm cell brought by a pollen grain fuses with the egg cell within the ovule, a process known as what
gametes
the sperm and eggs or reproductive cells are referred to as what
sexual reproduction
the type of reproduction in which sperm and egg unite
hormones
chemicals produced in plants or animals to control or stimulate specific processes that cause the ovary to begin to ripen
abscission layer
forms in the stalk of the fruit and begins to "cut" the fruit from the stem
simple fruits
form from one flower that has only one pistil
aggregate fruits
form from one flower that has several pistils
multiple fruits
form from several flowers
berries
simple fruits in which the entire ovary is fleshy and juicy throughout
drupes
have an outer fleshly layer and an inner woody layer
pomes
have an outer fleshy layer an inner papery core
legumes
simple fruits that consist of a pod enclosing several seeds
samaras
consist of small dry seeds that have one or two winglike structures attached to them
nuts
simple dry fruits consisting of a seed enclosed in a hard covering or shell
achenes
simple fruits consisting of a seed or shell
grains
the fruits of the grass family
berries, drupes, and pomes
simple fleshy fruits
legumes, samaras, nuts, grains, and achenes
simple dry fruits
viable
terms that refers to a seeds ability to germinate and grow
scatter seeds
the primary function of fruits to the plant
agent dispersal
occurs with an outside agent carrying the seeds
mechanical dispersal
occurs when fruits scatter their seeds by bursting open when they are ripe and catapulting the seeds to a new locations
seeds
the final result of the process of flower and fruit formation
embryo plant, endosperm, and seed coat
the 3 main parts of a seed
embryo plant
called the germ in wheat
endosperm
provides nutrition to the growing embryo
seed coat
provides a protective covering for the seed
plumule
a tiny shoot that will develop into the stem and leaves of the plant
radicle
will develop into the root system
cotyledon
contain stored food that the embryo will use to supply the energy for sprouting
germination
the sprouting of a seed
dormancy
a period of inactivity
starch
most of the food stored in the cotyledons is in the form of what
bud
part of the stem which allow it to grow in length or to develop into new stems, flowers, or leaves
terminal bud (apical bud)
large bud at the end of the stem, allows the stem to grow in length
lateral bud (axillary bud)
the buds located along the sides of the twig, responsible for a tree's breadth and branching
bud scales
protect the bud in winter from frost injury and from drying out
bud-scale scars
rings which circle the stem, indicate where last year's growth started
leaf scars
reveal where leaves were attached to the stem in previous years
internode
the section of the twig between nodes
bundle scars
tiny markings, indicate the passage points of vascular tissue from the stem to the petiole of the leaf
primary growth
growth in length
secondary growth
growth in width
spire-like branching
trees with strong terminal buds on the main vertical stem
pines, firs, hemlocks, redwoods, and cypresses
give some examples of spire-like branching trees
spreading branching
tree with strong lateral buds
willows, cottonwoods, and elms
give some examples of spreading branching trees
bark, wood, and pith
the three areas of a woody dicot stem
vascular cambium
a layer of meristematic tissue that produces new bark and new xylem and is responsible for the secondary growth of woody stems
bark
outer section of a woody stem, provides protection for the stem and helps transport food throughout the plant
epidermis
outermost layer of bark, helps protect the stem from drying out and from being destroyed by parasites
cork
...
sieve tubes
formed by phloem cells connected end to end at their sieve plates, serve to conduct food throughout the plant
companion cells
strengthen the phloem tissue
wood
the strong, resilient inner section of a woody stem, provides strength and helps transport water and minerals from the roots to the leaves
tracheids
water-conducting cells; long, narrow, rod-shaped cells that often have tapered ends
vessels
composed of relatively short,wide, often barrel-shaped cells joined end to end, type of xylem tube in broadleaf trees
vascular tissue
the xylem and phloem together; forms the circulatory system of the plant
pith
at the center of a woody stem, function mostly as water storage cells
heartwood
older,inner wood; forms when xylem tubes become clogged and sealed off and no longer conduct sap from roots to the leaves
sapwood
younger, functioning xylem tissue, usually lighter in color and is the outer most part of the wood
annual growth rings
distinct layers of xylem which result from periods of faster and slower growth
vascular bundles
formed by xylem and phloem cells, arranged in a ring around the pith
cortex
the tissue in which the vascular bundles are embedded
rind
the outer covering of a monocot stem
vegetative reproduction
occurs when some part other than the seed grows into a plant
asexual reproduction
no union of sex cells
vegetative propagation
a process when a person uses vegetative reproductive methods to start a new plant from a root, stem, or leaf
cuttings, layering, grafting, budding, and tissue culturing
give 5 types of vegetative propagation
cutting (slip)
a piece of a stem or root which is capable of growing into a new plant
adventitious roots
roots that grow from an unexpected region of the plant, such as from a stem or leaf
layering
...
grafting
the process of transplanting living tissue from one plant to another
scion
the branch which is to be grafted onto a stem growing on another tree
stock
the tree which receives the new stem
budding
a kind of grafting in which the scion is a bud
tissue culturing
allow seedlings to be produced from individual plant cells grown in the laboratory
bulb
made up of a special stem and leaves designed to store food
corms
swollen stems
rhizomes
thick stems that grow horizontally under the ground providing food storage and a means of vegetative reproduction
stolons (runners)
special stems that grow quickly along the surface of the ground
tuber
the Irish Potato represents what type of special stem
primary roots
also called taproots because they grow directly from the embryo plant
fleshy roots
taproots that enlarge to store large quantities of food
root hairs
finger-like projection, developed by epidermal cells, greatly increase the water-absorbing surface area of the root
root cortex
region inside the epidermis where food is stored
central vascular cylinder
also called the stele, surrounded by the cortex, contains xylem and phloem tissues
meristematic region
region closest to the end of a root, here cell division takes place, adding new cells to increase the root's length
region of elongation
just above the meristematic region, cells increase in length, pushing the root further into the soil
maturation region
third region of growth, cell organize into the vascular cylinder
root cap
cone shaped object at the tip of the root providing a covering
diffusion
occurs when the net movement of molecules go from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
osmosis
one-way diffusion through a semi-permeable membrane
capillarity
the upward movement of liquids through a very narrow tube
cohesion
the force that holds water particles together
adhesion
the force that causes water to stick to the walls of narrow tubes
sap stream
the upward flow of fluid through the xylem tubes
RuBP
what molecule is formed from PGAL and keeps the Calvin cycle going
xylem
what word is interchangeable with wood
ovule
which part of the flower eventually becomes a seed
indehiscent
what is the term that refers to a seed when it remains closed at maturity
dehiscent
what term refers to a seed when it bursts open at maturity
simple fruits
tomatoes, peaches, beans, and walnuts are examples of what
aggregate fruits
raspberries, blackberries, and strawberries are examples of what
multiple fruits
the fig and the pineapple are examples of what
germ
another name for the embryo, the young wheat plant
husk, bran, endosperm, and germ
the four distinct parts of wheat
husk
also called the chaff, is removed easily and has no value
bran
the shell-like fruit covering that can be removed only by milling, is a valuable source of dietary fiber
endosperm
makes up about 85% of the kernel, is the part that is used in making white flower
ethylene
the simplest plant hormone known to scientists