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34 terms

Chemistry

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disaccharides
two monosaccharides together
sucrose
disaccharide consisting of 1 molecule glucose and 1 molecule fructose
glucose and fructose
Sucrose is made of what?
lactose
disaccharide consisting of 1 molecule glucose and 1 molecule galactose (milk sugar)
maltose
disaccharide consisting of 2 molecules of glucose (bread, pasta, beer)
polysaccharides
large chains of monosaccharides
simple polysaccharides
linear or straight chain of sugars or have small branches.
complex polysaccharides
multiple or long branches
starches
large polysaccharides of glucose
glycogen
(animal starch) stored in liver and muscle
cellulose
plant structural polysaccharides that cannot be digested in humans although bacteria in the intestine can add in its digestions (wood, celery, lettuce)
conjuagted carbohydrates
glycolipids, glycoproteins, proteoglycans
glycolipids
fat with sugar added (cell membranes)
glycoproteins
protein with sugar added (cell membranes)
proteoglycans
amino acids or sugar added to protein (cell membranes)
lipids
ratio of carbon to hydrogen is usually 1:2. but lipids contain very little oxygen
lipids
generally water insoluble but are carried by special proteins in the blood
lipids
in general women (18-24%) contain more then men (12-18%)
lipids
gram to gram, generate about twice as much energy as carbohydrates when catabolized
fatty acids
consist of carboxylic acid group (COOH) and a fatty acid tail
saturated fatty acids
each carbon atom of the tail has 4 single bonds (has 2 H attached)
unsaturated fatty acids
some carbon atoms of the tail has double bonds (has 1 H attached)
polyunsaturated fatty acids
have many carbon atoms with double bonds
glycerides
lipids consisting of 1 molecule of glycerol and attached fatty acids
monoglycerides
glycerol and contain 1 fatty acid
diglycerides
glycerol and contain 2 fatty acids
triglycerides
glycerol and contain 3 fatty acids (fats and oils)
phospholipids
are fatty acids containing a head of diglyceride and phosphated group (PO₄)
glycolipids
fatty acids with a head containing carbohydrates
amphiphilic
are molecules (phospholipids and glycolipids)
hydrophilic (lipophobic)
heads of these molecules (phospholipids and glycolipids)
hydrophobic (lipophilic)
lipid tails (phospholipids and glycolipids)
phospholipids and glycolipids
are present in cell membranes
structural lipids
together, cholesterol, phospholipids and glycolipids are referred as...