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A History of Western Society: McKay

Michael Servetus

-spanish humanist, gained international fame for denying the Christian dogma of the Trinity
- believed there was no scripture basis for the Trinity; also rejected child baptism and said a person under 20 cannot commit mortal sin
-burned at the stake for believing that he was a threat to society

The Lollards

-stressed that individials reading and interpretation of the Bible, the only standard of Christian faith
-opposed wealth, veneration of saints, prayers for dead, and war
-did not have churches or priests

Peace of Ausburg

-offially recognized Lutheranism-agreed to by Charles V
- each Prince in Germany permitted to determine the religion of there territory
- most of nothern and centeral Germany Lutheran, while the south remained Catholic
-no freedom of religion for individuals

John Knox

-leader of the reformation in Scotland
-started in 1559; wanted to model the Scotish Church after Calvin's in Geneva
-papal authority ended, mass abolishd; Presbyterian Church establishes
-Knox's Book of Common Order became the directory for the Church

Angela Merici

-established the Ursuline order
-established to create strong Catholic women through education

Pilgimage of Grace

- a massive multiclass rebellion that prooved the largest in English history
-"pilgrims" accepted a truce, their leaders arrested and executed
-caused by opposition in the North to religious changes

Elizabeth I

-beginning of religious stability
-didn't care what people believed as long as they kept quiet about it
-during her reign, the church moved in a slightly more Protestant direction

Ignatius Loyola

-started Society of Jesus
-education, missionary work, took Oath of Loyalty to Pope
-frequently killed those that wouldn't convert

Elizabethan Settlement

-required outward conformity to the Church of England and uniformity in all ceremonies
-if you refused you were fined
-in 1563 the Thirty-Nine Article described the basics of the Church of England

Ulrich Zwingli

-Swiss humanist and admirer of Erasmus
-introduce the reformation in Switzerland
-started preaching from Erasmus's New Testament on January 1, 1519
-believed Christian life rested on Scriptures, which were the pure words of God
-disagreed with Luther on various issues

Pope Clement VII

-more interested in art than disputes in Germany
-most responsible for the spread of Protestantism
-Clement tried to please everybody by supporting first the emperor and then the French King
-mad Spain mad so they ransacked the city of Rome, marking the end of the High Reniassance in Rome

Edward VI

-storng Protestant ideas created a significant influence on the religious life of the country
-Book of Common Prayers created a guide to all services of the Church of England

Diet of Worms

-diet:assembly of the Estates in France
-where Charles V summoned Luther to appear
-Charles declared Luther an outlaw and excommunicated him because of his teachings
-didn't execute him because he needed the German Princes on his side

Charles V

-declared Holy Roman Emperor in January 1517
-Francis I of France attacks him in an attempt to force him to give up his position (Charles wins)
-ingerited the power of Spain, Sicily, Sardinia, Hasburg in Austria, southern Germany, the Low Countries, and some of France
-officially recognized Lutheranism in the Peace of Ausburg


-believed that only adults could make a free choice about religious faith, baptism, and entry into the Christian community
-considered the practice of baptising infants and children outragous and had no Scriptural basis
-maintained only a few people would recieve inner light
-admitted women into the ministry

John Calvin

-his writings influence social thoughts and attitudes of Europeans-was Protestant
- wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion
-flees from France to Germany to Geneva,Switz.

In Calvinism
-no music except church music, no dancing,no drinking, and no plays
-believed in pre destinstion

Council of Trent

goals: refrom the Church, if possible reconcile w/ Protestants
-French interfere; dont want reconciliation because they like division among the Germans
achievements: scripture=traditions, sacraments and transubstantiation kept, Tridentine Decrees
-too little, too late

Martin Luther

-begins the events of the reformation
-created a religion that is Bible oriented
-develops his own philosophy, "Justification by faith alone."
-writes the 95 Theses which he is under fire for, Church excommunicates him at the Diet of Worms

Thomas á Kempis

-wrote The Imitation of Christ (gained appeal among laypeople)
-urged Christians to take Christ as their model and seek perfection through a simple life
-based off of Brethren ideals

Roman Inquistion

goal:stamp out heresy
-subpoenaed Catholics to Rome
-power of the Roman Inquisition was only strong close to Italy
-power to arrest, torture, excommunicate, and execute

Mary Tudor

-move back to Catholicism
-marriage to Philip of Spain and the execution of several hundred Protestants further turned her subjects against her
-many Protestants fled to the rest of Europe during her reign

Henry VIII

-married 6 women throughout his reign
-created the Church of England with him as the head of it
-those who disagreed with the Church were executed

Pope Paul III

-Roman aristocrat, humanist, and astrologer
-established the Inquisition in the Papal States and called a council fir reformation
-gave equal value to the Scriptures and tradition, reaffirmed the 7 sacraments and transubstantiation
-educators were required to be visited every 2 years and showed preferance to the poor
-now marriages had to be witnessed by a priest

John Tetzel

-Dominican friar hired to sell indulgences
- made a cheat sheet for prices of specific sins
-created the slogan "As soon as coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs."

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