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contains the stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and kidneys (all but the kidneys are within the peritoneal cavity).
inner part of adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine under the direction of the autonomic nervous system
a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex
sensory neurons that receive stimulation from specialized cells within their sensory organ then transmit information to spinal cord neurons, allowing sensory information to ascend to the brain
a corticosteroid hormone that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland regulates salt, potassium and water intake
amino acid derivatives
Hormones that are synthesized in a few simple steps from an amino acid molecule; an example is epinephrine, which is released from the adrenal medulla and synthesized from tryosine.
a joint that is partially moveable
ex. joints at the different articulations of the vertebra column
a term reference that health professionals use when noting body planes, positions, or directions; the person is assumed to be standing upright (erect), facing forward, feet pointed forward and slightly apart, with arms at the sides and palms facing forward; the patient is visualized in this pose when applying any other term of reference
secreted by the posterior pituitary gland which aids in water re-absorption by the kidney
autonomic motor system
governs involuntary activities of visceral muscles including glandular secretions, heart function and digestive function: INVOLUNTRAY
cardiac (striated involuntary) muscle
is found in the heart. Cardiac muscle cells do not need stimulation by the nervous system to start a contraction.
a semiliquid mass of partially digested food that passes from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum
distal convoluted tubule
Between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct; Selective reabsorption and secretion occur here, most notably to regulate reabsorption of water and sodium
forms flat sheets and is most often found on surfaces where exchange with exchange with the environment takes place, such as the lining of the gut or where rapid regeneration must occur to protect internal structures.
stimulate uterine lining growth; development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics
are the cell's power plants, burning fuels such as sugar and fat with oxygen to supply energy for the cell in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Neurons and muscle cells contain very high numbers of mitochondria
neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
Where the neuron releases a chemical (called a neurotransmitter) on the muscle surface, causing a chemical changes within the muscle that lead to contraction
are excitable cells, meaning they can be stimulated to undergo electrical and chemical changes. Found in the brain, the spinal cord and throughout the body.
neurotransmitter that is involved in arousal and the fight-or-flight system (also mood, sleep, and learning)
contains DNA. DNA is arranged in functional units called genes, and genes are linked together in long strings called chromosomes. All cells in the body begin with a nucleus, but red blood cells extrude theirs at maturity
located one on each side of the uterus in the female pelvis, functioning to secrete estrogen and progesterone
peripheral nervous system
all the nerves located outside the central nervous system; connects the central nervous system to all parts of the body
skeletal (striated voluntary) muscle
is the most widespread type, constituting all the muscles that move the skeleton
smooth (non striated involuntary) muscles
lines blood and lymph vessels within the body just below the epithelial tissue, such as around the gut, the lungs, and the circulatory and reproductive systems.
somatic motor system
innervates skeletal muscle, responsible for voluntary movement, generally subject to conscious control
synaptic cleft (synapse)
Tiny gap that separates one neuron from another or a neuron from the cell it stimulates.
the fluid-filled space between the articulating bones of a synovial joint, allowing the joint to be freely movable
The human body is composed of four basic types of tissues
Name the four basic types of tissues that compose the human body and give an example of each
Epithelial-lining of gut, surface of the eye
Nerve-neurons, spinal cord
Describe the "anatomic position"
The anatomic position is the body erect, facing forward, arms at the sides, and palms forward.
Name and describe the three body planes
Frontal-vertical division (front and back)
Sagittal- vertical division (left and right)
Transverse-horizontal division (top and bottom)
Name three lab tests, and the disorder they test for, that are used for assess for bone and joint disorders
Lab Test Test For
ALP bone metabolism marker
RF rheumatoid arthritis
Calcium mineral calcium imbalance
Magnesium mineral - magnesium imbalance
ANA systemic lupus erythematosus
ESR general inflammation test
Synovial fluid analysis-arthritis
Uric acid gout
Name four lab tests that are used to assess for muscle disorders
aldolase, AST, troponin, myoglobin, CK, CK-MM, CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase
What are the divisions of the central nervous system?
The divisions of the central nervous system are the brain and spinal cord
Name five lab tests that are used to assess for digestive disorders
CBC, amylase, lipase, ALP, ALT, AST, GGT, bilirubin, HBsAg, ammonia, hepatitis antibody, carotene, O & P, gastrin, occult blood, stool culture
Describe the difference between external and internal respiration
External respiration is the exchange of gases in the lungs, whereas internal respiration is the exchange of gases at the cellular level
What does the endocrine system do?
maintains homeostasis in conjunction with the nervous system by producing hormones
Name the three types of joints and give examples of each
Joint type Examples
Immovable-facial bones, cranium (synarthrosis)
Partially movable-vertebrae (amphiarthrosis)
Free moving-elbow, shoulder, knee (diarthrosis)
The hormone that regulates the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the circulation is :
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