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159 terms

Phlebotomy MTC 110 Chapter 6

Human Anatomy and Physiology
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abdominal cavity
contains the stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and kidneys (all but the kidneys are within the peritoneal cavity).
abduction
is a movement that takes a body part further away from the central axis
adduction
is a movement that takes a body part closer to the central axis
adrenal cortex
secretes steroid hormones
adrenal medulla
inner part of adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine under the direction of the autonomic nervous system
adrenocorticotropic hormone
a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex
afferents
sensory neurons that receive stimulation from specialized cells within their sensory organ then transmit information to spinal cord neurons, allowing sensory information to ascend to the brain
agonist
a muscle that contracts while another relaxes
aldosterone
a corticosteroid hormone that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland regulates salt, potassium and water intake
alveoli
tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood
amino acid derivatives
Hormones that are synthesized in a few simple steps from an amino acid molecule; an example is epinephrine, which is released from the adrenal medulla and synthesized from tryosine.
amphiathrosis
a joint that is partially moveable
ex. joints at the different articulations of the vertebra column
anatomic position
a term reference that health professionals use when noting body planes, positions, or directions; the person is assumed to be standing upright (erect), facing forward, feet pointed forward and slightly apart, with arms at the sides and palms facing forward; the patient is visualized in this pose when applying any other term of reference
antagonist
a muscle that relaxes while another contracts
anterior
of or near the head end or toward the front plane of the body
anti-citrullinated protein
Rheumatoid factor
antidiuretic hormone
secreted by the posterior pituitary gland which aids in water re-absorption by the kidney
arachnoid
middle layer of brain & spinal cord
articular cartilage
hyaline cartilage that covers ends of bones in synovial joints
autonomic motor system
governs involuntary activities of visceral muscles including glandular secretions, heart function and digestive function: INVOLUNTRAY
cardiac (striated involuntary) muscle
is found in the heart. Cardiac muscle cells do not need stimulation by the nervous system to start a contraction.
chyme
a semiliquid mass of partially digested food that passes from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum
cytoplasm
refers to all the cellular material except the plasma membrane and the nucleus
dermis
the deep vascular inner layer of the skin
diarthrosis
a joint so articulated as to move freely
distal
further away from the point of attachment of the structure in question
distal convoluted tubule
Between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct; Selective reabsorption and secretion occur here, most notably to regulate reabsorption of water and sodium
dorsal
refers to the back surface of the body
epinephrine
Also called adrenaline, a hormone that stimulates body systems in response to stress.
epithelial tissue
forms flat sheets and is most often found on surfaces where exchange with exchange with the environment takes place, such as the lining of the gut or where rapid regeneration must occur to protect internal structures.
estrogens
stimulate uterine lining growth; development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics
extension
is straightening the joint
external respiration
is the exchange of gases in the lungs
flexion
act of bending a joint
frontal plane
vertical division (front and back)
glomerulus
little ball-shaped cluster of capillaries located at the top of each nephron
ground substance
between the cells and contains fibers
hematopoiesis
the formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)
homeostasis
the dynamic steady state we think of when we refer to good health
inferior
is below
internal respiration
is the exchange of gases at the cellular level
lateral
toward the side
medial
is toward the middle
mitochondria
are the cell's power plants, burning fuels such as sugar and fat with oxygen to supply energy for the cell in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Neurons and muscle cells contain very high numbers of mitochondria
myelin
fatty substance/sheath that protects the axon
nephron
functional unit of the kidney
nerves
neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
neuromusclar junction
Where the neuron releases a chemical (called a neurotransmitter) on the muscle surface, causing a chemical changes within the muscle that lead to contraction
neurons
are excitable cells, meaning they can be stimulated to undergo electrical and chemical changes. Found in the brain, the spinal cord and throughout the body.
neurotransmitter
chemical messenger sent across a synapse which allows two neurons to communicate
norepinephrine
neurotransmitter that is involved in arousal and the fight-or-flight system (also mood, sleep, and learning)
nucleus
contains DNA. DNA is arranged in functional units called genes, and genes are linked together in long strings called chromosomes. All cells in the body begin with a nucleus, but red blood cells extrude theirs at maturity
osteoblasts
bone forming cells
osteoclasts
Bone-destroying cells
ovaries
located one on each side of the uterus in the female pelvis, functioning to secrete estrogen and progesterone
ovulation
the expulsion of an ovum from the ovary (usually midway in the menstrual cycle)
oxyhemoglobin
when hemoglobin is bound to oxygen; primary form of oxygen transport in the blood
oxytocin
stimulates contractions of uterus, milk ejections, labor; stops postpartum bleeding
peripheral nervous system
all the nerves located outside the central nervous system; connects the central nervous system to all parts of the body
plasma membrane
encloses the cell and tightly regulates the flow of materials in and out of it
posterior
is the back surface of the body
prone
is lying on the abdomen facing down.
proximal
closer to the point of attachment
sagittal plane
Vertical plane that divides the body into a right and left portion.
skeletal (striated voluntary) muscle
is the most widespread type, constituting all the muscles that move the skeleton
smooth (non striated involuntary) muscles
lines blood and lymph vessels within the body just below the epithelial tissue, such as around the gut, the lungs, and the circulatory and reproductive systems.
somatic motor system
innervates skeletal muscle, responsible for voluntary movement, generally subject to conscious control
tissues
Groups of similar structure cells that have a common function
transverse plane
horizontal division (top and bottom)
ventral
is the front surface of the body
ABG
arterial blood gas
ACE
angiotensin converting enzyme
ACTH
adrenocorticotropic horomone
ADH
anti diuretic hormone
ALP
alkaline phosphatase
ALS
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
ALT
alanine aminotransferase
ANA
antinuclear antibody
AST
aspartate aminotransferase
ATP
adenosine triphosphate
BUN
blood urea nitrogen
C & S
culture and sensitivity
CBC
complete blood count
CK
creatine kinase
CNS
central nervous system
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CSF
cerebrospinal fluid
CT
computed tomography
ENT
ear, nose and throat
ESR
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
FBS
fasting blood sugar (glucose)
FTA-ABS
fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test
GGT
y-glutamyltransferase
GH
growth hormone
HBsAG
hepatitis B surface antigen
HCG
human chorionic gonadotropin
HCV
hepatitis C virus
HIV
human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS virus)
IRDS
infant respiratory distress syndrome
KOH
potassium hydroxide
LH
luteinizing hormone
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
MSH
melanocyte-stimulating hormone
O & P
ova and parasites
PID
pelvic inflammatory disease
PMS
premenstrual syndrome
PSA
prostate-specific antigen
PTH
parathyroid hormone
RA
rheumatoid arthritis
RF
rheumatoid factor
RPR
rapid plasma reagin (test for syphilis)
SLE
systemic lupus erythematosus
STD
sexually transmitted disease
T3
triiodothyronine
T4
thyroxine
TSH
thyroid-stimulating hormone
TSS
toxic shock syndrome
URI
upper respiratory infection
UTI
urinary tract infection
superior
is above
supine
lying on the back with the face turned upward; inclined
synaptic cleft (synapse)
Tiny gap that separates one neuron from another or a neuron from the cell it stimulates.
synarthrosis
an immovable joint
synovial cavity
the fluid-filled space between the articulating bones of a synovial joint, allowing the joint to be freely movable
FSH
follicle-stimulating hormone
The human body is composed of four basic types of tissues
1. Epithelial
2. Muscle
3. Nerve
4. Connective
Name the four basic types of tissues that compose the human body and give an example of each
Tissue Example
Epithelial-lining of gut, surface of the eye
Muscle-heart
Nerve-neurons, spinal cord
Connective-bone, blood
Describe the "anatomic position"
The anatomic position is the body erect, facing forward, arms at the sides, and palms forward.
What are body cavities?
Body cavities are spaces within the body that contain major organs
Name and describe the three body planes
Frontal-vertical division (front and back)
Sagittal- vertical division (left and right)
Transverse-horizontal division (top and bottom)
What is hematopoiesis?
is the formation of blood cells
Name three lab tests, and the disorder they test for, that are used for assess for bone and joint disorders
Lab Test Test For
ALP bone metabolism marker
UA gout
RF rheumatoid arthritis
Calcium mineral calcium imbalance
Magnesium mineral - magnesium imbalance
ANA systemic lupus erythematosus
ESR general inflammation test
Synovial fluid analysis-arthritis
Uric acid gout
___________ is a bone infection that can be caused by improper phlebotomy technique
Osteomyelitis
Name four lab tests that are used to assess for muscle disorders
aldolase, AST, troponin, myoglobin, CK, CK-MM, CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase
What are the divisions of the central nervous system?
The divisions of the central nervous system are the brain and spinal cord
Name five lab tests that are used to assess for digestive disorders
CBC, amylase, lipase, ALP, ALT, AST, GGT, bilirubin, HBsAg, ammonia, hepatitis antibody, carotene, O & P, gastrin, occult blood, stool culture
Describe the difference between external and internal respiration
External respiration is the exchange of gases in the lungs, whereas internal respiration is the exchange of gases at the cellular level
What does the endocrine system do?
maintains homeostasis in conjunction with the nervous system by producing hormones
Name the three types of joints and give examples of each
Joint type Examples
Immovable-facial bones, cranium (synarthrosis)
Partially movable-vertebrae (amphiarthrosis)
Free moving-elbow, shoulder, knee (diarthrosis)
The term to define the overall well-being of the body is:
homeostasis
The functional unit of the nervous system is
neuron
ATP is found in which part of the cell?
mitochondria
Which type of muscle is involved in hemostasis
smooth
Blood is considered to be which type of tissue?
connective
In which system does hematopoiesis occur?
skeletal
Which is not a lab test that assesses for muscle disorders?
C & S
Which is not a lab test that assesses for disorders of the integumentary system?
BUN
Hepatitis involves the:
Liver
Which is not a lab test to assess for liver problems?
ESR
_____________ promotes the breakdown of glycogen back to glucose
Glucagon
Pancreatitis can be screened for by performing which lab test?
Amylase
The functional unit of the kidney is known as the:
nephron
Microbiology may perform the following lab test for urologic disorders:
C & S
ABGs typically test for:
respiratory disorders
The hormone that regulates the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the circulation is :
parathormone
Which hormone regulates water re-absorption by the kidney?
ADH
The hormone that can be detected by early pregnancy test is:
HCG
Thyroxine is otherwise know as:
T4
Hormones are produced by which body system?
Endocrine