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Kidney shaped clear background




Bi-lobed granular background


Multi-lobed granular background

Most common white blood cell found in whole blood


Mounts an immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies


Kills parasitic worms


Becomes a macrophage


Main bacteria killer during acute infections


SEE Figure 17.1 and 17.2

Study guide!

Nucleus has two lobes; contains granules of lysosomal enzymes; functions in attacking parasitic worms.


Nucleus is multilobed; functions as a phagocyte; contains fine indistinct granules


Transports CO2 and oxygen


Contains a U- or an S-shaped nucleus; granules stain very dark; releases histamine and heparin


Largest of the WBCs; crucial in defense against viruses; associated with chronic infections


The major contributor to plasma osmotic pressure.


Thrombin catalyzes the activation of these molecules present in plasma.


Forms the structural framework of a blood clot.


Makes up most of plasma protein.


Main contributor to osmotic pressure.


Antibodies released by plasma cells during immune response.

Gamma Gobulins

Forms fibrin thread of blood clot.


Transport proteins that bind to lipids, metal ions, and fat-soluble vitamins.

Alpha and Beta Gobulins

Polymorphonuclear leukocyte.


White blood cell with dark-staining nucleus.


Protein capable of changing shape and color in the presence of O2.


Adverse reaction of donor blood cells with recipient plasma.


Lacking in hemophilia type A.

Factor VIII

Produced by platelets.

Prostaglandin derivates such as Thrombozane A2

A fibrous protein that gives shape to an RBC plasma membrane.


Hormone that stimulates production of RBCs.


Stimulates WBC production.

Interleukins and CSF's

Natural anticoagulant found in basophils.


Universal donor.

Type O

Universal recipient.

Type AB

Cancerous condition involving white blood cells.


Condition in which blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity.


Abnormal excess of erythrocytes resulting in an increase in blood viscosity.


Free-floating thrombus in the bloodstream.


The primary source of RBCs in the adult human being is the bone marrow in the shafts of the long bones.

False - Found in the bones of Axial Skeleton and Girdles - and in the proximal epipsys of humerus and femur

Leukemia refers to cancerous conditions of white blood cells.


The immediate response to blood vessel injury is clotting.

False - It's Vascular Spasm

The process of fibrinolysis disposes of bacteria when healing has occurred.

False - removes clots when healing has occurred. Without blood vessels would becomes blocked

The RBC "graveyard" is the liver.

False - The RBC graveyard is the SPL

Hemorrhagic anemias result from blood loss.


White blood cells are produced through the action of colony-stimulating factors.

True - 2 families 1) Interlukeins 2) Colony stimulating factors

Hemoglobin is made up of the protein heme and the red pigment globin.

False - Protein globin and red heme pigment

Each HEME contains an atom of iron and can transport one molecule of oxygen.

True - each iron can combine reversibly w/one molecule of oxygen

Each hemoglobin molecule can transport two molecules of oxygen.

False - 4 molecules of oxygen

Diapedesis is the process by which red blood cells move into tissue spaces from the interior of blood capillaries.

False - WBC's are able to do this NOT WBC

Positive chemotaxis is a feedback system that signals leukocyte migration into damaged areas.


A condition of leukocytosis indicates over 11,000 white blood cells per cubic millimeter in the blood.


Basophils increase in number when parasitic invasion occurs.

False - eosinophils

Leukopenia is an abnormally low number of leukocytes.


A person with type B blood could receive blood from a person with either type B or type O blood.


Leukocytes move through the circulatory system by amoeboid motion.

False- they move through tissue spaces at the site of infection

Granulocytes called neutrophils are phagocytic and are the most numerous of all white blood cell types.


All lymphocytes are leukocytes, but not all leukocytes are lymphocytes.


Myelocytic leukemia involves a cancerous condition of lymphocytes.

False - involves myeloblast descendants

Which of the following is a pivotal molecule associated with the external surfaces of aggregated platelets and is involved in the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of blood clotting?


What is the average normal pH range of blood?


The special type of hemoglobin present in fetal red blood cells is ________.

hemoglobin F ( Hbf )

Which of the choices below is the parent cell for all formed elements of blood?

Pluripotent stem cell (hemocytoblast)

Which blood type is called the universal donor?


Which of the following is a regulatory function of blood?

maintenance of normal pH in body tissues

Which of the following is a protective function of blood?

prevention of blood loss

Which of the statements below is an incorrect or false statement?

Blood typing for the Kell, Lewis, and Duffy factors is always done before a blood transfusion.

Which of the following might trigger erythropoiesis?

hypoxia of EPO-producing cells

As red blood cells age ________.

membranes "wear out" and the cells become damaged -
100-120 days

An individual who is blood type AB negative can ________.

receive any blood type in moderate amounts except that with the Rh antigen

The most abundant plasma protein is ________.


When neither anti-A sera nor anti-B sera clot on a blood plate with donor blood, the blood is type ________.


Select the correct statement regarding blood cell formation.

Red marrow is the main site of blood cell formation throughout adult life.

Blood volume restorers include all of the following except ________.

packed cells

James has a hemoglobin measurement of 16 g/100 ml blood. This is ________.

within the normal range

Which of these is not a normal plasma protein?


All of the following can be expected with polycythemia except ________.

low blood viscosity

No visible cytoplasmic granules are present in ________.


Which of the following is not a phase of hemostasis?


Place the following in correct developmental sequence:

2, 4, 3, 1
proerythroblast, late erythroblast, normoblast, reticulocyte

A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of ________.

pernicious anemia

The slowest step in the clotting process is ________.

formation of prothrombin activator

Thromboembolic disorders ________.

include embolus formation, a clot moving within the circulatory system

Which of the following is not a cause of bleeding disorders?

excess secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)

Which of the following is characteristic of all leukocytes?

they are nucleated

Which of the following is true about blood plasma?

It is about 90% water

Platelets ________.

stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break

Which sequence is correct for the following events?

formation of thromboplastin, prothrombin → thrombin, fibrinogen → fibrin, clot reaction

Fred's blood was determined to be AB positive. What does this mean?

There are no antibodies to A, to B, or to Rh antigens in the plasma.

Sickling of red blood cells can be produced in those with sickle-cell anemia by ________.

travel at high altitude and vigorous exercise

All of the following conditions impair coagulation except ________.

vascular spasm

When can erythroblastosis fetalis not possibly happen in the child of an Rh negative mother?

when the father is Rh-

Complications of aplastic anemia generally do not include ________.

increase of leukocytes as a result of erythrocyte loss

Blood is a ________.


What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?


The formed element ________ can kill parasitic worms.


A(n) ________ is a committed granular leukocyte stem cell that produces neutrophils.


The rarest leukocyte is the ________.


Potent platelet aggregates that attract more platelets to the site of an injury are ________ and ________.

ADP and Thromboxane Serotonin

The universal recipient blood type is ________.


When monocytes migrate into the interstitial spaces, they are called ________.


Destruction of the hematopoietic components of red marrow leads to a condition called ________.

aplastic anemia

________ is the stage of development in the life of an erythrocyte during which the nucleus is ejected.


Hemoglobin is composed of ________ polypeptide chains.


List the general factors that limit normal clot growth

removal of clotting factors

Aspirin - an antiprostaglandin that inhibits thromboxane A2
Heparin - an anticoagulant used clinically for pre- and postoperative cardiac care
Warfarin (trade name Coumadin) - used for those prone to atrial fibrillation

When are whole blood transfusions routinely given?

Substantial and rapid blood loss

List the most common causes of bleeding disorders

Thrombocytopenia - condition of decreased circulating platelets with vitamin K deficiency and defective clotting cascade

List one example for each of these three functions of blood: distribution, regulation, and protection

Distribution - delivering O2 from lungs and waste
Regulation - maintenance of normal ph in body tissues
Protection - prevention of blood loss

List the granulocytes and describe their granules

Neutrophil - fine, faint pink granules
Eosinophil - full of pink-orange granules
Basophil - large dark deep purple ganules

Why is iron not stored or transported in its free form? In what form(s) is it stored or transported in blood?

Because iron can be toxic. Intracellular iron is stored in protein-iron complexes such as ferritin and hemosiderin.

The body stores iron in Hb (65%), the liver, spleen, and bone marrow
Circulating iron is loosely bound to the transport protein transferrin

What determines whether blood is bright red or a dull, dark red?

the amount of oxygen

What is the buffy coat found in centrifuged whole blood?

Leukocytes and platelets

Name the granulocytes and state their average percentage in whole blood.

Neutrophil 50-70%
Eosinophil 2-4%
Basophil .5-1%

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