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Local Anesthesia properties WREB review Dental Hygiene
Terms in this set (45)
Short acting LA
3% Mepivicaine (plain); 2% Lido (plain); 4% Prilocaine (plain) as infiltrate
2% Lido 1:100,000 or 1:50,000; 2% Mepiviaine 1:20,000 levono; 4% Articaine 1:100,000; 4% Prilocaine
4% Lido 1:200,000; .5% Bupivacaine 1:200,000
lidocaine (brand names)
xylocaine, octocaine, lignospan
Mepivicaine (brand names)
carbocaine, polocaine, scandonest
prilocaine (brand names)
citanest plaine, citanest forte (with epi)
bupivacaine (brand names)
Articaine (brand names)
500 mg or 3.2 mg/lb (7 mg/kg)
400 mg or 3.0 mg/lb (6.6mg/kg)
600 mg or 4.0 mg/lb (8.8 mg/kg)
No absolute; 3.2 mg/lb (7.0 mg/kg)
careful with children; NO levonordefrin with TCAs
methemoglobinemia; possible paresthesia
not for kids (long duration)
methemoglobinemia, possible paresthesia
Contraindication any amide
allergy, liver dysfunction, narcotics, tranquilizers (CNS depressants)
allergy sulfites, steroid-dependent asthmatics, uncontrolled everything, heart disease, taking non-selective beta blockers
safe; ok pregnancy; "gold standard"
fast and short; least vasodilating
ok pregnancy; long anesthesia, but not as profound
long duration, lower amt epi
short half life (less OD risk); use for difficult to numb patients
Duration 4% Articaine
75 / 180-300
Duration .5% Bupivacaine
90-180 / 240-540
Duration 2% Lido plain
5-10 / 60-120
Duration 2% Lido w/ epi
60 / 180-300
Duration 3% Mepivicaine plain
20-40 / 120-180
Duration 2% Mepivicaine w/ levono
60 / 180-300
Duration 4% Prilocaine plain
infiltrate 10-15 / 90-120; block 40-60 / 120-240
Duration 4% Prilocaine w/ vaso
60-90 / 180-480
What happens during depolarization?
Cell becomes more permeable to Na+; at threshold, rapid depolarization creates action potential, which is propagated up nerve.
Correct sequence of nerve conduction & LA effects
Depolarization (slow/rapid) LA works on this step; Propagation (impulse travels); repolarization (absolute/refractory)
What relevance do beta blockers have on LA choice and epi?
significant risk for acute hypertensive episodes if they receive vasopressors
MAOIS and LA
don't use vasopressors
What is the function of sodium chloride in LA?
make solution isotonic
What is the function of sodium bisulfite in LA?
How much epi in 1:100,000?
How much epi in 1:200,ooo?
What is the concern with asthmatics and allergy to sodium bisulfites?
higher incidence of allergy to bisulfites and can cause airway to close
What is the concern of articaine use with asthmatics?
contains sulfites (allergy can cause bronchoconstriction)
When a nerve is anesthetized, which sensation is lost first?
Autonomic or pain, depending on what review material you study...
what is the cause of layrngeal edema?
airway obstruction (either partial or complete); pt loses consciousness due to lack of oxygen
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
WREB Local Anesthesia
DH Local Anesthesia Board Review (Dr. D 2012)
Dental Hygiene Local Anesthesia
Wreb study for local anesthesia questions
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