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Gov: Political Socialization Study
Terms in this set (27)
The Earliest Public Opinion Research:
-Polling to predict winners of elections
-Polling to discover opinions
The Gallup Organization:
-Dissertation on how to read the readership of newspapers
-Expanded research on public opinion
—-> increased use of polling to promote products and candidates.
The American National Election Studies (ANES):
-Funded mostly by the U.S gov.
-Focuses on attitudes of the electorate
---> how voters voted
---> public affiliation
---> opinions on parties/candidates
---> surveys before and after midterm and presidential elections
---> has compiled long-term studies of the electorate.
1. Designing the Survey and Sample: the WHAT!
-Determining the content and phrasing the question.
2. Designing the Sample: the WHO!
-Selecting the sample
---> best for majority of population.
---> divided/weighted based on demographics.
3. Contacting Respondents: the HOW?
-random digit dialing survey
-most frequent form of polling
-small sample of people are polled every 24 hours
-allows campaigns to measure short-term developments and the effects of certain campaign strategies.
-In person interviews
---> exit polls
---> scientific polls/unspecific web polls
4. Analyzing the Data: The RESULTS!
-reveals implications for public policy and political campaigns
-data analyzed by computer
---> subgroups of population
-reporting the data
---> news organization/campaigns
1. Survey Error
-margin of error ---> not 100% effective
-sampling error ---> wrong people
2. Limited Response Option
--> may not give respondents sufficient room to answer.
--> respondents rate feelings 0-100.
4. Lack of Interest in Political Issues
-Many people lack an opinion on certain policies
-policies that don't affect people directly
-policies that don't involve moral values
---> less likely to generate interest
---> more likely to generate interest
5. Political Knowledge
-Political knowledge and political participation
-have a reciprocal effect on each other
-Americans' level of civic knowledge
-lower than 50 years ago
-also affected by education, number of children, and marital status.
-family, peers, and school
-cues from leaders
Protections from the government
Protections to the government
ex. FDR "fireside" chats
-investing a lot of money to produce a little amount of content to reach a lot of people.
-investing a little amount of money to produce a lot of content to reach fewer people.
Increasing use of experts:
-talking heads fill airtime
---> officials, consultants, etc.
-influence on the public
-lack of objectivity
-weaken democratic deliberation
Rules Governing the News Media: Journalistic Standards:
-professional norms and integrity
-code of ethics
---> avoiding conflicts of interest, verifying information
-dealing with sources
---> on/off the record
use info + site
use info + no citations
---> collect, report, and analyze.
---> post content not covered
---> provide on the scene coverage
-problems with amateur reporting
---> lack of objectivity
---> quality varies
-bleeding info + entertainment
---> Saturday Night Live
-political leaders use these shows to...
---> reach larger audiences
---> humanize politicians
-libel and slander are illegal
---> NY Times vs. US (1971) (censorship)
-electronic media regulated more heavily
---> limited supply
---> airwaves are public property
---> telecommunications act (1996)
-federal communications commission (FCC)
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