Chapter 15 & 16 Review (AP GOV)

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Terms in this set (...)

Web-based journal entries that provide an editorial and news outlet for citizens
blog
The activities of a group or organization that seeks to influence legislation and persuade political leaders to support the group's position.
lobbying
Something of value that cannot be withheld from a nonmember of a group (ex. tax write-off).
collective good
Potential members fail to join a group because they can get the benefit, or collective good, sought by the group without contributing the effort.
free rider problem
A person who finances a group or individual activity.
patron
Media providing the public with new information about subjects of public interest.
news media
A form of journalism devoted to exposing the "drama" or "ick"
muckraking
An electronic delivery of news gathered by the news services correspondents and sent to all member news media organizations (ex. AP)
wire service
The entire array of organizations through which information is collected and disseminated to the public.
mass media
Federally regulated, officially registered fund-raising committee that represents interest groups in the political process.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
Collecting, reporting, and analyzing of news content by ordinary individuals.
citizen journalism
The traditional and oldest form of mass media (newspapers, magazines, journals)
print media
A group with the primary purpose of promoting the financial interests of its members.
Economic Interest group
The theory that the life of a political organization is conditional on the density and diversity of the interest group population in a given area.
Population Ecology theory
An organization that seeks a collective good that will not selectively and materially benefit members.
public interest group
Lobbying to reform banning gifts to members of Congress and their staffs, toughening disclosure requirements, and increasing time limits on moving from federal governments to the private sector.
Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007
An interest group representative who seeks to influence legislation that will benefit their organization of client through political persuasion.
lobbyist
The myriad relationship that individuals enjoy that facilitate the resolution of community problems through collective action.
social capital
The process by which a news organization defines a political issue and consequently affects opinion about the issue.
Framing
The theory that public policies are the result of narrowly defined exchanges among political actors.
transactions theory
An organized group that tries to influence public policy.
interest group
A document offering an official comment or position
press release
The Supreme Court concluded that "actual" malice must be proved to support a finding of libel against a public figure.
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan
The theory that interest groups form in part to counteract the efforts of other groups
disturbance theory
Information provided to a journalist that will not be released to the public.
off the record
Targeting media programming at specific populations within society.
narrowcasting
The theory that political power is distributed among a wide array of diverse and competing interest groups
Pluralist theory
The rule that requires broadcast stations to sell air time equally to all candidates in political campaign if they choose to sell any.
Equal Time Rule
TV, Radio, cable, and satellite services.
broadcast media
The tendency to from small-scale associations for the public good.
civic virtue
Information provided to a journalist that will not be attributed by name to the source.
on background
Government attempts to regulate the substance of the mass media.
content regulation
Information provided to a journalist that can be released and attributed by name to the source.
on the record
Technologies, such as the internet, that blur the line between media sources and create new opportunities for the dissemination of news and other information.
new media
Information provided to a journalist that will not be attributed to any source.
deep background
A relatively restricted session between a press secretary or aide and the press.
press briefing
Local TV stations that carry the programming of a nation network.
affiliates
The influence of news sources on public opinion.
media effects
An unrestricted session between an elected official and the press.
press conference
The constant process of forming the list of issues to be addressed by government.
agenda setting
A form of journalism popular in the late nineteenth century that featured pictures, comics, color, and sensationalized, oversimplified news coverage was called
yellow journalism
An outgrowth of the Progressive movement was ___, a form of newspaper publishing concerned with reforming government and business conduct.
muckraking
The 1960s and 1970s were characterized by
the rise of public interest groups
Which of the following was true regarding the penny press?
They attempted to attract more readers by being nonpartisan.
Americans are most likely to get their news from
television
The Telecommunications Act
paved the way for multimedia corporations
What is a voter guide?
candidates' positions on issues important to the interest group that distributes them.
Currently, the most powerful economic interest groups are
business groups
Which of the following trends accurately describes the media in the United States?
Media consolidation has increased in recent years
What is narrowcasting?
the targeting of media programs at specific segments of the population
How does narrowcasting further polarize public opinion?
Viewers tend to watch news that reinforces their preexisting views.
The percentage of the work force in labor unions was highest in
1949
State and local governments typically lobby the federal government in order to get funding for
schools
Gavel-to-gavel coverage of Congress is provided by
C-SPAN
Interest groups play an important role in American politics because they
all of the above (provide an avenue for participation, increase representation, help frame the public agenda, increase public awareness of issues)
When a journalist interviews someone on deep background, the journalist is
guaranteeing that he or she will not be identified in any way.
The activities of groups and organizations that seek to influence legislation and persuade political leaders to support a group's positions is most accurately called
lobbying
Media coverage of campaigns is most likely to include
negative information about a candidate
The most often used lobbying technique at both the state and the national level is
testifying at legislative hearings
Corporations can indirectly contribute money to political campaigns by forming
PACs.
A 2007 New York Times story suggested that there may have been a romantic relationship between McCain and a female lobbyist in 1999. Which of the following Supreme Court decisions likely gave the Times confidence that publishing the story was protected under freedom of the press?
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan
Interest groups lobby the federal courts through
sponsoring lawsuits and filing briefs.
The bulk of the media's coverage of Congress is concentrated on
the party leadership in both houses.
Governmental units typically lobby for
earmarks
Media coverage of Congress is disproportionately
negative
Political action committees were established in 1974 by the
Federal Election Campaign Act.
Which political institution receives the least media coverage?
the Supreme Court
Of the following interest groups, which has the most members?
AARP (other choices are the AFL-CIO, the American Medical Association, MoveOn.org, and the Sierra Club)
What is the form of pressure group activity that attempts to influence policy by getting individuals to contact their representatives directly?
grassroots lobbying
Which of the following is a media effect?
setting the agenda
Legally sanctioned organizations that allow corporations, labor unions, and interest groups to raise money and make contributions to candidates in national elections are called
PACs
The Founders placed such importance in the value of free exchange of ideas in a democratic society that, despite the written assaults many received from the press, the Founders guaranteed freedom of the press in the
First Amendment of the Constitution
Which of the following is an example of citizen journalism?
blogs
James Madison tried to construct a system of checks and balances to
limit the power of any given faction.
Research found that if a news story about a Ku Klux Klan rally was presented as a civil rights story, viewers were generally tolerant of the rally. However, if the story was presented as a law and order issue, public tolerance for the rally decreased. This is an example of
framing
The US Constitution's right to assemble has been interpreted by the Supreme Court to mean
freely allowing persons to join interest groups
The first president to make effective use of the electronic media to push his programs and assuage the fears of the American people during a time of national crisis was
Franklin D. Roosevelt
In the 1971 case of New York Times v. United States, the US Supreme Court held that prior restraint
could not be imposed by the government except under extremely rare and confined circumstances.
An unrestricted session between an elected official and the press is referred to as a
press conference
Which of the following is exempt from the requirements of the "Equal Time Rule"?
debates
Citizen involvement in community groups increases social capital
and is called civic virtue
How are interest groups different from political parties?
They do not directly run candidates for public office.
According to the political scientist Jeffrey M. Berry, public interest groups are those that
arise during disturbances
Business groups, labor unions, trade associations, and other such groups are examples of ____ interest groups.
economic
What is a collective good?
something of value that cannot be withheld from a nonmember.
Which of the following is a provision of the Ethics in Government Act?
Former executive branch employees cannot become lobbyists on any matter before their former agency for one year.
What kind of interest group focuses its attention on achieving collective goods?
public interest groups
Most interest group members are
dues-paying members who do not participate in other ways
The Lobbying Disclosure Act
defines lobbyists by the percentage of time spent on lobbying activities.
In 1995, Congress passed lobbying reform that focuses on
disclosure requirements.
Which of the following mainly describes Al-Jazeera?
It is the most influential source of news in the Middle East.
Broadcast media are subject to greater regulation than print media because
There are a limited number of frequencies for broadcast media to use and the airwaves used by the broadcast media are public property.
Which network does not enjoy the same level of freedom in reporting on its government but is more open to explicit content?
BBC
Which of the following is most likely to be delivered by an officeholder?
press conference
A reporter might say, "According to unnamed sources..." The information the reporter is going to reveal next was likely obtained
on deep background
The bulk of the media coverage focused on
the president
The media have the greatest influence on public opinion about
events in foreign countries.
The media's coverage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 suggests that the media may have a
bias in favor of the corporations that own media outlets
Which of the following accurately describes American journalists?
They tend to be Democratic.
The requirement of demonstrating actual malice to win a libel case involving public figures had the effect of
enhancing First Amendment protection
Population ecology theory argues that interest groups
grow slowly, then fast, then slowly
Which state prohibits campus bans on guns?
Utah
Interest groups are most likely to try to influence the courts by
filing amicus curiae briefs.
Progressive era reforms led to an increase in all but which kind of interest groups?
internet
Which of the following is most likely to lobby Congress for earmarks?
governmental units
Which labor group got its start in 1886 and represented the first organized labor movement in the US?
AFL
The myriad relationships between individuals that facilitate the resolution of community problems through collective actions are referred to as
social capital
Today, grassroots lobbying efforts by interest groups are most likely to
use radio talk to stir up listeners to contact their representatives in Congress
Which of the following is a critique of the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007?
Governments and public universities are still allowed to give gifts to members of Congress.