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How To Lie With Statistics Words
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Terms in this set (14)
Response Bias
Tendency for people to over or understate the truth
Non-response
People who complete surveys are systematically different from those who fail to respond. Accessibility/Pride
Representative Sample
One where all sources of bias have been removed (Literary Digest)
Recall Bias
Tendency for one group to remember prior exposure in retrospective studies
Arithmetic Mean
Evenly distributed the total among individuals. Can be unrepresentative when measurements are highly right skewed
Mode
Most frequently observed outcome.
Small Samples
Estimators with large standard errors, can provide seemingly strong effects
Low incidence rates
Need very large samples for meaningful estimates of low frequency events
Significance levels/margin of error
Measures of the strength and precision of inference
Probably Error
Estimation error with probability.5. If estimator is approximately normal, PE is about .675 standard errors
Clinical Significance
In large samples an effect may be statistically significant, but not practically
Target Population
Group we want to make inference regarding
Study Population
Group or items that experiment or survey is conducted on
Elements of casual relationships
Association between x and y, clear time ordering (x precedes y), removal of alternative explanations (controlling for other factors), dose-response
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