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42 terms

AP US History- Chapter 8

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George Washington
had great high morale character not necessarily great military skills; head officer of the colonial army; saved the war in 1776 with suprise winter attacks by crossing the Delaware River and a small attack on Princton,NJ afterwards
William Howe
Main Bristish military leader; not reputable as a military genius, especially after defeat at Bunker Hill; could have easily crushed Washington's troops in winter 1776 but backed off as Washington was plagued with low food and harsh weather
Nathanael Green
Patriot Quaker-reared general who exhausted the enemy in the South by standing and retreating repeatedly; won campaigns, not battles in the South which cleared out the British who had taken over the area
Benedict Arnold
one of most capable colonial military leader; tried to take Canada in two way attack with Montgomery- held up Lake Champlain and Hudson river thru winter 1776 which kept Britain back from dominating the area, eventually lost but was extremely significant holding for the war; he eventually turned traitor in 1780
John Burgoyne
leader of mission to capture Hudson River Valey to cut off America geographically and paralyze American cause; was a main leader throughout the war and a strong force for the Brits
Charles Cornwallis
British leader in the Southern colonies under Burgoyne and was driven out by General Greene of the Patriots
Thomas Paine
started off as poor apprentice; published the pamphlet "Common Sense"- tilte referred to the colonists' unified ideas of independece,etc as common sense; he had a radical view of political society
Barry St. Leger
Back up to Burgoyne in Hudson River Valley mission, if Burgoyne failed, he would come from the west thru Lake Ontario and General Howe would come up the Hudson to meet Burgoyne in Albany
George Rogers Clark
Frontiersman that realized to eliminate bloodshed in Illinois, they must attack the British forts that were located there in a surpise mission; floated down Ohio and captured three of the forts and gained that small chunk of western land for the colonies
Richard Henry Lee
on 6/7/1776- declared the colonies should be considered independent, free states; this Virginian's ideas would later be adopted for the Declaration
Horatio Gates
American general who after many victories over the Brits, was surrendered to by Burgoyne and his entire command at Saratoga on 8/17/1777; considered one of the most decisive colonial victories of the entire war
John Paul Jones
Scottish naval officer of the young colonial navy who helped in the war by destroying British merchant shipping which brought the war closer to the British Isles
Thomas Jefferson
33 year old Viriginian lawyer assigned to write Lee's idea into a formal statement of seperation which became the Declaration; had a reputation of a brilliant write
Admiral de Grasse
French general who took advantage of Cornwallis's lax attitude and came up from the West Indies to attack Cornwallis at Yorktown; Washington and Rochambeau victored on land while this Admiral blocked the sea from the British fleet--> Cornwallis surrendered and was a major victory for the colonies
Patrick Henry
a very influential Patriot leader alongside Samuel Adams- quoted by the Virginia Assembly "Give me liberty or give me death!"
Comte de Rochambeau
led a powerful French army 6,000 strong in summer of 1780 to New Port, Rhode Island; Americans somewhat suspicious of French (who were once eneimes but now allies)
John Jay
representative for New England's interests at Treaty of Paris meeting; he was deeply suspicious of Old World ways to try to intrigue enemies into peaceful terms- wouldn't go with France's ideas of a non-independent of America to keep it weak for French interests
mercernaries
professional soldiers hired to serve in a foreign army; German Hessians were hired by Britain- colonists angered
natural rights
invoked by Jefferson in the Declaration; some include "all men created equal", "inalienable rights", "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness"
privateering
patriots sent out private armed ships out to search for enemy shipping; diverted man power away from mainland which was bad for Pats and proved not overly successful but did bring in gold
Second Continental Congress
met on 5/10/1775 all 13 colonies were present- biggest sucess was drafting Washington as officer for the army; also drafted new appeals and took measures to raise funds for an army and navy
"Common Sense"
widly popular pamphlet written by Thomas pain in 1776- stated a little island of Britain should never control a huge continent like America and that these thoughts were regarded as common sense; called for a republic politial system
Declaration of Independence
Put into motion after Lee's initial ideas of free and independent states and then later was written formally by Jefferson
Loyalists/Tories
colonists still loyal to the King and fought the rebel colonists; got nickname due to dominant political factions in Britain; 16% of population was this political group-mostly made up of older generations who were just fine with the way things were
Patriots/Whigs
colonists rebelling against the crown and fighting both loyalists and british redcoats; got nickname due to radical political faction that was suspicious of British rule & execution of its power; typically made up of younger generations who were energetic for change
Treaty of Paris of 1783
Britain formally recognized America's independence; gave America bigger boundaries (from Great Lakes to MS River to Florida) and got Newfoundland fishing rights; America also couldn't persecute loyalists and had to pay back British debt in return
Ethan Allen & Benedict Arnold
what two colonial leaders captured Fort Ticonderoga and Crown Point for gunpowder and artillery?
Bunker Hill
this was taken by colonial forces in June 1775
Falmouth and Norfolk
what two towns were attacked by the British and disturbed colonists into turning from the crown
Boston
what colonial town in 1776 did the British evacuate to focus more on controlling New York as their base of operation?
Battle of Trenton and Battle of Princeton
what two battles were major victories for Washington in the winter of 1776 after the blowing defeat of the Battle of Long Island
Burgoyne
in the Hudson River Valley mission, what British general was planned to push down Lake Champlain to route from Canada
Howe
in the Hudson River Valley mission, what British general was planned to push up the Hudson River from New York and meet Burgoyne but instead dropped down to Philadelphia to try to defeat Washington's troops to make a clear path for Burgoyne & settles there
St. Ledger
in the Hudson River Valley mission, what British general was planned to come from the west by Lake Ontario and the Mohawk Valley
showed the French that the colonies could possibly win, so they joined the war to seek revenge against Britain
why was the battle of Saratoga important?
a measure giving America home rule w/out independence
what did the British offer America after the defeat at Saratoga?
Spain
in 1779 what European power joined the Americans fight against the British?
Catharine the Great of Russia
in 1780, who organized the Armed Neutrality that brought all of Europe's neutrals against Britain
the South
in 1778 what area of the colonies did British decide to try to attack from?
Joseph Brandt
Mohawk chief who sided with Britain
Treaty of Fort Standwix
the first treaty between the US and an Indian nation paseed in 1784 where Indians had to give up most of their land
Battle of Yorktown
the last large deciding battle where Admiral de Grasse, Washington, and Rochambeau took advantage of Cornwallis' lax position while waiting for British supplies- Pats converge on Cornwallis and he is forced to surrender