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Administrative law

covers regulations set by government agencies


imminent apprehension of bodily harm


bodily harm and unlawful touching

Beyond a reasonable doubt

evidence that is almost an absolute certainty that a person did commit a crime


neglect of an understanding betweeen two parties; failing to perform a legal duty

Breach of contract

failure to perform a promised duty

Case law

based on decisions made by judges

Check and balances

each branch of government is scrutinized by other branches of government

Civil law

relationships between individuals or between individuals and the government, which are not criminal

Class action lawsuit

filed by one or more people on behalf of a larger group of people who are all affected by the same situation

Closing arguments

speech or summary made by the attorneys for both the plaintiff and the defendant

Common law

based on decisions made by judges


capable of making a decision without mental confusion due to drugs, alcohol, or other reasons


something of value given as part of the agreement

constitutional law

inviolable rights, privileges, or immunities secured and protected for each citizen

contract law

enforceable promises and agreements between two or more persons to do or not to do a particular thing

criminal case

court action is brought by the government against a person or groups of people accused of committing a crime, resulting in a fine or imprisonment if found guilty

criminal laws

set up to protect the public from the harmful acts of others

defamation of character

making false and/or malicious statements about another person; includes libel and slander


person or group of people sued civilly or prosecuted criminally in a court of law


oral testimony that is made before a public officer of the court to be used in a lawsuit


the legal process by which facts are discovered before a trial


the illegal taking of property, usually money, by a person entrusted with its possession

expert witness

a medical practitioner who has special knowledge about a subject and gives testimony about that subject in court, usually for a fee

expressed contract

an agreement that is entered into orally or in writing


a serious crime that carries a punishment of death or imprisonment for more than one year



implied contract

an agreement that is made through inference by signs, inaction, or silence


a written charge presented to the court by the grand jury against a defendant

intentional torts

when a person has been intentionally or deliberately injured by another-assault, battery, false imprisonment


the power to hear a case


any publication in print, writing, pictures, or signs that injures the reputation of another person


a dispute that has resulted in one party suing another


less serious offenses that felonies; punishable by fines or imprisonment of up to one year; traffic violations and disturbing the peace


a person or group of people suing another person or group of people; the person who instigates the lawsuit


formal written statements

preponderance of evidence

something showing that more likely than not the incident occurred


a person who brings a criminal lawsuit on behalf of the government


rules or laws made by agencies


speaking false and malicious words concerning another person that brings injury to his or her reputation

stare decisis

"Let the decision stand", latin phrase


laws enacted by state and federal legislatures


court order for a person or documents to appear in court

subpoena duces tecum

"under penalty take with you" latin phrase-court order to appear in court and bring certain records

summary judgment

judge's ruling to end a lawsuit without a trial based on a matter of law presented in pleadings


a civil injury, or wrongful act, committed against another person or property that results in harm and is compensated in money damages

tort law

division of law that covers acts that result in harm to another; covers wrongful acts

unintentional torts

such as negligence, occur when the patient is injured as a result of the healthcare professional's not exercising the ordinary standard of care


give up a right

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