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the tendency of a mineral to break along flat surfaces


a solid in which the atoms are arranged in a pattern that repeats again and again


the tendency of a mineral to break apart in an irregular way


a measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched


the way a mineral reflects light


a solid inorganic substance occurring in nature having a definite chemical composition


a naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter


the color of the powder left when a mineral is rubbed against a hard rough surface


molten rock beneath the earth's surface

specific gravity

ratio of a mineral's weight compared with the weight of an equal volume of water

igneous rock

produced by fire, great heat, or the action of a volcano; formed by the cooling and solidification of magma.

sedimentary rock

a type of rock that form from particles of other rocks or the remains of plants and animals under intense pressure and are then cemented together

metamorphic rock

A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, moisture and pressure

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