34 terms

Principles of Management Chapter 4

Global Environment
set of global forces and conditions that operate beyond an organization's boundaries but affect a manager's ability to acquire and utilize resources
Task Environment
The set of forces and conditions that originate with suppliers, distributors, customers, and competitors and affect an organization's ability to obtain inputs and dispose of its outputs because they influence managers on a daily basis.
General Environment
the economic, technological, sociocultural, and political trends that indirectly affect all organizations
Companies that provide material, human, financial, and informational resources to other companies
Global Outsourcing
The purchase of inputs from overseas suppliers or the production of inputs abroad to lower production costs and improve product quality or design.
Organizations that help other organizations sell their goods or services to customers.
people and organizations in the environment who purchase acquire goods or services from the organization
Organizations that produce goods and services simialr to a particular organizations goods and services.
Potential Competitors
Organizations that presently are not in a task environment but could enter if they so choose.
Barriers to Entry
Conditions that keep new businesses either from entering an industry or succeeding in that industry.
Economics of Scale
Reduction of long-run average costs resulting from an expansion in the scale of a firm's operations so that more of all inputs is being used.
Brand Loyalty
a consistent preference for one brand over all others
Economic Forces
affect the general health and well-being of a country or world region.
the combination of tools, machines, computers, skills, information, and knowledge that managers use in the design, production, and distribution of goods and services.
Technological Forces
Outcomes of changes in the technology that managers use to design, produce, or distribute goods and services.
Sociocultural Forces
Pressures emanating from the social structure of a country or society or from the national culture.
Social Structure
the people in a society considered as a system organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships
National Culture
cultural experiences, beliefs, learned behavior patterns, and values shared by citizens of the same nation
Demographic Forces
Outcomes of changes in, or changing attitudes toward, the characteristics of a population, such as age, gender, ethnic origin, race, sexual orientation, and social class.
Political and legal forces
outcomes of changes in laws and regulations, such as the deregulation of industries, the privatization of organizations, and the increased emphasis on environmental protection.
The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.
a government tax on imports or exports
Free-trade doctrine
idea that if each country specializes in the production of the goods and services that it can produce most efficiently, this will make the best use of global resources
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
the routine social conventions of everday life
are norms that are considered to be central to the functioning of society and to social life.
is a worldview that values dindividual freedom and self-expression and adherence to the principle that people should be judged by their individual achievements rather than by their social background.
is a worldview that values subordination of the individual to the goals of the group and adherence to the principle that people should be judged by their contribution to the group
Power distance
The degree to which people accept inequality in power among institutions, organizations, and people
Achievement orientation
A worldview that values assertiveness, performance, success, and competition.
Nurturing orientation
A worldview that values the quality of life, warm personal friendships, and services and care for the weak.
Uncertainty Avoidance
the degree of ambiguity and uncertainty people are willing to tolerate
Long-term orientation
a value orientation in which people stress the importance of virtue
Short-term orientation
is concerned with maintaining personal stability or happiness and living for the present