Physiology - Neuromuscular, Cardiovascular, Endocrine

Is the volume of blood pumped out of the heart per minute
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- Increased adrenaline and noradrenaline - Increased cortisol - Increased testosterone and human growth hormone (HGH)What are the adaptations to the endocrine system?- Main stress hormone that controls mood, motivation, and fear. - Is released to deal with the stresses of exercise, mainly strenuous endurance training.What is cortisol and it's response to exercise?- It's absorbed into the bloodstream and increases muscle synthesis and decrease muscle breakdown. - Testosterone will improve muscle strength, size and power.What is testosterone and it's response to exercise?- Produced in the pituitary glands and it aids metabolism. - HGH promotes tissue growth, stimulates protein for hypertrophy and cellular repair.What is Human growth hormone (HGH) and it's response to exercise?- Produced by ovaries and effects the skeletal system. - Decrease in oestrogen can lead to osteoporosis - It's secreted to help increase bone mass in physical activity.What is oestrogen and it's response to exercise?1. Improved motor units 2. Neural pathway transmission efficiency 3. Decreased nervous inhibitionWhat are the adaptations of the neuromuscular system?Located where muscle turns to tendons and detects changes in tension. - GTO send signal to CNS to release tension in motor neuron. - this is to prevent over stretchingWhat is a Golgi Tendon Organ (GTO) and where are they located?If the signal is high enough the muscle fibre will contract. If too low, muscle fibres can not contract.What is the all or none law?- Impulse is sent from CNS - There is a positive charge in Action Potential allowing impulse to travel down axon - Impulse reaches neuromuscular junction where there is a negative charge - Causing impulse to STOP - Acetylcholine fills synaptic cleft - Impulse reaches muscle fibres - Action potential must be above threshold to contract muscle.Describe how a muscle contracts.- Proprioceptors found in skeletal muscles - Detects changes in muscle length when the muscle is contracted - Signals are sent to CNS to control contraction and choose to strengthen or relax muscle - When muscle is close to full stretch, CNS triggers motor unit recruitment to strengthen contraction to slow the speed of the stretch. - Known as stretch reflexWhat is the role of Muscle Spindles?- Respond to changes in blood pH and O2 levelsWhat are chemoreceptors?- Detect changes in temperature to the skin - action takes place to cool or warm the body (sweating, goose bumps, shivering)What are Thermoreceptors?- located in blood vessel walls - Detect changes in blood pressure when walls are stretchedWhat are baroreceptors?- Number of motor units activated are dependent on the force required for the movement - More muscle fibres being contracted = greater force E.g. powerlifter uses a variety of motor units - Larger ones to lift the heavy weight - Smaller ones for technique, balance and finer movementExplain the recruitment of motor units in exercise.1. Isotonic contraction (muscle shortens as tension is developed) 2. Isometric contraction (muscle does not change length when tension is developed) 3. Isokinetic contraction (muscle contracts to a maximum at a constant speed over full ROM)What are the types of muscular contraction and explain each one.