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32 terms

The Biological Basis of Behavior

Psych AP - Handout
STUDY
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Nervous System
What is an extensive network of specialized cells that carry information to and from all parts of the body called?
Neuron
What is the basic cell that makes up the nervous system and which receives and sends messages within that system called?
Axon
What are the long tube-like structures that receive messages from other neurons called?
Dendrites
On a neuron, what are the branch-like structures that receive messages from other neurons?
Soma
What is the cell body of the neuron, responsible for maintaining the life of the cell and containing the mitochondria?
Myelin Sheath
What are the fatty substances produced by certain glial cells that coat the axons of neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up the neural impulse?
Nerves
What are the bundles of axons in the body that travel together through the body known as?
Ions
What are the charged particles located inside and outside of the neuron called?
Resting Potential
What is the state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse known as?
All or None
What is the law that states that a neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all called?
Synaptic Vesicles
What are sack-like structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals called?
Neurotransmitters
What are chemicals found in the synaptic vesicles which, when released, have an effect on the next cell called?
Motor
What is the neurotransmitter that causes the receiving cell to fire called?
Interneuron
What is the name of the neuron that mimics or enhances the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell, increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell called?
Spinal Cord
What is a long bundle of neurons that carries messages to and from the body to the brain that is responsible for very fast, lifesaving reflexes called?
Sensory
What is a neuron that carries information from the senses to the central nervous system and is also known as the afferent called?
Peripheral Nervous System
What are all of the nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but run through the body itself called?
Somatic Nervous System
What is the division of the PNS consisting of nerves that carry information from the senses to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body called?
Autonomic Nervous System
What is the division of the PNS that consists of nerves which control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, glands, and sensory pathway nerves.
Sympathetic Division of the Nervous System
What is the part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal called.
EEG
What is a machine designed to record the brain wave patterns produced by electrical activity of the surface of the brain called?
Cerebellum
What is the part of the lower brain located behind the pons that controls and coordinates involuntary rapid, fire motor movement called?
Thalamus
What is the part of the limbic system located in the center of the brain, that relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex and process some sensory information before sending it to its proper area called?
Pons
What is the larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom and that plays a part in sleep, dreaming, left-right body coordination, and arousal called?
Reticular Formation
What is an area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and the pons, and slightly beyond, that is responsible for selective attention called?
Hippocampus
What is a curved structure located within each temporal lobe, responsible for the formation of long-term memories and the storage of memory of location of objects called?
Amygdala
What is a brain structure located near the hippocampus, responsible for fear responses and memory of fear called?
Cortex
What is the outermost covering of the brain, consisting of densely packed neurons, responsible for higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input called?
Corpus callosum
What is the thick band of neurons that connect the right and left cerebral hemisphere called?
Occipital lobes
What is the section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere containing the visual centers of the brain called?
Parietal lobes
What are the sections of the brain located at the top and back of each cerebral hemisphere, containing the centers for touch, taste, and temperature sensations called?
Temporal lobes
What are the areas of the cortex located just behind the temples, containing the neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech called?