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40 terms

Nervous System part 3

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cerebrum
section of the brain that deals with the memory and thought process
cerebral cortex
gray matter of the cerebrum that forms the outer layer of the brain and white matter fibers beneath the cortex
corpus callosum
part of the white matter fibers which connects the two halves of the cerebral cortex
gyri
folds on the surface of the lobes of the cerebral hemispheres that causes it to appear wrinkled
fissures
deep grooves that separate the gyri
sulci
shallow grooves that separate the gyri
longitudinal fissure
most prominent groove that divides the cerebral hemispheres
cerebellum
section of the brain that functions to coordinate motor control
diencephalon
section of the brain that functions as a nervous system passageway between the primitive brain stem and the cerebrum
thalamus
structure of the diencephalon that acts as a relay station for regulating sensory impulses to the cerebrum
hypothalamus
structure of the diencephalon that is the interface between the nervous system and the endocrine system
pituitary
structure of the diencephalon which is an endocrine gland that regulates hormone regulation throughout the body
brain stem
section of the brain that is the connection between the brain and the spinal cord
medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain
parts of the brain stem
meninges
set of connective tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord, contain a network of blood vessels that supply the nutrients and oxygen to the superficial tissues of the brain and spinal cord
dura mater
outermost layer of the meninges
pia mater
innermost layer of the meninges
meningitis
inflammation of the meninges from viral or bacterial infection
cerebrospinal fluid
fluid that bathes and protects the brain and spinal cord from the hard surface of the skull
blood-brain barrier
functional barrier separating the capillaries in the brain from the nervous tissue itself
sympathetic nervous system
highly involved in the "fight or flight" response
parasympathetic nervous system
involved with the "rest and restore" system
adrenergic neurons
neurons that release norepinephrine in the sympathetic nervous system
alpha1-adrenergic receptors
sympathetic receptors that are usually found on blood vessels and produce vasoconstriction
beta1-adrenergic receptors
sympathetic receptors that are responsible for increased heart rate and force of contraction
beta2-adrenergic receptors
sympathetic receptors that produce bronchodilation when stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system
cholinergic neurons
neurons associated with the parasympathetic nervous system that secrete acetylcholine
cholinergic receptors
types are muscarinic and nicotinic
somatic
reflexes that involve contraction of skeletal muscle
autonomic
reflexes that regulate smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and endocrine glands
reflex arc
basic structure of all reflexes
stretch reflex
a simple two neuron or monosynaptic reflex, only involves the afferent sensory neuron and an efferent motor neuron with only one synapse between them
withdrawal reflex
aka the flexor response, happens when you rapidly flex the joints and withdraw a limb after touching something hot or stepping on something sharp
cross extensor reflex
withdrawal reflex stimulus crosses over to the other side of the spinal cord and stimulates muscles in the other limb
contralateral reflexes
reflexes that start on one side of the body and travel to the other side
ipsilateral reflexes
reflexes that stay on one side of the body
hyperreflexive
reflexes that will respond much more forcefully than before
hyporeflective
reflex that is absent or less than normal where damage to areas has caused the reflex arcs to leave the spinal cord
corneal reflex
reflex that originated from receptors on the cornea and travel via sensory neurons in cranial nerve V to the pons
pupillary light reflex
response that protects the retina from bright light, pupils contrict, reflex arc crosses over to the other side of the body