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section of the brain that deals with the memory and thought process

cerebral cortex

gray matter of the cerebrum that forms the outer layer of the brain and white matter fibers beneath the cortex

corpus callosum

part of the white matter fibers which connects the two halves of the cerebral cortex


folds on the surface of the lobes of the cerebral hemispheres that causes it to appear wrinkled


deep grooves that separate the gyri


shallow grooves that separate the gyri

longitudinal fissure

most prominent groove that divides the cerebral hemispheres


section of the brain that functions to coordinate motor control


section of the brain that functions as a nervous system passageway between the primitive brain stem and the cerebrum


structure of the diencephalon that acts as a relay station for regulating sensory impulses to the cerebrum


structure of the diencephalon that is the interface between the nervous system and the endocrine system


structure of the diencephalon which is an endocrine gland that regulates hormone regulation throughout the body

brain stem

section of the brain that is the connection between the brain and the spinal cord

medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain

parts of the brain stem


set of connective tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord, contain a network of blood vessels that supply the nutrients and oxygen to the superficial tissues of the brain and spinal cord

dura mater

outermost layer of the meninges

pia mater

innermost layer of the meninges


inflammation of the meninges from viral or bacterial infection

cerebrospinal fluid

fluid that bathes and protects the brain and spinal cord from the hard surface of the skull

blood-brain barrier

functional barrier separating the capillaries in the brain from the nervous tissue itself

sympathetic nervous system

highly involved in the "fight or flight" response

parasympathetic nervous system

involved with the "rest and restore" system

adrenergic neurons

neurons that release norepinephrine in the sympathetic nervous system

alpha1-adrenergic receptors

sympathetic receptors that are usually found on blood vessels and produce vasoconstriction

beta1-adrenergic receptors

sympathetic receptors that are responsible for increased heart rate and force of contraction

beta2-adrenergic receptors

sympathetic receptors that produce bronchodilation when stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system

cholinergic neurons

neurons associated with the parasympathetic nervous system that secrete acetylcholine

cholinergic receptors

types are muscarinic and nicotinic


reflexes that involve contraction of skeletal muscle


reflexes that regulate smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and endocrine glands

reflex arc

basic structure of all reflexes

stretch reflex

a simple two neuron or monosynaptic reflex, only involves the afferent sensory neuron and an efferent motor neuron with only one synapse between them

withdrawal reflex

aka the flexor response, happens when you rapidly flex the joints and withdraw a limb after touching something hot or stepping on something sharp

cross extensor reflex

withdrawal reflex stimulus crosses over to the other side of the spinal cord and stimulates muscles in the other limb

contralateral reflexes

reflexes that start on one side of the body and travel to the other side

ipsilateral reflexes

reflexes that stay on one side of the body


reflexes that will respond much more forcefully than before


reflex that is absent or less than normal where damage to areas has caused the reflex arcs to leave the spinal cord

corneal reflex

reflex that originated from receptors on the cornea and travel via sensory neurons in cranial nerve V to the pons

pupillary light reflex

response that protects the retina from bright light, pupils contrict, reflex arc crosses over to the other side of the body

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