Terms in this set (70)
Fluid tissue that circulates through the cardiovascular system
Functions of Blood
- Transport of nutrients and oxygen to cells
- Transport of wastes and carbon dioxide from cells
- Delivery of hormones and regulatory substances to and from cells and tissues
- Maintenance of homeostasis
- Transport of humoral agents and cells of the immune system
Red blood cells
White blood cells
Volume of packed erythrocytes in a blood sample
Leukocytes and platelets
- Water (91-92%)
- Protein (7-8%)
- Other solutes
What are the Plasma Proteins?
Albumin, Globulins, and Fibrinogen
What is the most abundant plasma protein?
- maintains osmotic pressure
- acts as a carrier protein (most of the calcium in the blood is bound to albumin)
Where is albumin made?
What are the two types of globulins?
Immunoglobulins and Nonimmune globulins
What secretes immunoglobulins?
- Largest component of a globulin fraction
What makes nonimmune globulins?
- Many are transport proteins
What makes Fibrinogen?
- Large protein
- converts to fibrin and forms blood clots!
The liquid part of blood left after the blood is allowed to clot
(basically plasma without fibrinogen and clotting factors)
What is the most common stain for blood cells?
The wright stain
Primary function of erythrocytes?
To bind oxygen for delivery to the tissues (also to bind carbon dioxide for removal from tissues)
Iron containing protein capable of binding, carrying, and releasing oxygen
Acidophilic anucleate, biconcave discs
What is the benefit of erythrocyte's biconcave shape?
it increases the surface to volume ratio to enhance gas exchange
What do the shape and membrane fluidity of erythrocytes results in?
High flexibility (so they can squeeze through capillaries)
What is the function of spectrin in erythrocytes?
Skeletal protein that functions to maintain the shape of the membrane
What is the energy source of erythrocytes?
glucose via anaerobic glucose metabolism
(erythrocytes are totally dependent on glucose bc mature cells have no organelles)
Immature red blood cells released into the circulation from the bone marrow
White blood cells, part of the body's defense systems
What are the two main groups of leukocytes?
Have primary and specific granules
- include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
Have only primary granules (NO specific granules)
- include lymphocytes and monocytes
What 3 types of granules are found in neutrophils?
1. Specific (secondary) granules
2. Azurophilic (primary) granules
3. Tertiary granules
What are the 2 types of tertiary granules?
What is pus?
The accumulation of dead bacteria and dead neutrophils
What does neutrophils secrete that results in fever?
What cells are involved in inflammation and wound healing?
- Monocytes (macrophages)
Process by which neutrophils leave the venules by passing between endothelial cells and penetrating the connective tissue
Do antibodies increase or decrease a neutrophil's affinity for bacteria?
Typically have a bi-lobed nucleus and large specific granules that stain bright red
What type of granules are found in eosinophils?
- Specific granules
- Azurophilic (primary) granules
What 4 major proteins are found in the specific granules of eosinophils?
1. Arginine (accounts for 50%; in the core)
2. Eosinophil cationic protein
3. Eosinophil peroxidase
4. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin
What causes nervous system dysfunction in parasitic organisms?
EDN (eosinophil derived neurotoxin) in eosinophils
What has strong cytotoxic effects on protozoans and helminthic parasites?
MBP (Major basic protein), ECP (eosinophil cationic protein), and EPO (eosinophil peroxidase)
What neutralizes histamine in eosinophils?
What neutralizes leukotrienes?
What are eosinophils associated with?
Allergic reactions, parasitic infections, and chronic inflammation
Where are eosinophils normally found?
The spleen, lymph nodes, and GI tract (sites of chronic inflammation)
Multi-lobed nucleus often obscured by densely basophilic specific granules
What specific granules are found in basophils?
They are metachomatic and include:
- heparan sulfate
Basophils are functionally similar to what other cells?
Central role in immunological defense mechanisms
- have a small round nucleus surrounded by scanty cytoplasm
Where do lymphocytes circulate?
Between lymphoid tissue and all other body tissues via the blood and lymph vessels
What is the only cell that can return from tissue to the blood?
Motile, phagocytic cells that circulate for a short time before entering tissues
- the largest leukocytes
- cytoplasm stains a pale gray blue, often has vacuoles
- nucleus normally has an indentation
What are the precursors for tissue macrophages?
Nonnucleated, disk-like cell fragments
Where do platelets originate?
By fragmentation of megakaryocytes in bone marrow
What are the functions of platelets?
Perform functions essential to homeostasis:
- Surveillance of blood vessels
- Platelet plug formation
- Surface for coagulation protein complex
- Secrete factors that modulate coagulation and vascular repair
What is the life span of platelets?
The light staining peripheral zone of platelets
The central zone of platelets with purple staining granules
What granules are present in platelets?
Contain adhesion molecules, platelet derived growth factor, and fibrinogen
Contain calcium, ADP, ATP, and serotonin
What is the function of actin and myosin in the hyalomere of platelets?
To assemble into a contractile system for movement and aggregation
What is in the dense tubular system of platelets?
An intracellular store of calcium
What is the open canalicular system of platelets?
A system of interconnected membrane channels in continuity with the surface
What do alpha granules fuse with in order to secrete their contents?
The open canalicular system
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