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Politics of the United States
Unit 3 AP Gov Test Review - Executive Branch and Presidential Powers
Terms in this set (33)
Qualifications for President
35 years old, born in the U.S., and has to have lived in the U.S. for 14 years
What power does the President have in regards to pardons and reprieves?
absolute power to grant pardons and reprieves for FEDERAL crimes
What power does the President have in regards to treaties?
negotiate treaties with other countries, requires a 2/3rds Senate ratification
What power does the President have in regards to nominations?
can nominate judges, cabinet secretaries, or any other positions which require a nomination. Senate must approve with a simple majority vote
What is the take care clause?
president must enforce ALL laws passed by congress
resembles a law, does not require congressional approval, carries the force of a law directly from the executive branch
What can congress do to combat an executive order?
pass a law contravening order, cut funding, or rule orders unconstitutional
What are the limits of an executive order?
congress can delay, can only apply to issues within bureaucratic control, can be undone by subsequent President
resembles a treaty, does not require Senate ratification, agreement between two heads of state
limits of an executive agreement
subsequent president can get rid of them
How can congress combat an executive agreement?
can pass a law contravening agreement, defund/ they have ruled EA as constitutional
the means at which a President is able to keep certain communication confidential from outside scrutiny (especially from Congress and maybe the Courts)
limits of executive privilege
it exists but is not absolute
What can congress do to combat executive privilege?
courts can weigh in
A statement that explains the President's interpretation of a law made as he/she signs the law. Basically, "Here's how I understand what I'm signing and here's how I plan to enforce it." An example of discretion.
limits of a signing statement
What can congress do to combat a signing statement?
can clarify the intent of the law if discrepancies exist by passing another law. Courts could ultimately weigh in on enforcement (maybe a political question, though).
What is the best definition of a republican government?
a form of government in which the people hold power by electing representatives to govern
What are the responsibilities of the president that make "energy in the executive" necessary?
Protecting the country from attack and enforcing the laws
Hamilton argues that weakness in the executive will lead to...
A weak execution of the laws
How does Hamilton view the processes and interactions of the legislature?
Supposed to be slow and deliberative
in charge of managing specific policy areas and has its own budget/ work is done in bureaus, because they divide the work into more specialized areas.
How do the leaders of each department (secretaries, except for D.O.J) get their jobs? Are the secretaries civil service or patronage jobs (an executive appointment is patronage)?
Every department is headed by a secretary, and each secretary is chosen by the President and approved by the Senate. These jobs are considered patronage jobs.
examples of cabinet departments
Department of State, Department of Agriculture, Department of Defense...
A government agency with responsibility for making and enforcing rules to protect the public interest in some sector of the economy and for judging disputes over these rules.
Independent Regulatory Commissions
Examples of Independent Regulatory Commissions
Federal Reserve Board, FCC, SEC, OSHA
describe the boards that run Independent Regulatory Commissions
governed by a small number of commissioners, usually about five to ten members, appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate on fixed terms
A government organization that, like business corporations, provides a service that could be delivered by the private sector and typically charges for its services. You can buy stock and collect dividends from these corporations.
Even though these government corporations charge for their services, how come they usually do not make a profit?
the rates are oftentimes cheaper than those the consumer would pay to a private-sector producer. The government will also sometimes take over a "sick industry" and turn it into a government corporation in order to keep it running.
Examples of Government Corporations
US Postal Service and Amtrak
typically perform a service/ permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions/ they are distinct because they operate independently from other executive departments.
Independent Executive Agencies
How do the heads of Independent Executive Agencies get their jobs? Please describe all steps.
Department heads are nominated by the President and confirmed by Congress, (specifically the Senate) and they are able to be removed from their position for political reasons, or reasons such as corruption under statuary provisions. This position is turned over when a new President is elected.
Examples of Independent Executive Agencies
NASA, EPA, CIA
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