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Chapter 3-The Chemistry of Organic Molecules
The chemistry of organisms
Chemistry of the non-living world
Organic Molecules contain
Hydrogen and Oxygen
4 Classes of Organic compounds
1. Lipids 2. Carbs 3. Nucleic Acids 4.Proteins
Which molecules are generally bigger?
How many electrons are in carbon's valence shell?
chain of carbons linked to hydrogen atoms
Carbon can share electrons with up to as many as __ other atoms
What accounts for the shape of an organic molecule?
Carbon skeleton or backbone
a specific combination of bonded atoms that always reacts in the same way, regardless of the particular carbon skeleton.
Organic molecule that have identical molecular formulas, but a different arrangement of atoms
Monomer of DNA
Monomer of Carbohydrate
Monomer of Proteins
A reaction used to synthesize molecules; results in a water molecule being formed
A reaction used to break down molecules; reverse of dehydration
Molecules that speed up reactions by bringing reactants together
Largest of biomolecules; result from linking large numbers of the same type of subunit
Subunits that form polymers
Universally used as an immediate source of energy for organisms, but also play important structural roles as well.
Molecules containing only one sugar molecule
Every sugar is bonded to a
Hydrogen and OH
Molecule that is a major complex carb in plant's cell walls
Glucose with six carbon atoms
Pentose sugar found in RNA
Pentose sugar found in DNA
Table sugar we use at home
Polymers of monosaccharides
Plants store glucose as _____
Two forms of starch found in plants:
Animals store glucose as ______
Where is glycogen stored?
What is the structural polysaccharide for animals such as crabs?
What is the structural polysaccharide for plants?
What is the structural polysaccharide for bacteria?
Type of organic molecules that include fats and oils
Organic molecule that contains glycerol or fatty acids and provides energy and insulation.
Consist of a long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group at the end
Which type of fatty acids have no double bond between the carbon atoms?
Saturated fatty acids
Which type of fatty acids do have double bonds between carbon atoms
Unsaturated fatty acids
compound with three OH groups
glycerol molecules that have three fatty acids attached to each glycerol molecule
Constructed like a fat, except that in place of the third fatty acid attached to glycerol, there is a polar phosphate group.
hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails
Phospholipids form a ______ where the hydrophilic heads project outwards, and hydrophobic tails project inwards
lipids that have entirely different structures from those of fats
Cholesterol is a type of
long-chain fatty acids bond with long-chain alcohols.
Waxes are what at room temperature?
What are the six major functions of proteins?
polymers with amino acid monomers
type of covalent bond that attaches two amino acids
two or more amino acids bonded together
a chain of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
Organic molecule composed of an amino group and an acid group; covalently bonds to produce peptide molecules
What structure accounts for its particular structure of amino acids
occurs when the polypeptide coils or folds in a particular way
structural proteins that exist as helices or pleated sheets that hydrogen bond to each other
he folding that results in the final 3d shape of a polypeptide
When a protein loses its natural shape
help new proteins fold into their normal shape
-polymers of nucleotides with very specific functions in cells.
the genetic material that stores information regarding its own replication and the order in which amino acids are to be joined to make a protein
Nucleic acid produced from covalent bonding of nulceotide monomers that contain the sugar ribose; occurs in three forms: messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA
nonprotein organic molecules that facilitate enzymatic reactions
is a nucleotide that supplies energy for synthetic reactions and fro various other energy requiring processes in cells
T is always paired with A, and G is always paired with C.
complementary base pairing
ATP is composed of...
adenine and ribose