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Chapter 3-The Chemistry of Organic Molecules

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The chemistry of organisms
Organic Chemistry
Chemistry of the non-living world
Inorganic Chemistry
Organic Molecules contain
Hydrogen and Oxygen
4 Classes of Organic compounds
1. Lipids 2. Carbs 3. Nucleic Acids 4.Proteins
Which molecules are generally bigger?
Organic Molecules
How many electrons are in carbon's valence shell?
4
Hydrocarbons
chain of carbons linked to hydrogen atoms
Carbon can share electrons with up to as many as __ other atoms
4
What accounts for the shape of an organic molecule?
Carbon skeleton or backbone
a specific combination of bonded atoms that always reacts in the same way, regardless of the particular carbon skeleton.
Functional Group
Organic molecule that have identical molecular formulas, but a different arrangement of atoms
isomers
Monomer of DNA
nucleotide
Monomer of Carbohydrate
polysaccharide
Monomer of Proteins
amino acids
A reaction used to synthesize molecules; results in a water molecule being formed
dehydration reaction
A reaction used to break down molecules; reverse of dehydration
Hydrolosis reaction
Molecules that speed up reactions by bringing reactants together
Enzymes
Largest of biomolecules; result from linking large numbers of the same type of subunit
polymers
Subunits that form polymers
monomers
Universally used as an immediate source of energy for organisms, but also play important structural roles as well.
Carbohydrates
Molecules containing only one sugar molecule
Monosaccharide
Every sugar is bonded to a
Hydrogen and OH
Molecule that is a major complex carb in plant's cell walls
Glucose
Glucose with six carbon atoms
Hexose
Ribose
Pentose sugar found in RNA
Deoxyribose
Pentose sugar found in DNA
Two monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Table sugar we use at home
Sucrose
Polymers of monosaccharides
Polysaccharides
Plants store glucose as _____
starch
Two forms of starch found in plants:
1.Amylose
2.Amylopectin
Animals store glucose as ______
glycogen
Where is glycogen stored?
the liver
What is the structural polysaccharide for animals such as crabs?
chitin
What is the structural polysaccharide for plants?
cellulose
What is the structural polysaccharide for bacteria?
peptidoglycan
Type of organic molecules that include fats and oils
Lipids
Organic molecule that contains glycerol or fatty acids and provides energy and insulation.
Fats
Consist of a long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group at the end
Fatty acids
Which type of fatty acids have no double bond between the carbon atoms?
Saturated fatty acids
Which type of fatty acids do have double bonds between carbon atoms
Unsaturated fatty acids
compound with three OH groups
Glycerol
glycerol molecules that have three fatty acids attached to each glycerol molecule
triglyceride
Constructed like a fat, except that in place of the third fatty acid attached to glycerol, there is a polar phosphate group.
phospholipid
Phospholipids have...
hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails
Phospholipids form a ______ where the hydrophilic heads project outwards, and hydrophobic tails project inwards
bilayer
lipids that have entirely different structures from those of fats
steroids
Cholesterol is a type of
steroid
long-chain fatty acids bond with long-chain alcohols.
waxes
Waxes are what at room temperature?
solid
What are the six major functions of proteins?
1. Metabolism
2.Support
3. Transport
4.Defense
5. Regulation
6. Motion
polymers with amino acid monomers
proteins
type of covalent bond that attaches two amino acids
peptide bond
two or more amino acids bonded together
peptide
a chain of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
polypeptide
Organic molecule composed of an amino group and an acid group; covalently bonds to produce peptide molecules
amino acid
What structure accounts for its particular structure of amino acids
primary structure
occurs when the polypeptide coils or folds in a particular way
Secondary Structure
fibrous protein
structural proteins that exist as helices or pleated sheets that hydrogen bond to each other
tertiary structure
he folding that results in the final 3d shape of a polypeptide
denaturation
When a protein loses its natural shape
chaperone proteins
help new proteins fold into their normal shape
nucleotides
-polymers of nucleotides with very specific functions in cells.
the genetic material that stores information regarding its own replication and the order in which amino acids are to be joined to make a protein
DNA
Nucleic acid produced from covalent bonding of nulceotide monomers that contain the sugar ribose; occurs in three forms: messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA
RNA
nonprotein organic molecules that facilitate enzymatic reactions
coenzymes
is a nucleotide that supplies energy for synthetic reactions and fro various other energy requiring processes in cells
ATP
T is always paired with A, and G is always paired with C.
complementary base pairing
ATP is composed of...
adenine and ribose