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Chapter 6- Memory
Terms in this set (61)
The mental processes that enable us to retain and use information over time. 3 processes: encoding, storage, retrieval
The process of transforming information into a form that can be entered into and retained by the memory system.
The process of retaining information in memory so that it can be used at a later time.
The process of recovering information stored in memory so that we are consciously aware of it.
Stage Model of Memory
A model describing memory as consisting of three distinct stages: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. Information is transferred from one memory stage to another
The stage of memory that registers information from the environment and holds it for 1/4-3 seconds. large capacity for info
The active stage of memory in which information is stored for up to about 20 seconds. "working memory" (rehearsal of lists syllables, words, or numbers) old information is retrieved from long term memory
The stage of memory that represents the long-term storage of information. unlimited capacity for information. information could be for a lifetime
The mental or verbal repetition of information in order to maintain it beyond the usual 20-second duration of short-term memory. Why? possibly interference from new/competing info. Or, info just decays (fades) away
Increasing the amount of information that can be held in short-term memory by grouping related items together into a single unit. reason: new memory displaces, or bumps out, currently held info. magic number 7 (+/- 2) or 4 (+/- 1)
Short-term Memory system involved in the temporary storage and active manipulation of information; in Baddeley's model, includes the phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and central executive components. ex. math problem (reading, reasoning, mental imagery, and problem solving)
Rehearsal that involves focusing on the meaning of information to help encode and transfer it to long-term memory. relating things to things you already know.(self-reference effect, visual imagery, vivid images)
Category of long-term memory that includes memories of different skills, operations, and actions.
Category of long-term memory that includes memories of particular events.-
Catergory of long-term memory that includes memories of general knowledge of facts, names and concepts.
Information or knowledge that can be consciously recollected; also called declarative memory.
Information or knowledge that affects behavior or task performance but can not be consciously recollected; also called nondeclarative memory. (keys on a keyboard)
Organing items into related groups during recall from long-term memory.
Sematic Network Model
A model that describes units of information in long-term memory as being organized in a complex network of associations. (red=firetruck, rose...)
The processs of accessing stored information.
A clue, prompt, or hint that helps trigger recall of a given piece of information stored in long-term memory.
Retrieval Cue Failure
The inability to recall long-term memories because of inadequate or missing retrieval cues.
Tip-of-tongue experience (Tip of the Finger)
A memory phenomenon that involves the sensation of knowing that specific information is stored in long-term memory, but being temporarily unable to retrieve it.
Recall "free recall"
A test of long-term memory that involves retrieving information without the aide of retrieval cues. ex. essay test
A test of long-term memory that involves remembering an item of information in response to a retrieval cue. ex. fill in the blank test
A test of long-term memory that involves indentifying correct information out of several possible choices. ex. multiple choice
Serial Position Effect
The tendency to remember items at the beginning and end of a list better than items in the middle. (primacy/ recency effect)
Encoding Specificity Principle
The principle that when the conditions of information retrieval are similar to the conditions of information encoding, retrieval is more likely to be successful.
The tendency to recover information more easily when the retieval occurs in the same setting as the original lernaing of the information.
An encoding specificity phenomenon in which a given mood tends to evoke memories that are consistent with the mood.
The recall of very specific images or details surrounding a vivd, rare, or significant personal event; details may or may not be accurate. (9/11)
The inability to recall information that was previously available.
The inability to recall specific infomation because of insufficient encoding of the information for storage in long-term memory.(because of Absent-mindedness, divided attention)
Remembering to do something in the future. When rather than what. because of retrieval cue failure
A brief but intense felling of remembering a scene or an event that is actually being experienced for the first time; French for "already seen".
Memory for when, where and how a particular piece of information was acquired.
The view that forgetting is due to normal metabolic process that occur in the brain over time. When a memory is formed it creates a "memory trace"
The theory that forgetting is caused by one memory competing with or replacing another.
Forgetting in which a new memory interferes with remembering an old memory; backward-acting memory interference.
Forgetting in which an old memory interferes with remembering a new memory; forward-acting memory interference.
Motivated forgetting that occurs consciously.
Motivated forgetting that occurs unconsciously. controversial (are they recovering things that are not there?)
A memory-distortion phenomenon in which a person's existing memories can be altered if the person is exposed to misleading information.
A memory distortion that occurs when the true source of the memory is forgotten.
A distorted or fabricated recollection of something that did not actually occur.
An organized clusted of information about a particular topic (object, setting, concept).
A schema for the typical sequence of an everyday event. something odd in a story will stick out more (professors office)
A memory phenomenon in which vividly imagining an event markely increased confidence that the event actually occurred.(lost in the mall)
The brain changes associated with a particular stored memory.
A long-lasting increase in synaptic strentgh between two neurons.
Severe memory loss.
Loss of memory, especially for episodic information; backward-acting amnesia. (boxers/ blow to head) People can't remember their past
The gradual, physical process of converting new long-term memories into stable, enduring long-term memory codes.
Loss of memory caused by the inability to store new memories; forward-acting amnesia.
Progressive deterioration and impairment of memory, reasoning, and other cognitive functions occurring as the result of a disease or a condition.
A progress disease that destorys the brain's neurons, gradually imparing memory, thinking, language and other cognitive functions, resulting in the complete inability to care for oneself; the most common form of dementia.
duration of short term memory. rows of letters flashed, people could mention a few. When pitches were heard, people knew which line to read. =visual sensory memory holds a lot of memory for a short period of time
events of your life, plays a key role in your sense of self
the first person to study memory scientifically and systematically; used nonsense syllables and recorded how many times he had to study a list to remember it well
search for the memory trace (engram). he thought memory was localized so he removed parts of the cerebral cortex of rats
Richard F. Thompson
Showed that specific memories may depend on localized neural circuits in the brain. In other words, memories may breate unique, reusable pathways in the brain along which signals flow. Traced the pathway that accounts for a rabbit's memory of a conditioned eyeblink response.
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