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Ap Euro ALL vocab

this vocab is from another book, so the page numbers are wrong.... but the information is still correct
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The Great Famine of 1315-1322
Poor harvests led to scarcity and starvation. There was a reduced caloric intake because of the suspicion to disease. Working people had les energy, which meant lower productivity, which meant lower output, which meant higher overall prices. (379)
English Statute of Laborers
they attempted to freeze salaries and wages at pre1347 levels. The statute was unable to be enforced therefore it was unsuccessful. (384)
Conciliar movement
The conciliarists believed that church authority rested in the council's representing the people, not the authority of the pope. They believed that reform of the church could best be achieved through council's or assemblies representing the Christian people. (393)
Vernacular literature
The emergence of national consciousness is seen in the rise of literature written in national languages-the vernacular. (406)
Craft guild
they provided a small minority of men and women living in towns and cities with psychological satisfaction of involvement. They set high standards for their merchandise. (398)
The Statute of Kilkenny
the most extensive attempt to prevent intermarriage and protect racial purity is embodied in Ireland's Statute of Kilkenny. It states that "there were to be no marriages between those of immigrant and native stock; that the English inhabitants of Ireland must employ the English language and bear English names; that they must ride in the English way and have English apparel; that no Irishmen were to be granted ecclesiastical benefices or admitted to monasteries in the English parts of Ireland; and that the Irish game of hurling and the maintenance of Irish minstrels were forbidden to English settlers." (405)
The Jacquerie
the frustrations of the French peasantry exploded in a massive uprising called the Jacquerie. Based on a mythical agricultural laborer, Jacques Bonhomme. The crowds blamed the nobility for oppressive taxes and criminal brigandage. (400)
Queen Isabella of England
Queen Isabella and her lover Mortimer deposed and murdered her husband King Edward II, and proclaimed her son Edward III as king. Then Edward took over the throne and fought the Hundred Years' war. (386)
Hundred Years' War
a war between England and France over the French crown. Increased patriotism and led to peasant revolts. (386)
Marsiglio of Padua
the publisher of Defensor Pacis. He argued that the state was the great unifying power in society and that the church was subordinate to the state. He put for the idea that the church had no jurisdiction and should have no property. He was excommunicated because of these ideas. (393)
Battle of Crécy (1346)
the English longbow men scored a great victory over the French knights and crossbowmen. It was a winning battle for the English and gave them a new weapon to use. (387)
Martin V
A Roman cardinal. Real name was Colonna Hook but changed his name to Martin V. he wanted to dissolve the council. (394)
Joan of Arc
a French peasant girl whose vision of work revived the French fortunes and led to victory. She saved the French monarchy, which was the embodiment of France. She was wounded in her breast. The English allies caught her and they burned her for political reasons and suspicion of sorcery. (389-90)
Babylonian Captivity
the period, in which the clement was critically ill with cancer, lacked the will to resist Philip. Left the papal poverty stricken. (392)
Margaret Paston
she and her husband wrote letters to each other which were now used as sources of how couples interacted with one another. She raised eight children and she was a shrewd businessperson. She managed estates. (396)
Lollards
Followers of Wyclif, they were proof that some people believed what Wyclif was saying. (394)
House of Commons
the knights and burgesses were the commons. As they came to be they were recognized with their mutual interests and began to meet apart from the great lords. They realized that they held the country's purse strings. (391)
Edward III
son of Isabella of England. He could only exercise rightful sovereignty over Aquitaine by becoming king of France. He led the country into the Hundred Years' war. (386)
Jan Hus
a young priest aware of ethnic differences between Czechs and Germany. She preached only in Czech (395)
John Wyclif
English scholar and theologian. He wrote the papal claims of temporal power had no foundation in the Scriptures and that the Scriptures should alone be the foundation of Christian belief and practice. He led the Lollards. (394)
Christine de Pisan
The daughter of a professor of astrology at Bologna. She was one of the most versatile and prolific French writers of the later middle ages. She also produced major historical works, which made her famous. (407)
Legal pluralism
a period when newcomers were given separate but equal rights which was legal pluralism. There was an exception to this in Ireland. In the later Middle Ages, legal pluralism disappeared and emphasis on legal homogeneity, language, and blood descent led to ethnic tension. (403-404)
Marriage
usually came at the age of sixteen to eighteen for women and later for men. Because most people were illiterate at that time we have little sources. The marriages were subject to decrease because of the lack of people. (396)
Feudal chivalry
The knights were supposed to show courtesy, graciousness, and generosity to his social equals and certainly to his inferiors. Before the knights did not show such respects to many people. Now because of the aristocratic code of medieval chivalry they have to. (387)
Individual Christian faith
John Wyclif introduced this idea that we didn't need to follow the church to be Christians. We should rather follow the Scriptures, which were the true foundations of Christianity. (393-4)
Leisure time
the people enjoyed cruel sports of bull baiting and bearbaiting. The hangs and mutilations of criminals were exciting and well attended events. Pastime activities were turning into cruel laughter. (399)
Nationalism
the feeling of unity and identity that binds together a people who speak the same language, have a common ancestry, and customs and live in the same area. After many victories, each country experienced a surge of pride in its military strength. English patriotism ran strong after Crécy and Poitiers so did french national confidence after Orleans. (392)
Renaissance
The term Renaissance meaning "rebirth" referred to the period from the 14th century to the 16th century that experienced incredible cultural, economic, and political achievements. (p.415)
oligarchy
An oligarchy was a form of government that possessed constitutions. It was restricted to a class of wealthy merchants who exercised the judicial, executive, and legislative functions of the government. (p.417)
signori
It was a form of government where there was only a one-man ruler. Despots of the signori pretended to observe the law while actually manipulating it to conceal their basic illegality. (p.417)
communes
They were sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economic independence from local nobles. The merchant guilds that made up the communes maintained city walls, regulated trade, raised taxes, and kept civil order. (p.416)
popolo
Popolo was a new force that disenfranchised and heavily taxed the people bitterly for being excluded from holding power. They used armed force and violence to take over the government. (p.416-417)
reconquista
Reconquista referred to the wars of the northern Christian kings fought in order to control the entire peninsula, some of the religious objectives were to convert and expel the Muslims and Jews. (p.442)
humanism
Humanism was the studying and revival of the classics as a way to define human nature. Renaissance humanists were skeptical of the authority of pagan and classical authors. They emphasized the importance of the individual and their achievements, interests, and talents. (p.420-421)
secularism
It involves a huge concern with the material world instead of with the eternal world of spirit. (p.421-422)
Spanish converses
They were the people who converted from Jews into Christians. Conversos were also known as Marranos, or New Christians. Forty percent of Spanish conversos were either killed or forced to convert into Christianity. (p.444)
individualism
Individualism stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and other qualities that involved one's capabilities and talents. Individualists believed that a person's abilities should be stretched until fully realized. The quest for glory was a central element in Renaissance individualism. (p.420)
materialism
Materialism is another synonym for secularism. It is a concern for material things instead of the spiritual side of life. (p.420)
hermandades
Hermandades or "brotherhoods" were popular groups in the town. They were given authority to act as both local police forces and as a judicial panel. (p.442)
Machiavellian
It was a synonym used for the politically devious, corrupt, and crafty. (p.429)
Jan Hus
He was a priest who denounced superstitions, the sale of indulgences, and other abuses led by the Church. His remarks were highly orthodox. He was executed under the authority of the Church in 1415. (p.395)
English Royal Council and Court of Start Chamber
The English Royal Council handled any business the king handed them, whether judicial, executive, or legislative. This council also prepared laws for the parliament. They dealt with the real and aristocratic threats to the judicial system. Their methods were very terrifying: accusing people of crime when were not entitled to see evidence against them, council sessions were secret, torture could be applied to extract confessions, and juries were not called to criminal trials. (p.441-442)
conquest of Granada
It was the victorious entry of Ferdinand and Isabella into Granada; it was the culmination of three centuries of Spanish struggle against the Arabs. (p.443)
Habsburg-Valois war
When the French returned to Italy in 1522, a series of conflicts called the Habsburg Valois war emerged. They were often fought in Italy. (p.419)
Brunelleschi's Foundling Hospital in Florence
This hospital was one of the first to display a motif that was widely imitated in the Renaissance: a series of arches supported on a column. (p.425)
Pico della Mirandola
He was the Florentine writer of On the Dignity of Man. In this book he expressed that man possessed great dignity because he was made as Adam in the image of God before Christ's resurrection According to his views, man lays between beats and angels. (p.421)
Desiderius Erasmus
He was a Dutch humanist that believed Christianity is Christ: his life, what he preached and did, not what ologians have written about him. He was an important scholar who has had many publications, The Adages, and The Education of a Christian Prince. There are two fundamental themes that run through his works. One is that education is the means to reform, the key to moral and intellectual improvement. The second is that Christianity is an inner attitude of the heart or spirit, not formalism, special ceremonies, and law. (p.437)
Jan van Eyck
He was an artist who was very much admired in Italy. He was one of the earliest artists to use oil based paints. His paintings have great realism and remarkable attention to human personality. (p.439)
Thomas More
He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society. (p.437)
Donatello
He was a sculptor whose works expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature. Donatello revived the classical figure with its balance and self-awareness. (p.425)
Baldassare Castigiolone
The author of The Courtier. He wrote his treatise to train, discipline, and fashion a young man into a proper gentlemen. This book became the model of a European gentleman. (p.429)
Niccolo Machiavelli
The author of The Prince, it was about political power and how a ruler should maintain and increase their power. He was a humanist that explored the problems of human nature and man's selfishness to advance their own interests. (p.429)
Johan Gutenberg
He was an implementer of the movable types of printing. Johan Gutenberg used it to publish the Bible. Printing made propaganda possible for voicing differences between the Church and the State. (p.428-430)
Lefevre d' Etaples
He was a French scholar and philosopher who published two significant essays on Mary Magdalene. His opinions, which were new at the time, gave rise to a violent controversy. His commentary on the Gospels was condemned, and the imposition of the king temporarily shielded him. He was exiled, and later excommunicated from the Church. (p.437)
Saint John Chrysostom
He was considered the most prominent doctor of the Greek Church and the greatest preacher ever heard in Church. Saint John Chrysostom was a great writer, orator, and theologian of his time. (p.209,349)
Lorenzo Valla
Humanist and author of On Pleasure. He defends the pleasures of the senses as the highest good. He was the father of modern historical criticism. (p.422)
Savonarola
Dominican Friar Girolamo Savonarola attacked the paganism and moral vice of Florence. He became the religious leader of Florence after he drove the Medici family out. (p.419)
Jerome Bosch
He was a Flemish painter whose works display the confusion and anguish of the end of the Middle Ages. Jerome Bosch frequently used religious themes, colorful imagery, and grotesque fantasies in his works of art. (p.439)
Francois Rabelais
He was a French humanist known for discussing the disorders of contemporary religion and secular life. (p.439)
Louis XI of France
He was a tough, cynical, and calculating ruler. Louis XI of France ruthlessly pushed for more power. He preferred to be feared rather than loved in order to be secure. Scholars have credited him with laying the foundation for later French royal absolutism. (p.490)
Henry VII of England
Just like Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England subordinated mortality; he ruthlessly suppressed opposition and rebellion, especially from the nobility. He left England at peace domestically and internationally with the dignity and the role of the royal majesty enhanced. (p.440)
Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
They invested kingship with a strong sense of royal authority and national purpose. Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain believed that the monarchy was an institution that linked all. Ferdinand and Isabella were determined to strengthen the royal authority of Spain, and they did so by forming a royal council that handled the business affairs of the government. (p.440)
Charles VII of France
He began France's long recovery after the Hundred Years' War. He made important contributions to France by reorganizing the royal council, strengthening royal finances through issuing taxes; he also remodeled the army, and took France out of an economic depression. (p.440)
Cesare Borgia
Cesare Borgia was the son of Pope Alexander VI. This key "new monarch" reasserted the church authority in the papal lands of Italy. Cesare began uniting the peninsula by conquering and invading the principalities making up the papal states. (p.417)
The German Peasants' Revolt of 1525
It was the reaction by the peasant class after the introduction of Martin Luther and his radical ideas to European society. (p.459-461)
pluralism
Pluralism was when churchmen held several offices (benefices) at the same time, just collecting revenues but not visiting their parishes. (p.476)
Brethren of Common Life
They were pious laypeople who carried out the Gospel way of life. These people fed the hungry, clothed the poor, and visited the sick. The Brethren also taught at local schools to prepare children for priesthood and the monastic way of life. (p.453)
John Knox
He was a man who dominated the reform movement in Scotland. He was a passionate preacher who set to work reforming the Church of Scotland. He persuaded parliament to banish church authority; he then established the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. (p.473)
Pope Paul III
He promised to summon a council for reform if he was elected pope after the death of Pope Clement VII. Roman aristocrat, humanist, and astrologer, Pope Paul III formed the Council of Trent during the Catholic reformations. (p.476)
Ulrich Zwingli
The Swiss humanist and admirer of Erasmus; Ulrich Zwingli introduced reformation in Switzerland. Zwingli was also convinced that Christian life rested on the scriptures; which were the pure words of God and the sole basis of religious truth. (p.456-457)
Archbishop Cranmer
Archbishop Cranmer simplified the liturgy for England. He prepared the first Book of Common Prayer with other protestant theologians in England. (p.473)
John Tetzel
Archbishop Albert hired John Tetzel to sell indulgences to the people. Tetzel even made up an advertising scheme for the sale of indulgences. He drew up a chart with the prices for the forgiveness of sins. (p.456)
Martin Luther
Martin Luther was a German friar who launched the Protestant reforms during the sixteenth century. Luther was famous for his Ninety-five theses and for opposing church authority regarding the sale of indulgences. (p.453-456)
transubstantiation/consubstantiation
Catholics hold the dogma of transubstantiation by consecrating the words of the priest during the Mass, the bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ. In opposition, Luther defined consubstantiation, the belied that after the consecration the bread and wine undergo a spiritual change where Christ is really present but the bread and wine aren't transformed. (p.459)
Henry VIII
King Henry VIII wanted to "reduce the realm to the knowledge of God and obedience to us." He was the king of England who broke away from the papacy and created the Church of England to gain a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon after he fell in love with Anne Boleyn. He used parliament to legalize the Reformation in England. (p.470-471)
Charles V
He was the last medieval emperor part of the Hapsburg dynasty. Charles V inherited much of Europe and was committed to the idea of religious and political unity within his empire. He was a vigorous defender of Catholicism. (p.463)
Mary Tudor
She was the devout Catholic daughter of Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Henry VIII. She served as queen after the brief reign of Edward VI. She turned England back to Catholicism, by persecuting and executing hundreds of English Protestants. (p.473)
Pope Alexander VI
He was also known as the infamous Rodrigo Borgia. This pope reached new heights of impropriety; having concubines, sexual affairs, extravagant papal parties, supposed poisonings, and having the prevalence of intrigue. The name "Borgia" became a synonym for moral corruption. (p.452)
Council of Trent
The Council of Trent was called not only to reform the church but also to reconcile with protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists alike were invited to attend, but their insistence that the scriptures were the sole basis of Christianity made reconciliation impossible. (p.476)
Counter-Reformation
This was a movement that began as a reaction to the rise and spread of Protestantism. It involved Catholic efforts to convince and coerce heretics to return to the Church before they influenced the entire community of Catholic believers. (p.478)
Holy Office
It was the sacred congregation of the papal court that deals with protection of faith and morals. The Holy Office was a powerful instrument of the Counter Reformation. (p.480-481)
Elizabethan Settlement
The Elizabethan Settlement was the parliamentary legislation of laws during the time when Queen Elizabeth, daughter of King Henry, reigned. These laws required outward conformity to the Church of England and uniformity of all ceremonies. (p.473)
Act of Restraint of Appeals
This act declared the king to be the supreme sovereign in England, and forbade judicial appeals to the papacy. King Henry VIII used Parliament to legalize the Reformation in England. (p.471)
benefices
Many clerics held offices called benefices to perform the spiritual responsibilities they were entitled to do. Instead, they collected revenues and hired a poor priest to do the spiritual duties of the local church. (p.452)
Peace of Augsburg
Charles V accepted this status quo after the long dynastic struggle called the Habsburg-Valois War. This document officially recognized Lutheranism. Each prince of Germany was permitted to determine his territory's religion. (p.466)
Ninety-five Theses
It was Luther's response about the sale of indulgences. In his Ninety-five theses he argued that salvation could only be achieved through good faith alone. Luther was troubled by the ignorant people who believed that once they purchased an indulgence their sin would be forgiven. His argument was that indulgences undermined the seriousness of penance. (p.456)
preacherships
Preacherships were a group of men who delivered hundreds of sermons. They also encouraged the Protestant form of worship in which the sermon, not the Eucharist, was the central point of the service. (p.459)
The Imitation of Christ
This book was the inspiration of the Brethren of Common Life. The author, Thomas a Kempis, urged Christians to take Christ as their model and seek perfection in a simple way of life. (p.453)
Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation
Unless the princes destroyed papal power in Germany, Luther argued in this book that reform was impossible. He urged princes to confiscate ecclesiastical wealth and to abolish indulgences, dispensations, pardons, and clerical celibacy. He told them it was their public duty to bring about a moral reform to the church. (p.465)
The Institutes of the Christian Religion
This book was the cornerstone of Calvin's theology. Embodying the ideas of John Calvin, it talked about his belief in the absolute sovereignty and omnipotence of God and the total weakness of humanity. (p.467)
Roman Catholicism
The official state of religion in Europe before Protestant reformations came into place. Roman Catholics believed that Jesus rose from the dead after being crucified; they believed that Jesus Christ founded the church to carry the salvation that he brought for his people. Catholics also believed that the church had faithfully preserved the teachings of Christ. (p.457)
Lutheranism
The doctrine that is based off of the ideals and beliefs set forth by Martin Luther; Lutheranism went against the papal authority of the Church. Lutherans believed justification by faith alone. (p. 457-459)
Calvinism
John Calvin, the founder of Calvinism, worked to establish a society ruled by God through magistrates and reformed ministers. The reformed church of Calvin, with an organized machinery of government and social and economic theology, made Calvinism the most dynamic force in 16th and 17th century Protestantism. (p.467)
Anabaptist
They were a group of people who believed that only adults could made a free choice about religious faith, baptism, and entry into the Christian community. Anabaptists never forced their values on others; they believed that the Church was a gathering of people united by faith, repentance, obedience, and discipline. Anabaptists condemned government involvement in religion, which led to the idea of the separation of church and state. (p.469)
Church of England
The state of church established by King Henry VIII after he broke away from the Catholic church when he was not allowed a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon. (p.471-473)
Presbyterian Church of Scotland
Founded by John Knox, the Church of Scotland was strictly Calvinist in doctrine. They adopted a simple dignified service of worship, and laid great emphasis on teaching. The Presbyterian Church of Scotland was a national, state, and church where many of its members maintained close relations with English Puritans. (p.473)
French politiques
A small group of moderates of Protestants and Catholics who believed in the restoration of a strong monarchy that could reverse the trend of the collapse. They ultimately saved France from political disintegration. (p.491)
mercantilism
Mercantilism is the collection of government policies for the regulation of economic activities especially commercial, by and for the state. (p.539)
inflation
Inflation is the persistent increase in the level of consumer prices caused by the availability of currency and credit beyond the proportion available goods and services. (p.511-512)
sexism
Sexism is to discriminate people by their gender. It is assumed when a person's abilities and social functions are determined by his or her sex. (p.513)
racism
Racism is to discriminate people by their color, ethnicity, race, or religion. It is the belief in the superiority of a particular race. (p.516-517)
skepticism
Skepticism is the school of thought founded on the doubt and total certainty or definitive knowledge is ever attainable. The skeptic is cautious and critical who suspend judgment. (p.516)
misogyny
Misogyny is the pure hatred of women. Witch hunting reflects a widespread misogyny and a misunderstanding of women. (p.516)
baroque
"Odd-shaped and imperfect." The baroque was commonly used by the late 18th century as an expression of scorn; it was considered as overblown and an unbalanced style of art in the Europe. (p.521-522)
politiques
The politiques were a small group of moderates of both faiths: Catholicism and Protestantism. They believed that only restoration of a strong monarchy can reverse the trend of France's potential collapse; they ultimately saved France. (p.491)
Elizabeth I of England
She supported the northern protestant cause as a safeguard against Spain attacking England. She had her rival, Mary, Queen of Scots, beheaded. Elizabeth I of England succeeded Mary and reestablished Protestantism in England. (p.471-73, 494-96, 521)
Huguenots
This is what French Calvinists were called. Hundreds of them were tortured had their tongues cut out, throats slit, were maimed of murdered by the Catholics during the religious civil war in France. But before that that Calvinist launched a major attacks on Catholic churches, religious statues were knocked down, stained glass windows were smashed and sacred vestments, vessels and Eucharist elements were defiled. (p.490)
Phillip II of Spain
Phillip II of Spain sought pleasure in his youth but when he got older he sought a life of prayer. He didn't believe in religious toleration. Phillip supported Mary Queen of Scotland's plot to Kill Elizabeth so he planned an invasion of England. He wanted to keep England in the Catholic fold. The destruction of the Spanish Armada of 1588 did not mean the end of the war, but it did prevent him from forcibly unifying all of Western Europe. (p.512)
Prince Henry the Navigator
The Portuguese Prince Henry a.k.a. "the Navigator" established the study of geography and navigation for the expeditions he sent down the western coast of Africa. Prince Henry the Navigator paved Portugal the way for domination in the pursuit of European world expansion. (p.496)
Michel de Montaigne
Michel de Montaigne is the finest represent of the early modern skepticism. Montaigne developed a new literary genre: the essay. He rejected the claim that one culture may be superior to others and by doing this he inaugurated a new era of doubt. (p.519)
Christopher Columbus
Columbus was a deeply religious man who was a link between the expulsion of the Moors and Christian missionary work. His principal goal was to find a direct sea route to Asia. What he did find though was not Asia, but North America. He paved a way for the Spanish Imperial Administration. Columbus was a Spanish explorer who made four voyages to the Americas. He was supposed to sail to India and China, but a wind blew him to the Caribbean. (p.508-510)
Bartholomew Diaz
In 1418 Portuguese explorer Bartholomew Diaz rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the tip of Africa. King Manuel promptly dispatched 13 ships under the command of Pedro Alvares Cabral, assisted by Diaz, to set up trading posts in India. (p.503)
Hernando Cortez
A brash and determined Spanish adventurer, Hernando Cortez crossed the Hispaniola to mainland Mexico with six hundred men, seventeen horses and ten canons. Within three years, Cortez had taken captive the Aztec emperor Montezuma, conquered the rich Aztec empire and found Mexico City as the capital of New Spain. (p.508-510)
Habsburg
Valois wars- The Habsburg-Valois wars was a series of battles between France and Spain over the control of Italy. Spain won after France was exhausted from the struggle. Spain ruled over Sicily, Naples, Venice, Papal States, Milan, and Tuscany and their victory. These wars advanced the cause of Protestantism and promoted political fragmentation of the German empire. (p.419, 488)
quinto
The Spanish monarchy acted on the mercantilism principle that the colonies existed for financial benefit. The crown claimed the quinto, gold and silver, as being the most important industry in the Spanish colonies. (p.512)
audiencia
Within each territory the viceroy, or imperial governor, exercised broad military and civil authority as the direct representative of the sovereign in Madrid. The viceroy presided over the audiencia, a board of twelve to fifteen judges, which served as his advisory council and the highest judicial body. (p.512)
corregidores
The Portuguese governed their colony of Brazil in a similar manner. After the union of the crowns of Portugal and Spain in 1580, Spanish administrative forms were introduced. Local officials were called corregidores; they held judicial and military powers. (p.512)
Thirty Years' War
Protestant Bohemian revolt over religious freedom led to war in Germany. Historians traditionally divide the war into four phases. The Bohemian phase (1618-1625) was characterized by a civil war in Bohemia between the Catholic League and Protestant Union. The Bohemian fought for religious liberty and independence from Habsburg rule. Ferdinand II wiped out Protestants in Bohemia. The Danish phase (1625-1629) led to further Catholic victory. The Swedish phase (1630-1635) of the war ended the Habsburg plan to unite Germany. The French phase (1635-1648) destroyed Germany and an independent Netherlands. The Peace of Westphalia" recognized the independent authority of the German princes. The treaties allowed France to intervene at will in German affairs. The war was economically disastrous for Germany. The war led to agricultural depression in Germany, which in turn encouraged a return to serfdom for many peasants. The Lutherans gained more territories than they were supposed to have and so a war between the Protestant alliance and a Catholic League resulted. (p.498)
defeat of the Spanish Armada
The defeat of the Spanish Armada was decisive, however, in the sense that presented Phillip II from reemploying on Western Europe by force. In the seventeenth century Spain, the memory of the defeat of the Spanish Armada contributed to the spirit of defeatism. The battles were between England and Spain. The English were the ones who defeated the Spanish Armada. This defeat stopped Phillip II from reimposing unity on Western Europe by force. (p.496-498)
Concordat of Bologna
This was the treaty with the papacy and France, where Francis I agreed to recognize the supremacy of the papacy over a universal council. In return, the French crown gained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots. This treaty was signed as a way for Francis I to make money. This allowed the French to pick their own priests for the churches, as a last resort to save money. (p.489)
Peace of Westphalia
This settlement was achieved in 1648, it signaled the end of the medieval ideal. Late sixteenth century conflicts fundamentally tested the medieval ideal of a unified Christian society governed by one political ruler and are under one church. The Protestant Reformation killed this ideal. The Peace of Westphalia ended religious wars but also the idea of a unified Christian society. It was a treaty signed at Munster and Osnabruck. It marked a turning point in European political, religious, and social history. (p.488, 499)
Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre
A savage Catholic attack on Calvinist in Paris on August 24, 1572 (Saint Bartholomew's Day), followed the usual pattern. The occasion was a religious ceremony a wedding, which was supposed to help reconcile the Catholics and the Huguenots. Gaspard de Coligny was the leader of the Huguenots and was present at the wedding, but the night before, Catholic aristocratic Henry of Guise had Coligny attacked, rioting and slaughter followed. The Huguenot gentry in Paris were massacred. The Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre of the Calvinists led to the War of the Three Henrys. (p.490)
War of the Three Henrys
This was a civil conflict among factions led by the Catholic Henry of Guise, the Protestant Henry of Navarre, and King Henry III who succeeded Charles IX. The War of the Three Henrys was a damaging conflict for secular power. Henry of Guise and King Henry were killed. Henry of Navarre became King Henry VI. Although he was Protestant, he had converted to Catholicism once he became king. His Edict of Nantes in 1598 allowed the Protestants to worship. (p.490-491)
Edict of Nantes
This was published by King Henry VI (former Henry of Navarre) in 1598. It granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship in 150 fortified towns in France. The reign of Henry VI and the Edict of Nantes prepared the way for French absolutism in the seventeenth century by helping restore internal peace in France. It was a liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship in one hundred and fifty fortified towns. (p.491)
Sovereignty
A state may be termed sovereign when it possesses a monopoly over the instruments of justice and the use of force within clearly defined boundaries. In a sovereign state, no system of courts, such as ecclesiastical tribunals, competes with state courts in the dispensation of justice; and private armies, such as those of feudal lords, present no threat to royal authority because the state's army is stronger. Sovereignty has been evolving during the late sixteenth century and they are privileged groups. (531)
Totalitarianism
Thus the absolute state was not the same as a totalitarian state. Totalitarianism is a 20th century phenomenon; it seeks to direct all facets of a state's culture. Totalitarian rule is a total regulation. (532)
Absolutism
In the absolutist state, sovereignty is embodies in the person of the ruler, Absolute kings claimed to rule by divine right, meaning they were responsible to God alone. Absolutism was coined only in 1830, two centuries after the developments it attempts to classify occurred. It is without limitations; unconditional power vested in an autocrat; despotism. (531-532)
Mercantilism
Is a collection of governmental policies for the regulation of economic activities, especially commercial activities, by and for the state. In 17th and 18th century economic theory, a nation's international power was thought to be based on its wealth, specifically its gold supply. Because mercantilist theory held, resources were limited, state intervention was need to secure the largest part of a limited resource. (539)
Republicanism
In a republic, the people or their elected representatives hold supreme power. A government controlled by wealthy merchants and financiers. Though rich, their values were not aristocratic but strongly middle-class, emphasizing thrift, hard work, and simplicity in living. The Dutch republic was not a strong federation but a confederation a weak union of strong provinces. (555)
Constitutionalism
Constitutionalism is the limitation of government by law. Constitutionalism also implies a balance between the authority and power of the government, on one hand, and the rights and liberties of the subjects, on the other. (549)
Cabinet government
In a cabinet system, which developed in the eighteenth century, leading ministers, who form the government, holds both legislature and executive power. In a cabinet system, the leading ministers, who must have seats in the Parliament and the support of the majority of the House of Commons, formulate common policy and conduct business of the country. (554)
French classicism
Scholars criticize the age of Louis XIV as "French Classicism." By this, they meant that the artists and writers of late seventeenth century, deliberately imitated the subject matter and style of classical antiquity, that their work resembled that of the Renaissance Italy and that French art possessed the classical qualities of discipline, balance, and restraint. Classicism was the official style of Louis's court. (541)
Quixotic
When Miguel de Cervantes produced one of the great masterpieces of world literature, Don Quixotic, the Spanish writer used quixotic. Quixotic means idealistic but impractical; the term characterizes seventeenth century Spain. (548)
Commonwealth
A commonwealth, or republic form of government, was proclaimed when Charles I was beheaded in 1649. Theoretically, legislative power rested in the surviving members of the parliament and executive power was lodged in a council state. (552)
The French intendants
France was divided into thirty-two generalities (districts), in each of which after 1634, a royal intendant held a commission to perform specific tasks, often financial but also judicial and policing. Intendants transmitted information from local communities to Paris and delivered royal orders from the capital to their generalities. Usually recruited from the newer judicial nobility, the noblesse de robe, intendants were appointed directly by the monarch, to whom they were solely responsible. They could not be natives of the districts where they held authority; thus, they had no vested interest in their localities. The intendants recruited men for the army, supervised the collection of taxes, presided over the administration of local law checked up on the local nobility, and regulated economic activities-commerce, trade, the guilds, marketplaces-in their districts. (534)
Sully
Sully proved to be an effective administrator. He combined the indirect taxes on salt, sales, and transit and leased their collection to financiers. Sully subsidized the Company for Trade with the Indies. He started a countrywide highway system and even dreamed of an international organization for the maintenance of peace. In only twelve years, Henry IV and Sully resorted public order in France and laid the foundations for economic prosperity. (533-534)
Paulette
In compensation for the lost revenues in 1602-1604, Henry IV introduced the Paulette, an annual fee paid by royal officials to guarantee hereditary in their offices. (533)
Fronde
When Louis XIV continued Richelieu's centralizing policies, attempts to increase royal revenues led to the civil wars of 1648-1653 known as the "Fronde." The word Fronde means "slingshot" or "catapult", and a frondeur was originally a street urchin who threw mud at passing carriages of the rich. However, the Fronde originated in the provinces, not Paris and the term frondeur came to known as anyone who opposed the policies of the government. (536)
Cardinal Richelieu
In 1624 Marie de' Medici secured the appointment of Armand Jean du Plessis-Cardinal Richelieu to the council of ministers. It was a remarkable appointment. The next year, Richelieu became president of the council, and after 1628, he was first minister of the French crown. He used his strong influence over King Louis XIII to exalt the French monarchy as the embodiment of the French state. One of the greatest servants of that state, Richelieu set in place the cornerstone of French absolutism, and his work served as the basis for France's cultural hegemony of Europe in the later seventeenth century. His policy was the total subordination of all groups and institutions to the French monarchy. The French nobility, with its selfish and independent interests, had long constituted the foremost threat tot eh centralizing goals of the Crown and to a strong national state. Therefore, Richelieu sought to curb the power of the nobility. In 1624, he succeeded in reshuffling the royal council, eliminating such potential power brokers as the prince of Condoé. Thereafter Richelieu dominated the council in an ujnprecedente4d way. He leveled castles, long the symbol of feudal independence, and crushed aristocratic conspiracies with quick executions. For example, when the duck of Montomorency, the first peer of France and godson of Henry IV, became involved in a revolt, he was summarily beheaded. The constructive genius of Cardinal Richelieu is best reflected in the administrative system he established. (534)
Richelieu's généralités
France was divided into thirty-two généralitiés (districts), in each of which after 1634, a royal intendant held a commission to perform specific tasks, often financial but also judicial and policing. Intendants transmitted information from local communities to Paris and delivered royal orders from the capital to their generalities. (534)
The French Academy
Richelieu's efforts at centralization extended even to literature. In 1635, he gave official recognition to a group of philologists who were interested in grammar and rhetoric. Thus was born the French Academy. With Richelieu's encouragement, the French Academy began the preparation of a dictionary to standardize the French language; it was completed in 1694. The French Academy survives as prestigious society, and its membership now includes people outside the field of literature. It was an academy to teach epilogists who were interested in grammar and rhetoric. (535)
Louis XIV of France
He ruled through absolutism and believed in divine right. He was the "Sun King" because he reigned from 1643-1715, the longest in European history. He restored the Palace of Versailles. He revoked the Edict of Nantes because he did like division within his realm. He carried out the expansionist policy to the full extent. He was at war 33 of his 54-year personal rule. French monarchy reached the peak of absolutist development under his rule. (537-543)
Versailles
Louis XIV installed his royal court at Versailles, a small town ten miles from Paris. He required all the great nobility of France at then peril social, political, and sometimes economic disaster to come and live at Versailles for at least part of the year. In the seventeenth century, it became a model of rational order, the center of France and the perfect symbol of the king's power. The king used the court ceremonials to undermine the power of the great nobility. By excluding the highest nobles from hic council, he weakened their ancient right to advise the king and to participate in government. The court at Versailles was a clever way to undermine the power of the aristocracy by separating power from status. (538)
Molière
When Jean Baptist Po Quelin 91622-1673), the son of a prosperous tapestry maker, refused to join his fathers business and enter theater he too the name "Moliere". As a playwright, stage manager, director, and an actor, Moliere produced comedies that exposed the hypocrisies and follies of society through brilliant caricature. In structure, Moliere's plays followed classical models but they were based on careful social observation. (542-543)
Racine
Jean Racine (1639-1899) analyzed the power of love. Racine based his tragic dramas on Greek and Roman legends, and his persistent theme was the conflict of good and evil. For simplicity of language, symmetrical structure, and calm restraint, the play of Racine represents the finest examples of French classicism. (543)
Poussin
Nicolaus Poussin is generally considered the finest examples of French classicist painting. He spent all but eighteen months of his creative life in Rome because he found the atmosphere in Paris uncongenial. Deeply attached to classical antiquity, he believed that the highest aim of painting was to represent noble actions in a logical and orderly, but not a realistic, way. (541)
Count-Duke of Olivares
Phillip IV of Spain left his federal kingdoms to Gaspard de Guzman, Count-Duke of Olivares. Olivares was an able minister. He did not lack energy and ideas; he devised new sources of revenue. However, he clung to the grandiose belief that the solution to Spain's difficulties rested in imperial tradition. Unfortunately, the imperial demanded the revival of the war with the Dutch at the expiration of a twelve-year truce in 1622 and a long war with France over Mantua (1628-1659). Spain thus became embroiled in the Thirty Years' War. These conflicts, on top of an empty treasury, brought disaster. (547-548)
Dutch Estates General
Holland, which had the largest army and the most wealth, dominated the republic and the State General. Significantly, the Estates assembled at Holland's capital, The Hague. The investors received a percentage of the profits proportional to the amount of money they had put in. Jealously guarded local independence and resisted efforts at centralization. (555)
Dutch East India Company
In 1602, a group of regents of Holland formed the Dutch East India Company, a joint-stock company. It traded extensively with Latin America and Africa. Within half a century, the Dutch East India Company had cut heavily into the Portuguese trading in East India. The Dutch seized the Cape of Good Hope, Ceylon, and Malacca and established trading posts in each place. Trade and commerce brought the Dutch prodigious wealth. In the seventeenth century, the Dutch enjoyed the highest standard of living in Europe, perhaps in the world. Amsterdam and Rotterdam built massive granaries where the surplus of one year can be stored against possible shortages in the next. (557)
Peace of Utrecht
The Peace of Utrecht was achieved in 1713. The war was "War of the Spanish Succession" (1701-1713). The war was over Frances Louis XIV claiming the succession of the Spanish throne, but was opposed by the Dutch, English, Austrians and Prussians. Louis's grandson, Phillip, remained the Bourbon king on the understanding that the French and Spanish crowns would never be united. The Peace of Utrecht had important international consequences. It represented the balance of power principle in operation; setting limits on to the extent to which any power-in this case, France- could expand. The treaty completed the decline of Spain as a great power. It vastly expanded the British Empire. In addition, it gave European powers experience in international cooperation, thus preparing them for the alliances against France at the end of the century. The Peace of Utrecht marked the end of France's expansionist policy. It set limits on the extent to which any one power could expand. (545)
Cabal of Charles II
A council of men who served both as Charles II's major advisers and as members of Parliament. It came to be accepted that the Cabal was answerable in Parliament for the decision of the king. Generally, good rapport existed between the king and the strongly royalist Parliament that had restored him. This rapport was due to the king's appointment of a council of five men who served both as his major advisers and as members of the Parliament, thus acting as liaison agents between the executive and the legislative. This body-known as the "Cabal" from the names of it's five members (Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley-Cooper, and Lauderdale- was an ancestor of the later cabinet system. Although it's members disagreed and intrigued among themselves, it gradually came to be accepted that the Cabal was answerable in Parliament for the decisions of the King. (552)
Instrument of Government
Cromwell favored toleration on the issue of religion in England. The Instrument of Government gave all Christians, except Roman Catholics, the right to practice their faith. The constitution that had been prepared for by the army. It invested executive power in a lord protectorate and a council of state. Cromwell eventually tore up the constitution. (552-553)
Puritans
The latter that wanted to purify the church were called Puritans. They wanted to purify the Anglican Church of Roman Catholic elements-elaborate vestments and ceremonials, the position of the altar in the church, even the giving and wearing of wedding rings. The Puritans were attracted to hard work, sobriety, thrift, competition, and postponements of pleasure and it tended to link sin and poverty with the weakness and moral corruption emphasized by Calvinism. These attitudes fit in precisely with the economic approaches and practices of many successful business people and farmers. The values have frequently been called the "Protestant ethic", the "middle-Class ethic" or "capital ethic". The Puritans were dissatisfied with the Church of England and saw James I as an enemy. (550)
Oliver Cromwell
The army the defeated the Royal forces controlled the army in England. In 1649, Oliver Cromwell controlled the army. Though called "Protectorate" the reign of Cromwell (1653-1658) constituted military dictatorship. Cromwell's regulation of the nation's economy had features typical of seventeenth century absolutism. Cromwell enforced the Navigation Act of 1651. The army had prepared a Constitution, the Instrument of Government, which invested executive power in a lord protector and a council of state. (552)
James II of England
James II of England reigned from 1685-1688; he succeeded his brother Charles II. Almost at once, the worst English Anti-Catholic fears, already aroused by France's Louis XIV's revocation of Edict of Nantes, were realized. James was an avowed Catholic and he had violated the Test Act; when he appointed Roman Catholic positions in the Army, the universities, and local government. When he was tested in court, he chose the judges so they went with his side of the story. The king was suspending that law at will and appeared to be reviving the absolutism of his father and grandfather. He even issued a declaration of indulgences granting religious freedom to all. This led to his expulsion and the Glorious Revolution. (553-554)
English Bill of Rights
This is the cornerstone of the modern British constitution. The principles of the Bill of Rights were formulated in direct response to Stuart absolutism. Law was to be made in Parliament; once made, it could not be suspended by the crown. Parliament had to be called at least every three years. Both elections to and debate in Parliament were to be free in the sense that the crown was not to interfere with them (in this aspect the bill was widely disregarded in the eighteenth century). Judges would hold their offices "during good behavior," as a provision that ensured the independence of the judiciary. No long could the Crown get the judicial decisions it wanted by threats of removal. (554)
John Churchill
He was one of the great soldiers that dominated the alliance against France. He was an Englishman and duke of Marlborough. Eugene, Prince of Savoy represented the Holy Roman Empire, was the other great soldier. Eugene and Churchill inflicted a severe defeat on Louis XIV in 1704 at Blenheim in Bavaria. Marlborough followed with another victory at Ramilies ear Namur in Brabant. (545)
Philip II of Spain
He lived at a monastery called the Escorial. He sought pleasure in his youth but in old age, he sought prayer. He did not believe in religious toleration. Got part of his father's properties: Spain, the Low Countries, Milan and Sicily, and Spanish possessions in the Americas. He appointed his sister Margaret as regret of the Netherlands. He paid debts with silver bullion and thus caused the inflation to spread through out Europe. (487, 496, 512)
Cardinal Richelieu
in 1624 Marie de' Medici secured the appointment of Armand Jean du Plessis-Cardinal Richelieu to the council of ministers. It was a remarkable appointment. The next year, Richelieu became president of the council, and after 1628, he was first minister of the French crown. He used his strong influence over King Louis XIII to exalt the French monarchy as the embodiment of the French state. One of the greatest servants of that state, Richelieu set in place the cornerstone of French absolutism, and his work served as the basis for France's cultural hegemony of Europe in the later seventeenth century. His policy was the total subordination of all groups and institutions to the French monarchy. The French nobility, with its selfish and independent interests, had long constituted the foremost threat tot eh centralizing goals of the Crown and to a strong national state. Therefore, Richelieu sought to curb the power of the nobility. In 1624, he succeeded in reshuffling the royal council, eliminating such potential power brokers as the prince of Condoé. Thereafter Richelieu dominated the council in an ujnprecedente4d way. He leveled castles, long the symbol of feudal independence, and crushed aristocratic conspiracies with quick executions. For example, when the duck of Montomorency, the first peer of France and godson of Henry IV, became involved in a revolt, he was summarily beheaded. The constructive genius of Cardinal Richelieu is best reflected in the administrative system he established. He believed in total absolutism. He removed a major threat to the king-the nobility. (534)
James I of England
He believed in divine right and that rebellion was the worst of all crimes. (549)
Thomas Hobbes
Maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract. Believed that power comes from the people and is given to the monarch through implicit contract. (552)
Louis XIV of France
He ruled through absolutism and believed in divine right. He was the "Sun King" because he reigned from 1643-1715, the longest in European history. He restored the Palace of Versailles. He revoked the Edict of Nantes because he did like division within his realm. He carried out the expansionist policy to the full extent. He was at war 33 of his 54-year personal rule. Believed in absolute monarchy. He ruled absolutely. (536)
John Locke
Locke maintained that people set up civil governments to protect life, liberty and property. A government that oversees its proper function protecting the natural rights of life, liberty, and property-becomes a tyranny. (534)
Sully
Sully proved to be an effective administrator. He combined the indirect taxes on salt, sales, and transit and leased their collection to financiers. Sully subsidized the Company for Trade with the Indies. He started a countrywide highway system and even dreamed of an international organization for the maintenance of peace. In only twelve years, Henry IV and Sully resorted public order in France and laid the foundations for economic prosperity. (533-534)
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
The absolutism of France attempted to control religion. Thus in 1605, Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes by which his Grandfather Henry IV had granted liberty of conscience to the French Huguenots. The new law ordered the destruction of churches, the closing of schools, the catholic baptism of the Huguenots, and the exile of the Huguenot pastors who had refused to renounce their faith. There were many conversions of the Huguenots, many of them forced. Many Protestants fled the country. He revoked it because he hated division within the realm and insisted that religious unity was essential to his royal dignity and to the security of the state. Moreover, this was a better policy because when Louis permitted religious liberty, it was not a popular policy. (541)
Scottish revolt of 1640
People believed that the country of England was being led back to Roman Catholicism, In 1637, Laud attempted to impose two new elements on the church organization in Scotland; anew prayer book, modeled on the Anglican "Book of Common Prayer"; and bishops, which the Presbyterian Scots firmly rejected. The Scots there revolted. (551)
War of the Spanish Succession
This war was provoked by territorial disputes of the previous century also involved the dynastic question of the Succession of the Spanish throne. It was an open secret in Europe the Charles II of Spain was mentally defective and sexually impotent. In 1698, the European powers, including France agreed to a partition, or division, the vast Spanish possession between the King of France and the Holy Roman Emperor; who were Charles II's brother's-in-law. When Charles died in 1700, he left the Spanish crown and the world wide Spanish Empire to Philip of Anjou, Louis XIV's grandson. While the will specifically rejected the union of the French and Spanish crowns, Louis was obviously the power in France, not his seventeen-year-old grandson; Louis reneged on the treaty and accepted the will. This led to the war of the Spanish Succession from 1701 to 1713. Louis claimed the Spanish throne but was opposed by the English, Dutch, Austrians, and Prussians. The war also an attempt to preserve the balance of power in Europe and to check France's commercial power. A Grand Alliance of the English, Dutch, Austrians, and Prussians was formed in 1701 to fight against Louis. The Peace of Utrecht concluded the war in 1713, which forbade the union of France and Spain. (545)
Glorious Revolution
The English call the events of 1688-189 the "Glorious Revolution." The revolution was indeed glorious in the sense that it replaced one king with another with minimum bloodshed. It also represented the destruction once and for all of the idea of divine right monarchy. The revolution of 1688 established the principle that sovereignty, the ultimate power of the state, was divided between king and Parliament and that the king ruled with consent of the governed. (554)
English Civil War of 1642-1649
The English Civil War tested whether sovereignty in England was to reside in the king or in the Parliament. The civil war did not resolve that problem, however, although it ended in 1649 with the execution of King Charles I on the charge of treason-a severe blow to the theory of divine right monarchy. It separated two monarchial periods. (552)
Serfdom
The consolidation of serfdom was accompanied by the growth of estate agriculture, particularly in Poland and eastern Germany. In the sixteenth century, European economic expansion and population growth resumed after the great declines of the late Middle Ages. Prices for agricultural commodities also rose sharply as gold and silver flowed in the form of the New World. The re-emergence of serfdom in Eastern Europe in the early modern period was clearly a momentous human development. The small hope of escaping selfdom was gone. Control of serfs was strictly to the lord's won business, for the new law code set no limits on the lords' authority over their peasants. Although the political development of the various eastern states differed, the legal re-establishment of permanent hereditary selfdom had become a common fate of peasants in the east by the middle of the seventeenth century. (566)
Absolutism
In the absolutist state, sovereignty is embodied in the person of the ruler. Absolute kings claimed to rule by divine right, meaning they were responsible to God alone. Absolute monarchs in the seventeenth and eighteen centuries had to respect the fundamental laws of the land though they claimed to rule by divine right. Absolute rulers tried to control competing jurisdictions, institutions, or interest groups in their territories. They regulated religious sects. They abolished the liberties long-held by certain areas, groups, or provinces. Absolute kings also secured the cooperation of one class that historically had posed thee greatest threat to the monarchy, the nobility. (531-532)
Baroque
This term may have come from the Portuguese word for an "odd-shaped, imperfect pearl" and was commonly used by the late eighteenth century critics as an expression of scorn for what they considered an overblown, unbalanced style. (520) Baroque art is exuberant and emotional type of art that appeals to the senses. It is an emotional, exuberant art, which appealed to the senses of churchgoers and proclaimed the confidence and power of the Catholic Reformation. A style spread out of the revitalized Catholic Church of the later 16th century, by 1700, elaborate palace building became a veritable obsession of the rulers. Royal absolutism also interacted with baroque culture and art, baroque music and literature. Inspired in part by Louis XIV of France, the great and not-so-great rulers called on the artistic talent of the age to glorify their power and magnificence. This exaltation of despotic rule was particularly striking in the lavish masterpieces of the architecture. (584-585)
Prussian Junkers
The nobility and the landowning classes known as the "Junkers" dominated The Estates of Brandenburg and Prussia. Frederick William I grab for power brought him into considerable conflict with the Junkers. In his early years, he even threatened to destroy them; yet, in the end, the Prussian nobility was not destroyed-but enlisted-into the army. Responding to the combination of threats and opportunities, the Junkers became the officer caste. The Great Elector weakened the powers of the Junkers (572-575)
Hohenzollern
The Hohenzollern family had little real princely power. they ruled through its senior and junior branches as the imperial electors of Brandenburg and dukes of Prussia. The Hohenzollern rulers of Brandenburg and Prussia were nothing more than the first among equals, the largest landowners in a property owner society. Nothing suggested that the Hohenzollern family and it's princely territories would ever play an important role in European of even German affairs. The elector of Brandenburg's right to help choose the Holy Roman emperor with six other electors bestowed prestige, but the elector had no military strength whatsoever. The Hohenzollern family ruled through the electorate of Brandenburg, but had little power. In 1618, the judicial branch of the Hohenzollern family died out, and Prussia reverted to the elector of Brandenburg. The power of the Hohenzollern family reached its lowest point when population fell and many villages disappeared during the Thirty Years' War. Yet, the devastation of Brandenburg and Prussia prepared the way for Hohenzollern absolutism because foreign armies dramatically weakened the political power of the Estates. (572)
Kholops
Ivan the Terrible's system of autocracy and compulsory service struck foreign observers forcibly. "All people consider themselves to be Kholops, that is, slaves of their Prince," wrote one observer. At the same time, Jean Bodin, the French thinker who did so much to develop the modern concept of sovereignty, concluded that Russia's political system was fundamentally different from those of all other European monarchies and comparable only to that of the Ottoman Empire. (580)
Romanov
Michael Romanov was elected the new hereditary tsar in 1613 of Russia. Michael's election was a real restoration, and his reign saw the gradual reestablishment of tsarist autocracy. The Romanovs brought about total enserfment of the people, while the military obligations on the nobility were relaxed considerably. Nobility gained more exemptions from the military service, while the peasants were further ground down. (581)
Boyar
A boyar is a member of a high-ranking order of the Russian aristocracy. A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the tenth through the seventeenth century. Ivan the Terrible abolished their old distinction between hereditary boyar private property and land granted temporarily for service. All nobles old and new had to serve the tsar in some way in order to hold any land. (580 and wikipedia)
Autocracy
An absolute ruler, the tsar. Autocracy is a form of government in which one person holds supreme power. This individual cannot be restricted, according to law, by any institution or group of citizens from doing whatever he or she wishes. (World Book Online & 578)
Vikings
A Viking was a pirate who waited in a creek or bay to attack passing vessels. (262) The Mongols conquered the Kievan state in the thirteen century and unified it under their harsh rule. They destroyed everything in their path. The boyars are descendants from the Viking Warriors. (576)
Habsburg
Like all the other people, the Habsburgs of Austria emerged from the Thirty Years' War impoverished and exhausted. The Habsburgs did remain the hereditary emperors of the ancient Holy Roman Empire. They recovered power after 1650 from reconquering land. Their efforts to root out Protestantism and unify the Holy Roman Empire had failed. (568)
Mongols
Nomadic tribes from present-day Mongolia. The Mongols were temporarily unified in the 13th century by Jenghiz Khan. They subdued all of China in 5 years, and then turned westward. Smashing everything in their path. (576)
Pragmatic Sanction
In 1713 Charles VI (r. 1711-1740) proclaimed the Pragmatic Sanction, which stated that the Habsburg possessions were never to divide and were always to be passed intact to a single heir. (571)
Cossacks
The Cossacks maintained their independence beyond the reach of the oppressive landholders and the tsars hated officials. The solution to the problem of peasant flight was to complete the tying of the peasants to the land, making them serfs perpetually bound to serve the noble landholders, who were bound in turn to serve the tsar. (580-582)
Junkers
The nobility and the landowning classes' known as the "Junkers" dominated The Estates of Brandenburg and Prussia. Frederick William I grab for power brought him into considerable conflict with the Junkers. In his early years, he even threatened to destroy them; yet, in the end, the Prussian nobility was not destroyed-but enlisted-into the army. Responding to the combination of threats and opportunities, the Junkers became the officer caste. The Great Elector weakened the powers of the Junkers (572-575)
Suleiman the Magnificent
At their peak in the middle of the sixteenth century under Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520-1566), the Ottoman Turks ruled from the most powerful empire in the world. Their possessions stretched from western Persia across North Africa and up in the heart of central Europe. (569)
Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great used the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-17480 to expand Prussia into a great power by seizing Silesia from Maria Theresa of Austria. The Seven Years' War (1756-1763) saw an attempt by Maria Theresa, with the help pf France and Russia, to regain Silesia, but failed. Frederick allowed religious freedom and promoted education, legal reform, and economic growth but allowed the Junker nobility to keep the middle class from in government. Frederick allowed the repressions of Prussian Jews-who were confined to overcrowded ghettos. (615)
Charles VI of Austria
In 1713, Charles VI (r. 1711-1740) proclaimed the Pragmatic Sanction, which stated that the Habsburg possessions were never to divide and were always to be passed intact to a single heir. Charles was the last of all of the Habsburg males. Charles spent much of his reign trying to get this principle accepted by the various branches of the Habsburg family, by the three different Estates of the realm, and by the states of Europe. (571)
Prince Francis Rákóczy
The Hungarians rose in one last patriotic rebellion under Prince Francis Rakoczy against the Habsburgs in 1703. Rakoczy and his forces were eventually defeated, but this time the Habsburgs had to accept a definitive compromise. Charles VI restored many of the traditional privileges of the Hungarian aristocracy in return for Hungarian acceptance of the hereditary Habsburg rule. (572)
Jenghiz Khan
The eastern Slavs might have emerged from the middle Ages weak and politically divided had it not been for the Mongol conquest of Kievan. The Nomadic tribes were temporarily unified in the thirteenth century by Jenghiz Khan (1162-1227), who was one of history's greatest conquerors. In five years, his armies subdued all of China. (576)
Ivan the Terrible
Ivan the Terrible was an autocrat tsar. He expanded the Muscovy and further reduced the power of the boyars. Between 1552 and 1556, he had declared war the Mongols, and with that, he added vast new territories to Russia. In the course of these wars, Ivan virtually abolished the old distinction between hereditary boyar private property and land granted temporarily for service. All nobles, old and new, had to serve the tsar in order of hold any land. He struck down the ancient Muscovite boyars with a reign of terror. Leading boyars, their relatives, and even their peasants and servants were executed en masse by special corps of unquestioning servants. Ivan took giant strides toward making all commoners servants of the tsar. His endless wars and demonic purges left much of central Russia depopulated. Many peasants fled his rule to the newly conquered territories, forming groups of Cossacks. Businessman and artisans were bound to their towns and jobs; the middle class did not develop. The tsars took over mines and industries and monopolized the country's important commercial activities. The urban classes had no security in their work or property, and even the wealthiest merchants were dependent of the agents of the tsar. The tsar's obligations checked on the growth of the Russian middle classes and impoverished the urban lower classes, just as they led to pressure on the boyars, the rise of the lower nobility, and the final enserfment of the peasants. (579-580)
Frederick William the Great Elector
The weakening of the Estates helped the very talented young elector Frederick the Great (r. 1640-1688) to ride roughshod over traditional representative rights and to take a giant step toward royal absolutism. This constitutional struggle, often unjustly neglected by historians, was the most crucial in the Prussian history for hundreds of years, until that of the 1860's. When he came into power in 1640, the twenty-year old Great Elector was determined to unify his three quite separate provinces and add them by diplomacy and war. These provinces were Brandenburg, Prussia, and the Rhine in western Germany. The nobility and the landowning classes, known as the "Junkers", dominated the Estates of Brandenburg and Prussia. The struggle between the Great Elector and the provincial Estates was long, complicated, and intense. To pay for the permanent standing army he first established in 1660, Frederick William forced the Estates to accept the introduction of permanent taxation without consent. The power of the Estates declined rapidly thereafter, for the Great Elector had both financial independence and superior force. The Great Elector reconfirmed the privilege pf the nobility in 1653 of the nobility's freedom from taxation and its control over the peasants. Even a while after reducing the Estates political power, the nobility growled but did not bite. It accepted a compromise whereby the bulk of the new taxes fell on towns and royal authority stopped at the property owner's gates. (572-574)
Frederick William I
Frederick William I, "the Soldiers' King" (r. 1713-1740), was the one who truly established Prussian absolutism and gave it a unique character. It was he who created the best army in Europe, for its size, and it was he who infused strict military values into whole society. Frederick William's attachment to the army and military life was intensely emotional. He had built a first-rate army, although he had third-rate resources. The standing army increased from thirty-eight thousand to eighty-three thousand during his reign. Prussia, twelfth in population, had the fourth largest army by 1740. Only the much more populace states of France, Russia, and Austria had larger forces. Moreover, soldier for soldier; the Prussian army became the best in Europe, astonishing foreign observers with its precision, skill, and discipline. For the next two hundred years, Prussia and then Prussianized Germany would usually win the crucial military battles. (574-575)
Great Prince Iaroslav the Wise
He reigned from 1019-1054). Certainly Russian developments in the early medieval period had important parallels with those in the West. Both the conversion of the eastern Slavs to Christianity and the loose but real political unification of the eastern Slavic territories under a single prince and a single dynasty in the eleventh century were in the mainstream of European medieval civilization. So, too, was the typical feudal division of the land-based society into boyard nobility and a commoner peasantry. After the death of Great Prince Iaroslav the Wise, the powerful principality in present-day Ukraine disintegrated into competing political units. (576)
Ivan III
In the reign of Ivan III (r. 1462-1505), the process of gathering in the territories around Moscow was completed. Of the principalities the Ivan III purchased and conquered, the large, rich merchant republic of Novgorod was the most crucial. This prince of Moscow was an autocrat and tsar. This imperious conception of absolute power was powerfully reinforced by two developments. First, about 1480 Ivan III felt strong enough to stop acknowledging the khan as the supreme ruler. Second, after the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453, the tsars saw themselves as the heirs of both the Caesars and Orthodox Christianity, the one true faith. (578)
Peter the Great
Peter the Great (r. 1682-1725) had his own kind of monarchial absolutism. Peter was interested primarily in military power, not in some grandiose westernization plan. Peter was determined to redress the defeats the tsar's armies had occasionally suffered in their wars with Poland and Sweden since the time of Ivan the Terrible. Peter was equally determined to continue the tsarist tradition of territorial expansion. He gained a large mass of Ukraine from weak and decentralized Poland in 1667. He had ruled for 36 years yet there was only one year of peace. When Peter took control in 1689, the heart of the army still consisted of cavalry made up of boyars and service nobility. The Russian army was lagging behind the professional standing armies being formed in Europe in the seventeenth century. Maintaining an existing Russian alliance with Austria and Poland against the Ottoman Empire, Peter campaigned against Turkish forts and Tartar vessels on the Black Sea. Learning from his earlier mistakes, he conquered Azov in 1696. Fascinated by weapons and foreign technology, the confident tsar then led a group of 250 Russian officials and young nobles on an eighteen-month tour of western European capitals. Returning to Russia Peter made a fateful decision that would shape his reign and bring massive reforms. He entered into a secret alliance with Denmark and the elector of Saxony to wage a sudden war against Sweden. He went to war against the absolutist king Charles XII of Sweden and eventually won the Great Northern War. Since a more modern army and government required skilled technicians and experts, he created schools and even universities to produce them. He reformed the army and forced the nobility to serve in his bureaucracy. His new army numbered 200,000 plus consisted of another 100,000 special troops. Army and government became more efficient and powerful as an interlocking military-civilian bureaucracy was created and staffed talented people. Russian peasant life under Peter became harsher. People were drafted for the army as a form of taxation. Serfs were arbitrarily assigned to do work in factories and mines. Modest territorial expansion took place under Peter, and Russia became a European Great Power. Peter borrowed many western ideas. (582-584)
Ivan Bolotnikov
The Cossacks were peasants who fled toward the wild. There they formed free groups and outlaw armies known as the Cossacks. The Cossacks maintained their independence beyond the reach of the oppressive landholders and the tsar's hated officials. When the tsar Ivan the Terrible died, Cossack bands, led by Ivan Bolotnikov, marched northward, rallying peasants and slaughtering nobles and officials. The mass of Cossacks and peasants called for the "true tsar," who would restore their freedom of movement and allow them to farm for whomever they pleased, who would reduce their heavy taxes and lighten the yoke imposed by the landlords. (580)
Bartolomeo Rastrelli
Peter's youngest daughter, the quick-witted Elizabeth (r. 1741-1762) named Rastrelli her chief architect, who had come from Italy as a boy of 15 in 1715. Combining Italian and Russian traditions into a unique, wildly colorful St. Petersburg style, Rastrelli built many palaces for the nobility and all the larger government buildings erected during Elizabeth's reign. He also built the Winter Palace as an enormous, aqua-colored royal residence. (588)
Building of the Winter Palace of St. Petersburg
Architect Bartolomeo Rastrelli built the Winter Palace of St. Petersburg. It was in truth an enormous direct tax levied on the wealthy, which in turn forced the peasantry to do most of the work. The only immediate beneficiaries were the foreign architects and urban planners. This is an enormous, aqua-colored royal residence. (588)
Siege of Vienna, 1683
In the late seventeenth century, under vigorous reforming leadership, the Ottoman succeeded in marshaling its forces for one last mighty attack on the Habsburgs. Building on long support from Protestant nobles in Hungary and reinforced by an alliance with Louis XIV of France, the Turks marched on Austria. A huge Turkish army surrounded Vienna and laid siege to it in 1683. After holding out against great odds for two months, the city was relieved at the last minute by a mixed force of Habsburg, Saxon, Bavarian, and Polish troops, and the Ottomans were forced to retreat. Soon the retreat became a rout. As Russian and Venetian allies attacked on other fronts, the Habsburgs conquered almost all of Hungary and Transylvania by 1699. (570)
War of the Austrian Succession
For Frederick (II) the Great of Prussia, it was the opportunity of a lifetime to expand the size and power of Prussia, when he suddenly invaded a mainly German province of Silesia when Maria Theresa came to power. Although Mara Theresa succeeded in dramatically rallying the normally quarrelsome Hungarian nobility, her ethically diverse army was no match for Prussian precision. In 172, as other greedy powers were falling on her lands in the general European War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748). She was forced to secede almost all of Silesia to Prussia. (615)
Time of Troubles
The death of Ivan the Terrible in 1584-ushered in an era of confusion and violent struggle for power. Events were particularly chaotic after Ivan's son, Theodore, died in 1598 without an heir. The years of 1598 to 1613 were aptly called the "Time of Troubles." The close relatives of the tsar intrigued against and murdered each other, alternately fighting and welcoming the invading Swedes and Poles, who even occupied Moscow. Cossack bands, led by Ivan Bolotnikov, marched northward, rallying peasants and slaughtering nobles and officials. (580)
Battle of Poltava
After a decisive Russian victory at Poltava in 1709, greatly reduced the threat of the Swedish armies, Peter moved in high gear and wanted to build a city like no other in the world, the St. Petersburg. (587)
Copernican hypothesis
Copernicus theorized that the stars and planets, including the earth revolved around a fixed sun. He worked on his hypothesis from 1506 to 1530. He had the idea that Earth was just another planet. This angered many church and religious officials who firmly believed in Aristotle's view of the universe, which was very much different than Copernicus's. (p.596-597)
Cartesian absolutism
Descartes decided that it was necessary to doubt everything . His view of the world as consisting of two fundamental entities are known as the Cartesian dualism. Descartes was an original thinker. Cartesian absolutism was the view where doubt is the fundamental belief. (p.602-603)
Law of inertia
Galileo formulated the law of inertia. He believed that rest was not the natural state of objects. Rather, an object continues in motion forever unless stopped by some external force. (p.598)
Aristotelian world-view
A motionless Earth was fixed as the center of the universe. Around it moved ten crystal-like spheres: the moon, the sun, the five known planets, and fixed stars. Beyond the tenth sphere was heaven, with the throne of God and souls of the saved (dead). Aristotle's view based pre-scientific revolution ideas and beliefs of most religious institutions. (p.595-596)
Empirical method
The researcher who wants to learn more about leaves or rocks should not speculate about the subject but should collect a multitude of specimens to compare and analyze them. The empirical method was a general theory invented by Francis Bacon, which used inductive reasoning instead of speculation. (p.602)
Deductive reasoning
Descartes used deductive reasoning from self-evident principles to ascertain scientific laws. He used this reasoning to doubt everything, from matter to mind. He actually believed that it was necessary to doubt everything.
Rationalism
Rationalism was the belief where nothing was to be accepted by faith, everything was to be submitted to the rational, critical, scientific way of thinking. (p.605)
General will
According to Rousseau the general will is sacred and absolute, reacting the common interests of the people who have displaced the monarch as the holder of ultimate power. (p.611)
Secular
The Enlightenment was therefore thoroughly secular. It revived and expanded the Renaissance concentration on worldly explanations, had profound impact and thought and culture on urban middle classes and aristocracies. (p.604)
Skepticism
The doctrine of doubt on and about everything. It is when you might critically inspect things. To take a case in point, Pierre Bayle a famous skeptic examined the religious beliefs and persecutions of the past of Louis XIV. It is the school of thought founded on doubt and total certainty or definitive knowledge is ever attainable. The skeptic are cautious and critical people who suspend judgment. (p.606)
Tabula rasa
The human mind at birth is like a blank tablet or tabula rosa on which the environment writes the individual's understandings and beliefs. Human development is therefore determined by education and social institutions, for good or for evil. (p.606-607)
Parlement of Paris
The parlements- 13 in France, were frontline defenders of liberty against royal despotism. The high court judges were the most important and influential in the Parlement of Paris. The Parlement of Paris challenged the basis of royal authority and stopped many repressive taxes. (p.608)
Enlightenment
This world-wide view had a large role in the forming of the modern mind. The original ideas of the Enlightenment included the method of reason. Enlightenment thinkers believed that nothing could be accepted by faith. The Enlightenment was a broad intellectual and cultural movement that gained strength gradually and didn't mature until 1750. It revived and expanded the Renaissance concentrations on many worldly explanations. (p.604-605)
Enlightened absolutism
Many philosophers believed that the enlightenment reform would come by the way of enlightened monarchs. The philosophes believed that a benevolent absolutism offered the best change for improving society.(p.614-615)
Philosophes
The philosophes, or intellectuals were the ones who accepted and embraced many of the new ideas of the revolution. Philosophe is the French word for "philosopher" and it was in France that the Enlightenment reached its highest development. Philosophes asked fundamental philosophical questions about the meaning of life, God, human nature, good, evil, and cause and effect. (p.607)
Diderot
Along with Jean la Rond d'Alembert, Diderot edited the Encyclopedia: The Rational Dictionary of the Sciences, the Arts, and the Crafts. He began his career as a hack writer and wanted the Encyclopedia to change the general way of thinking. Diderot set out to teach people how to think critically and objectively about all matters. He attracted attention with a skeptical tract on religion.
Bayle
Pierre Bayle (1647-1706) was a French Huguenot who despised Louis XIV and found refuge in the Netherlands. A teacher by profession and journalist by inclination, Bayle took full advantage of freedom in the Netherlands. One of the most famous skeptics of his time, Pierre Bayle critically examined and criticized the religious beliefs and persecutions of the past. He concluded that nothing can ever be known beyond all doubt. (p.609)
Kepler
Brahe's brilliant assistant, Johannes Kepler (1571-1613) believed that the universe was built on mathematical relationships and musical harmony of heavenly bodies. Kepler formulated 3 famous laws for planetary motion. One, planets rotate elliptical not round. Two, he thought that planets moved in uniform to their orbit. Three, Kepler showed that the time planets takes to make its complete orbit is related to its distance from the sun. (p.597-598)
Galileo
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was a poor nobleman destined for a religious life that became interested in mathematics, was challenging old ideas about motion Galileo formulated the law of inertia; he also applied experimental method to astronomy. Upon hearing of a telescope invention in Holland, he made one by himself observing the moons of Jupiter. (p.598)
Bacon
The English politician and writer Francis Bacon was the greatest early propagandist for the new experimental method known as empiricism. He was the father and the inventor an the famous scientific method known as the empirical method. (p.602)
Descartes
Rene Descartes along with Francis bacon invented new methods of experimentation for science. He was a French philosopher who made his first great discovery in mathematics. Descarte's discovery of analytical geometry provided scientists with an important new tool. (p.602)
D'Holbach
Paul D'Holbach, a wealthy German born, argued that human beings were machines completely determined by outside forces. His aggressive atheism and determination dealt with the unity of the Enlightenment movement a severe blow. Published his philosophically radical words anonymously in Netherlands. (p.610)
Newton
Isaac Newton (1642-1727) was born into lower English gentry and attended Cambridge University. He was a genius who speculated the experimental and theoretical mathematical sides of modern science. Newton was also fascinated by alchemy. In 1684, Newton studied physics for eighteen intensive months. He shut himself away from the outside world and studied physics in a dark room where food was brought to him. His mind fastened like a vise on the laws of the universe. (p.599-600)
Montesquieu
Baron Montesquieu, one of the greatest philosophers in history, was extremely influential in his works based on satire. He used with as a weapon against cruelty and superstition. Montesquieu focused on the conditions that would promote liberty and prevent tyranny. (p.607)
Voltaire
Francois Marie Arouet, known by pen as Voltaire (1644-1778). He wrote more than 70 witty volumes, intensively interested with the works of kings and queens. All his life he struggled against legal injustice and unequal treatment before the law. Voltaire married Madame Chatelet, who proved to be a suitable wife the 15 years that they were together. (p.608)
Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) studied church law and astronomy at various European universities. He believed in the old Greek idea that the sun was the center of the universe. He theorized that the stars and planets, including the Earth as nothing more than a planet, his idea caused uproar among religious leaders, especially Protestants. (p.596)
Brahe
Tycho Brahe agreed with Copernicus's theory about the universe. Born from a leading Danish family, Brahe established himself as Europe's leading astronomer. Brahe built the most sophisticated observatory of his day. For 20 years, Brahe meticulously observed stars and planets with the naked eye. (p.597)
Madame du Chatelet
Madame Chatelet (1706-1749) was an intellectually gifted woman from a high aristocracy with a passion for science. She became Voltaire's longtime companion, Madame du Chatelet studied physics and mathematics and published science articles and translations. She was the finest example of an elite French woman, Madame du Chatelet suffered because of her gender. She was excluded from the Royal Academy of Sciences. She later became uncertain of her ability to make important scientific discoveries.
Madame Geoffrin
One of the most famous salons was that of Madame Geoffrin, the unofficial godmother of the Encyclopedia. She gave generous financial aid and helped save their enterprise from collapse. Madame Geoffrin remained her own woman. The salons seemed to have functioned as informal schools where establish hostesses bonded with younger women and passed on skills to them. (p.613)
Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great of Russia (1762-1796) was one of the most remarkable rulers to have ever lived. The French philosophes adored her. The 15-year-old was attractive and intelligent. On the other hand, he husband was stupid and ugly, scarred by smallpox. Catherine the Great of Russia did not care about her husband, but more for the crown and Russia. (p.617)
Frederick the Great
Voltaire began a long correspondence with Frederick the Great, and after the death of his beloved Emilie, accepted his invitation to come brighten up the Prussian court in Berlin. Frederick II (1740-1786) embraced culture and literature, even writing poetry and fine prose in French, a language which his father detested. He, as an young boy, tried to run away along with his companion. When they were caught by his royal father, his companion was beheaded, to make sure the young prince would never run away again. Frederick the Great conquered many territories during his long reign. (p.615-620)
Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa's long reign, led by Frederick the Great, invaded her lands and tried to dismember them. Maria was determined to introduce reforms that would make the state stronger and more efficient. Aimed at limiting the papacy's realm of political influence. (p.621)
Louis XV
When Louis XIV died in 1715, the crown was to be succeeded by his five-year-old grandson Louis XV. Under Louis XV, the French minister Maupeou began the restoration of royal absolutism by abolishing the parlement of Paris. (p.621-622)
Joseph II
Joseph II, coregent with his mother, Maria Theresa, from 1765 onward and strong supporter of change, he moved forward rapidly when he came to throne in 1780. (p.621)
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
Copernicus published his book the year of his death fearing ridicule. On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Sphere destroyed the notion for believing in crystal spheres capable of moving the stars around the earth. (p.596)
New Astronomy or Celestial Physics
Johannes Kepler formulated the three earth laws of motion. He demonstrated that the orbits of the planets around the sun are elliptical rather than circular. Planets do not move at uniform speed. (p.597)
Two New Sciences
Galileo Galilei described his experiment in his famous acceleration experiment, he showed that a uniform force, in this case, gravity, produced a uniform acceleration. In his Two Sciences Galileo described his painstaking method and conclusion. (p.598)
Principia
Newton published his third book, Principia (also known as Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) in Latin in 1687. In this book, Newton wanted to demonstrate the frame of the system of the world. Newton explored a set of mathematical laws that explained motion and mechanics. (p.599)
Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds of 1686
Bernard de Fonantelle set out to make science witty and entertaining for a broader audience. His most famous work, Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds, begins with two figures walking in the park discussing astronomy. His story about a woman and a man where the woman rejoices in the knowledge that the human nature is capable of making great progress reveals Fonantelle's attempts to make science as easy as reading a book. (p.604-605)
Historical and Critical Dictionary
Pierre Bayle, who critically examined the religious beliefs and persecutions of the past wrote his Historical and Critical Dictionary based on his research. He demonstrated that human beliefs are often varied and mistaken. (p.606)
The Spirit of the Laws
Montesquieu was inspired by the example of the physical sciences; he set out to apply the critical method to the problem of government in The Spirit of Laws. (p.607-608)
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
This work by John Locke set forth a theory about how human nature was to form and learn their own ideas. Locke insisted that all ideas are derived from experience. Locke's essay concerning human understanding passed through many editions and translations. (p.606)
Philosophical Dictionary
Voltaire's witty yet serious Philosophical Dictionary is a source of pleasure and stimulation. The Dictionary consists of a series of essays on topics ranging from certainty to circumcision. (p.626)
Encyclopedia
The Rational Dictionary of the Sciences, the Arts, and the Crafts - The ultimate strength of the French philosophes was their greatest achievement was a group effort. It was edited by Denis Diderot. The Encyclopedia showed that human beings could use the process of reasoning to expand human knowledge. (p.609)
Economic liberalism
He believed that employers as well as workers and consumers were motivated primarily by narrowing self-interest, smith did not call for more always and more police power to force people to behave properly toward each other in economic affairs. Instead, he made the pursuit of self-interest in a competitive market the source of an underlying and previously unrecognized harmony, a harmony that would result in gradual progress. According to smith: "[Every individual generally] neither intends to promote the public interest, nor knows how much he is promoting it...He is in this case as in many cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention. Nor is it always the worse for society that it was not part of it. I have never known much good done by those who affected to trade for the public good." The "invisible hand" of free competition for one and for all disciplined the greed of selfish individuals and provided the most effective means of increasing the wealth of both rich and poor. Smith's provocative work had a great international impact. Going through eight editions in English and translated into several languages within twenty years, it quickly emerged as the classic argument for economic liberalism and unregulated capitalism. (655-656)
Agrarian economy
At the end of the seventeenth century, the economy of Europe was agrarian, as it had been for several hundred years. With the possible exception of Holland, at least 80 percent of the people of all western European countries drew their livelihoods from agriculture. In Eastern Europe the percentage was considerably higher. Men and women lavished their attention on the land, plowing fields and sowing seed, reaping harvests and storing grain. The land repaid these efforts, year after year yielding up the food and most of the raw materials for industry that made life possible. Yet, the land was stingy. Even in a rich agricultural region such as the Po Valley in northern Italy, every bushel of wheat sown yielded on average only five or six bushels of grain at harvest during the seventeenth century. The average French yield in the same period was somewhat less. Such yields were barely more than those attained in fertile, well-watered areas in the thirteenth century or in ancient Greece. By modern standards, put was distressingly low. In 1700, European agriculture was much more ancient and medieval than it was modern. If the land was stingy, it was also capricious. In most regions of Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, harvests were poor or even failed completely, every eight or nine years. The vast majority of the population, which lived off the land, might survive a single bad harvest by eating less and drawing on their reserves of grain. However, when the land's caprices combined with persistent bad weather-too much rain rotting the seed or drought withering the young stalks- the result was catastrophic. Meager grain reserves were soon exhausted and the price of grain soared. Provisions from other areas with better harvests were hard to obtain. In such crisis years, which periodically stalked Europe in the seventeenth and even into the early eighteenth century, a terrible tightening knot in the belly forced people to use substitutes -the "famine foods" of a desperate population. People gathered chestnuts and stripped bark in the forests, they cut dandelions and grass, and they ate these substitutes to escape starvation. In one community in Norway in the early 1700's people were forced to wash dung from the straw in old manure piles in order to bake a pathetic substitute for break. Even cannibalism occurred in the seventeenth century. Such unbalanced and inadequate foods in famine years made people weak and extremely susceptible to illness and epidemics. Eating material unfit for human consumption, such as bark or grass, resulted in dysentery and intestinal ailments of many kinds. Influenza and smallpox preyed with particular savagery on populations weakened by famine. In famine years the number of deaths soared far above normal. A third of a village's population might disappear in a year or two. Indeed the 1690's were as dismal as many of the worst periods of earlier times. One county in Finland, probably typical of the entire country, lot fully 28 percent of its inhabitants in 1696 and 1697. Certain well-studied villages in the Beauvais region of Northern France suffered a similar fate. In preindustrial Europe, the harvest was the real king, and the kind was seldom generous and often cruel. This type of economy system was based only on agriculture. It didn't work out because the soil would get exhausted and so the farmers couldn't produce enough food and so the whole economy went down. (629-630)
Famine foods
At the end of the seventeenth century, the economy of Europe was agrarian, as it had been for several hundred years. With the possible exception of Holland, at least 80 percent of the people of all western European countries drew their livelihoods from agriculture. In Eastern Europe the percentage was considerably higher. Men and women lavished their attention on the land, plowing fields and sowing seed, reaping harvests and storing grain. The land repaid these efforts, year after year yielding up the food and most of the raw materials for industry that made life possible. Yet, the land was stingy. Even in a rich agricultural region such as the Po Valley in northern Italy, every bushel of wheat sown yielded on average only five or six bushels of grain at harvest during the seventeenth century. The average French yield in the same period was somewhat less. Such yields were barely more than those attained in fertile, well-watered areas in the thirteenth century or in ancient Greece. By modern standards, put was distressingly low. In 1700, European agriculture was much more ancient and medieval than it was modern. If the land was stingy, it was also capricious. In most regions of Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, harvests were poor or even failed completely, every eight or nine years. The vast majority of the population, which lived off the land, might survive a single bad harvest by eating less and drawing on their reserves of grain. However, when the land's caprices combined with persistent bad weather-too much rain rotting the seed or drought withering the young stalks- the result was catastrophic. Meager grain reserves were soon exhausted and the price of grain soared. Provisions from other areas with better harvests were hard to obtain. In such crisis years, which periodically stalked Europe in the seventeenth and even into the early eighteenth century, a terrible tightening knot in the belly forced people to use substitutes -the "famine foods" of a desperate population. People gathered chestnuts and stripped bark in the forests, they cut dandelions and grass, and they ate these substitutes to escape starvation. In one community in Norway in the early 1700's people were forced to wash dung from the straw in old manure piles in order to bake a pathetic substitute for break. Even cannibalism occurred in the seventeenth century. Such unbalanced and inadequate foods in famine years made people weak and extremely susceptible to illness and epidemics. Eating material unfit for human consumption, such as bark or grass, resulted in dysentery and intestinal ailments of many kinds. Influenza and smallpox preyed with particular savagery on populations weakened by famine. In famine years the number of deaths soared far above normal. A third of a village's population might disappear in a year or two. Indeed the 1690's were as dismal as many of the worst periods of earlier times. They were foods that were grown in farms during the time of famine. These foods grew quick and in almost any conditions and so they were used. (629-630)
Common land
Traditional village rights reinforced the traditional pattern of farming. In addition to rotating field crops in a uniform way, villages maintained open meadows for hay and natural pasture. These lands were "common" lands, set aside primarily for the draft of horses and oxen so necessary in the fields, but open to the crows and pigs of the village as well. After the harvest, the men and women of the village also pastured their animals on the wheat or rye stubble. In many places such pasturing followed a brief period, also established by tradition, for the gleaning of grain. Poor women would go through the fields picking up the few single grains that had fallen to the ground in the course of the harvest. This was land set between many families to use together so that they could get enough money by selling their fruit. (631)
Open-field system
The greatest accomplishment of medieval agriculture was the open-field system of village farming developed by European peasants. That system divided the land to be cultivated by peasants of a given village into several large fields, which in turn cut up into long, narrow strips. The fields were open, and the strips were not enclosed into small plots by fences or hedges. An individual peasant family-if it was fortunate-held a number of strips scattered throughout the various large fields. The land of those who owned but did not till, primarily the nobility, the clergy, and the wealthy townspeople, were also in scattered strips. Peasants farmed each large field as a community, with each family following the same pattern of plowing, sowing, and harvesting in accordance with tradition and the village leaders. The ever-present problem was exhaustion of the soul. When the community planted wheat year after year in a field, the nitrogen in the soil was soon depleted, and crop failure was certain. Since the supply of manure for fertilizer was limited, the only way for the land to recover its life-giving fertility was for a field to lie fallow for a period of time. In the early middle ages, a year of fallow was alternated with a year of cropping, so that half the land stood idle in a given year. With time, three-year rotations were introduced, especially on more fertile lands. This system permitted a year of wheat or rye to be followed by a year of oats or beans and then by a year of fallow. Even so, only awareness of tragic consequences of continuous cropping forced undernourished populations to let a third (or half) of their cropland lie idle, especially when the fallow still had to be plowed two or three times a year to keen down the weeds. Traditional village rights reinforced the traditional pattern of farming. In addition to rotating field crops in a uniform way, villages maintained open meadows for hay and natural pasture. These lands were "common" lands, set aside primarily for the draft of horses and oxen so necessary in the fields, but open to the crows and pigs of the village as well. After the harvest, the men and women of the village also pastured their animals on the wheat or rye stubble. In many places such pasturing followed a brief period, also established by tradition, for the gleaning of grain. Poor women would go through the fields picking up the few single grains that had fallen to the ground in the course of the harvest. This was land set between many families to use together so that they could get enough money by selling their fruit. In the age of absolutism and nobility, state and landlord continued to levy heavy taxes and high rents as a matter of course. In so doing, they stripped the peasants of much of their meager earnings. The level of exploitation varied. Generally speaking, the peasant of eastern Europe were worst off. Through serfdom in eastern Europe in the eighteenth century had much in common with the medieval serfdom in central and western Europe, it was, if anything, harsher and more oppressive. In much of eastern Europe, there were few limitations on the amount of forced labor the lord could require, and five or six days of unpaid work per week on the lord's land were not uncommon. Well into the nineteenth century, individual Russian serfs and serf families were regularly sold with and without land. Social conditions were better in western Europe. Peasants were generally free from serfdom. In France, western Germany, and the Low Countries, the owned land and could pass it on to their children. Yet life in the village was unquestionably hard, and poverty was the great reality for most people. For the Beauvais region of France at the beginning of the eighteenth century, it has been carefully estimated that in good years and bad only a tenth of the peasants could live satisfactorily off the fruits of their landholdings. Owning considerably les than half of the land, the peasants of this region had to pay heavy royal taxes, the church's tithe, and dues to the lord, as well as set aside seed for the next season. Left with only half of their crop for their own use, these peasants had to toil, till for others, and seek work for wages in a variety of jobs. It was a constant scramble for a meager living. And this was in a rich agricultural region in a country where peasants were comparatively well-off. The privileges of Europe's ruling elites weighted heavily on the people of the land. It was a system of village farming developed by peasants where the land was divided into several large fields which were in turn cut into strips. There were no divided fences or hedges and it was farmed as a community. (630-631)
Enclosure
Their common rights were precious to the poor peasants. The rights to glean and to graze a cow on the common, to gather firewood in the lord's forest and pick berries in the marsh, were vital because they helped poor peasants retain a modicum of independence and status and avoid falling into the growing groups of landless, "proletarian" wage workers. Thus when the small landholders and the village poor could effectively oppose the enclosure of the open fields and common pasture, they did so. Moreover, in many countries they usually found allies among the larger, predominantly noble landowners, who were also wary of enclosure because it required large investments and posed risk for them as well. Only powerful social and political pressures could overcome such combined opposition. Enclosure is the idea to enclose individual share of the pastures as a way of farming more effectively. Enclosure of the open field also meant the disappearance of common land, which hurt the small landholders and village poor. Many peasants and some nobles opposed these changes. The enclosure process was slow, and enclosed and open fields existed side by side for a long time. (633)
Mercantilism
Britain's commercial leadership in the eighteenth century had its origins in the mercantilism of the seventeenth century. European mercantilism was a system of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of the state. As practiced by a leading advocate such as Colbert under Louis XIV, mercantilism aimed particularly at creating a favorable balance of foreign trade in order to increase a country's stock of gold. a country's gold holdings served as an all-important treasure chest, to be opened periodically to pay for war in a violent age. Early English mercantilists shared these views. What distinguished English mercantilism was the unusual idea that government economic regulations could and should serve the private interest of individuals and groups as well as the public needs of the state. As Josiah Child, a very wealthy brewer and director of the East India Company, put it in the ideal economy, "Profit and Power ought to jointly be considered." By contrast, in France and other continental countries, seventeenth-century mercantilists generally put the needs of the state far above those of business people and workers and they seldom saw a possible union public and private interests for a common gold. (644-645)
Cottage industry
The growth of population increased the number of rural workers with little or no land, and this in turn contributed to the development of industry in rural areas. The poor in the countryside increasingly needed to supplement their earnings from agriculture with other types of work, and capitalists from the city were eager to employ them, often a lower wages than urban workers usually commanded. Manufacturing with hand tools in peasant cottages and work sheds grew markedly in the eighteenth century. Rural industry became a crucial feature of the European economy. To be sure, peasant communities had always made some clothing, processed some food, and constructed some housing for their own sue. But in the High Middle Ages, peasants did not produce manufactured goods on a large scale for sale in a market. Industry in the Middle Ages was dominated and organized by urban craft guilds and urban merchants, who jealously regulated handicraft production and sought to maintain it as an urban monopoly. By the eighteenth century, however, the pressures of rural poverty and the need to employ landless proletarians were overwhelming the efforts of urban artisans to maintain their traditional control over industrial production A new system was expanding lustily. The new system has had many names. It has often been called "cottage industry" or "domestic industry" to distinguish it from the factory industry that came later. In recent years, some scholars have preferred to speak of "protoindustrialization," by which they usually mean a stage of rural industrial development with wage workers had hand tools that necessarily preceded the emergence of large-scale factory industry. The focus on protoindustrialization has been quite valuable because it has sparked renewed interest in Europe's early industrial development and shown again that the mechanized factories grew out of a vibrant industrial tradition. However, the evolving concept of protoindustrialization also has different versions, some of which are rigid and unduly deterministic. Thus the phrase putting-out system, widely used by contemporaries to describe the key features of eighteenth-century rural industry, still seems a more appropriate term for the new form of industrial production. (640)
Putting-out system
Thus the phrase putting-out system, widely used by contemporaries to describe the key features of eighteenth-century rural industry, still seems a more appropriate term for the new form of industrial production. The two main participants in the putting-out system were the merchant capitalist and the rural worker. The merchant loaned, or "out-out" raw materials to several cottage workers, who processed the raw materials in their own homes and returned the finished product to the merchant. For example, a merchant would provide raw wool, and the worker would spin and wave the wool into cloth. The merchant then paid the outworkers for their work by the piece and proceeded to sell the finished product. There were endless variations on this basic relationship. Sometimes rural workers would buy their own materials and work as independent producers before they sold to the merchant. Sometimes several workers toiled together to perform a complicated process in a workshop. The relative importance of earnings from the land and from industry varied greatly for handicraft workers, although industrial wages usually became more important for a given family with time. In all cases, however, the putting-out system was a kind of capitalism. Merchants needed large amounts of capital, which they held in the form of goods being worked up and sold in distant markets. They sought to make profits and increase the capital in their businesses. the putting-out system grew because it had competitive advantages. Underemployed labor was abundant, and poor peasants and landless laborers would work for low wages. Since production in the countryside was unregulated, workers and merchants could change procedures and experiment as the saw fit. Because they did not need to meet rigid guild standards, which maintained quality but discouraged the development of new methods, cottage industry became capable of producing many kinds of goods. Textiles; all manner of knives, forks, and house wares; buttons and gloves; clocks; and musical instruments could be produced quite satisfactorily in the countryside. Luxury goods for the rich, such as exquisite tapestries and fine porcelain, demanded special training, close supervision, and centralized workshops. Yet, such goods were as exceptional as those used them. The skill of rural industry was sufficient for everyday articles. Rural manufacturing did not spread across Europe at an even rate. It appeared first in England and developed most successfully there, particularly for the spinning and weaving of woolen cloth. By 1500, half of England's textiles were being produced in the countryside. By 1700, English industry was generally more rural than urban and heavily reliant on the putting-out system. Continental countries developed rural industry more slowly. Therefore, it was basically, a system based on rural workers producing cloth in their homes for merchant-capitalists, who supplied the raw materials and paid for the finished goods. (640-641)
Fallow fields
The ever-present problem was exhaustion of the soul. When the community planted wheat year after year in a field, the nitrogen in the soil was soon depleted, and crop failure was certain. Since the supply of manure for fertilizer was limited, the only way for the land to recover its life-giving fertility was for a field to lie fallow for a period of time. In the early middle ages, a year of fallow was alternated with a year of cropping, so that half the land stood idle in a given year. With time, three-year rotations were introduced, especially on more fertile lands. This system permitted a year of wheat or rye to be followed by a year of oats or beans and then by a year of fallow. Even so, only awareness of tragic consequences of continuous cropping forced undernourished populations to let a third (or half) of their cropland lie idle, especially when the fallow still had to be plowed two or three times a year to keen down the weeds. They were basically part of the field that was farmed on and it was set aside so that the soil wouldn't get exhausted and it could be used when the other part was exhausted. (631)
Agricultural revolution
Technological progress offered another possibility. The great need was for new farming methods that would enable Europeans to produce more and eat more. Uncultivated fields were the heart of the matter. If peasants could replace the idle fallow with corps, they could increase the land under cultivation by fifty percent. So remarkable were the possibilities and the results that historians have often spoken of the progressive elimination of the fallow, which occurred slowly throughout Europe from the mid-seventeenth century on, as an agricultural revolution. This agricultural revolution was a great milestone in human development. Because grain crops exhaust the soil and make fallowing necessary, the secret to eliminating the fallow lies in alternating grain with certain nitrogen-storing crops. The most important of these land-reviving crops are peas and beans, root crops such as turnips and potatoes, and clovers and grasses. In the eighteenth century, peas and beans were old standbys; turnips, potatoes, and clover were newcomers to the fields. As the eighteenth century went on, the number of crops were systematically rotated grew. New patterns of organization allowed some farmers to develop increasingly sophisticated patterns of rotation to suit different kinds of soils. For example, farmers in French Flanders near Lille in the late eighteenth century used a ten-year rotation, alternating a number of grain, root and hay crops in a given field on a ten-year schedule. Continual experimentation led to more scientific farming. Improvements in farming had multiple effects. The new made ideal feed for animals. Because peasants and larger farmers had more fodder, hay, and root crops for the winter months, they could build up their small herds of cattle and sheep. More animals meant more manure for fertilizer and therefore more grain for bread and porridge. The vicious cycle in which few animals meant adequate manure, which meant little grain and less fodder, which led to fewer animals and so on, could be broken. Advocates of the new rotations, who included an emerging group of experimental scientists, some government officials, and a few big landowners, believed that the new methods were scarcely possible within the traditional framework of open fields and common rights. A farmer who wanted to experiment with new methods would have to get all the landholders in a village to agree to the plan, and advocates of improvement maintained that this would be difficult, if not impossible, given peasant caution and the force of tradition. Therefore, they argued that innovating agricultural-holdings into compact, fenced-in fields in order to farm more effectively. In doing so, the innovators also needed to enclose their individual shares of the natural pasture, the common. According to this view, a revolution in village life and organization was the necessary price of technical progress. These improvements necessitated ending the open-field system by "enclosing" the fields. (632-633)
Crop rotation
Because grain crops exhaust the soil and make fallowing necessary, the secret to eliminating the fallow lies in alternating grain with certain nitrogen-storing crops. The most important of these land-reviving crops are peas and beans, root crops such as turnips and potatoes, and clovers and grasses. In the eighteenth century, peas and beans were old standbys; turnips, potatoes, and clover were newcomers to the fields. As the eighteenth century went on, the number of crops were systematically rotated grew. New patterns of organization allowed some farmers to develop increasingly sophisticated patterns of rotation to suit different kinds of soils. For example, farmers in French Flanders near Lille in the late eighteenth century used a ten-year rotation, alternating a number of grain, root and hay crops in a given field on a ten-year schedule. Continual experimentation led to more scientific farming. Improvements in farming had multiple effects. The new made ideal feed for animals. Because peasants and larger farmers had more fodder, hay, and root crops for the winter months, they could build up their small herds of cattle and sheep. More animals meant more manure for fertilizer and therefore more grain for bread and porridge. The vicious cycle in which few animals meant adequate manure, which meant little grain and less fodder, which led to fewer animals and so on, could be broken. (632-633)
Asiento
Spain was compelled to give Britain control of the lucrative West African slave trade-the so-called asiento-and to let Britain send one ship of merchandise into the Spanish colonies annually, through Porto Bello on the Isthmus of Panama. They were the lucrative West African slave trade. (647)
Mestizos
the large middle group in Spanish colonies consisted of racially mixed mestizos, the offspring of Spanish men and Indian women. The most talented mestizos realistically aspired to join the Creoles, for enough wealth and power could make on considered white. Thus by the end of the colonial era, roughly 20 percent of the population was classified as white and about 30 percent as mestizos. Pure-blooded Indians accounted for most of the remainder, but some black slaves were found in every part of Spanish America. Great numbers of blacks went in chains to work the enormous sugar plantations of Portuguese Brazil, and about half the Brazilian population in the early nineteenth century was of African origin. The people of Brazil intermingled sexually and culturally, and the population grew to include every color in the racial rainbow. Thus in the eighteenth century, Spanish and Portuguese colonies developed a growing commerce in silver, sugar, and slaves as well as in manufactured goods for a Europeanized elite. South America occupied an important place in the expanding Atlantic economy. (654)
Primogeniture
Primogeniture is a system of inheritance widely used in Europe for hundreds of years. Under this system, the oldest child in a family, and often the oldest son, has the sole right to inherit land and other possessions from the parents. Primogeniture first developed under the feudal system. In England and other countries, the oldest child in the royal family became the successor to the throne. The system kept the nobles' large landholdings from being broken up among their children into many small estates. It also preserved the social position and prestige of the noble families. Peasants and other landholders also practiced primogeniture. Primogeniture gradually disappeared in Europe, except among ruling families, as the feudal system died out. Basically it is the state of being the first-born or eldest child of the same parents. (643)
Creole Elite
Political success was matched by economic improvement. After declining markedly in the seventeenth century, silver mining recovered greatly, and in 1800, Spanish America accounted for half of the worlds silver production. Silver mining also encouraged food production for large mining camps and gave the Creoles people of the Spanish blood born in America the means to purchase more and more European luxuries and manufactured goods. A class of wealthy Creole merchants arose to handle this flourishing trade, which often relied on smuggled goods from Great Britain. The Creole elite came to rival the top government officials dispatched from Spain to govern the colonies. Creole estate owners controlled much of the land, and they strove t become a genuine European aristocracy. Estate owners believed that work in the fields was the proper occupation of an impoverished peasantry. The defenseless Indians suited their needs. As the indigenous population recovered in numbers, slavery and periodic forced labor gave way to widespread debt peonage from 1600 on. Under this system, a planter or rancher would keep the estate's christianized, increasingly Hispanicized Indians in perpetual debt bondage by periodically advancing food, shelter, and a little money. Debt peonage was a form of serfdom. (652-653)
Adam Smith
Although mercantilist policies strengthened both the Spanish and British colonial empires in the eighteenth century, a strong reaction against mercantilism ultimately set in. Creole merchants chafed at regulations imposed from Madrid. Small English merchants complained loudly about the injustice of handing over exclusive trading rights to great trading companies such as the East India Company. Wanting a bigger position in overseas commerce, independent merchants in many countries began campaigning against "monopolies" and calling for "free trade." The general idea of freedom of enterprise in foreign trade was persuasively developed by Scottish professor of philosophy Adam Smith (1723-1790). Smith, whose Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations established the basis for modern economics, was highly critical of eighteenth-century mercantilism. Mercantilism, he said, meant a combination of stifling government regulations and unfair privileges for state approved monopolies and government favorites. Far preferable was free competition, which would best protect consumers from price gouging and give all citizens a fair and equal right to do what they did best. In keeping with the "system of natural liberty" that he advocated, Smith argued that government should limit itself to "only three duties." It should provide a defense against foreign invasion, maintain civil order with courts and police protection, and sponsor certain indispensable public woks and institutions that could never adequately profit private investors. Often lampooned in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as a mouth piece for business interests, smith was one of the enlightenment's most original and characteristic thinkers. He relied on the power of reason to unlock the secrets of the secular world, and he believed that he spoke for truth, and not for special interests. Thus unlike many disgruntled merchant capitalists, smith applauded the modest rise in real wages of British workers in the eighteenth century and went on to say, "no society can surely be flourishing and happy, of which the far greater part of the members are poor and miserable." (655)
Marquis de Montcalm
Hopes for France in America rested in large part on Marquis Louis Joseph de Montcalm (1712-1759). A seasoned general when he arrived in Quebec in 1756, Montcalm was winsome, hot-tempered, and vain, Within a year, he and his nominal superior, the equally egotistical marquis de Vaudreuil, governor of New France, had quarreled, and they came to detest each other. Above all, the Canadian-born Vaudreuil loved Canada and feared that France would abandon it. Montcalm was a loyal French soldier, but he cared little for Canada or its settlers. Believing the French position was hopeless; he spent much of his time blaming Vaudreuil and the Canadians for the defeats he anticipated. The Seven Years' War started when George Washington, leading a Virginia forced, attacked a small group of French soldiers in 1756. Washington was defeated shortly thereafter and forced to surrender. The war to conquer Canada was on. Although the inhabitants of New France were greatly outnumbered, French and Canadian forces under the experienced marquis de Montcalm fought well and scored major victories until 1758. In 1759 a combined British naval and land force laid siege to fortress Quebec. The British forces at Quebec defeated New France under Montcalm in 1759. (647-648)
Jethro Tull
Jethro Tull (1674-1741), part crank and part genius, was another important English innovator. A true son of the early Enlightenment, Tull adopted a critical attitude toward accepted ideas about farming and tried to develop better methods through empirical research. He was especially enthusiastic about using horses, rather than slow-moving oxen, for plowing. He also advocated sowing seed with drilling equipment rather than scattering by hand. Drilling distributed seed in an even manner and at the proper depth. There were also improvements in livestock, inspired in part by the earlier success of English country gentlemen in breeding ever-faster horses for the races and fox hunts that were their passions. Selective breeding of ordinary livestock was a marked improvement over the old pattern, which has been graphically described as little more than the haphazard union of nobody's son with everybody's daughter. (635)
Charles Townsend
Dutch experience was also important to Viscount Charles Townsend (1674-1738), one of the pioneers of English agricultural improvement. This lord from the upper reaches of the English aristocracy leaned about turnips and clover while serving as English ambassador to Holland. In the 1710's, he was using these crops in the sandy soil of his large estates in Norfolk in eastern England, already one of the most innovative agricultural areas in the country. When Lord Charles retired from politics in 1730 and returned to Norfolk, it was said that he spoke of turnips, turnips and nothing but turnips. This led some wit to nickname his lordship "Turnip" Townsend. But Townsend had the last laugh. Draining extensively, manuring heavily, and sowing crops in regular rotation without fallowing, the farmers who based Townsend's lands produced larger crops. They and he earned higher incomes. Thos who had scoffed reconsidered. By 1740 agricultural improvements in various forms had become something of a craze among the English aristocracy. (634-535)
Cornelius Vermuyden
The most famous of the Dutch engineers, Cornelius Vermuyden, directed one large drainage project in Yorkshire and another in Cambridge. In the Cambridge fens, Vermuyden and his Dutch workers eventually reclaimed forty thousand acres, which were then farmed intensively in the Dutch manner. Although all these efforts were disrupted in the turbulent 1640s by the English civil war, Vermuyden and his countrymen largely succeeded. Swampy wilderness was converted into thousands of acres of some of the best land in England. One such new land, where traditions and common rights were not firmly established, farmers introduced new crops and new rotations fairly easily. (634)
Bubonic plague
The bubonic plague mysteriously disappeared. Following the Black Death in the fourteenth century, plagues had remained a part of the European experience, striking again and again with savage force, particularly in towns. As late as 1721, a ship from Syria and the Levant, where the plague was ever present, brought the monstrous disease to Marseilles. In a few weeks, forty thousand of the city's ninety thousand inhabitants died. The epidemic swept southern France, killing one-third, one-half, even three-fourths of those in the larger towns. Once again an awful fear swept across Europe. However, the epidemic passed, and that was the last plague fell on western and central Europe. The final disappearance of plague was due in part to stricter measures of quarantine in Mediterranean ports and along the Austrian border with turkey. Human carriers of plague were carefully isolated. Chance and plain good luck were more important, however. It is now understood that bubonic plague is a disease of rats. More precisely, it is the black rat that spreads major epidemics, for the black rat's flea is the principal carrier of the plague bacillus. After 1600, for the reasons unknown, a new rat of Asiatic origin-the brown, or wander, rat-began to drive out and eventually eliminate its black competitor. In the words of a noted authority, "This revolution in the animal kingdom must have gone far to break the lethal link between rat and man." Although the brown rat also contracts the plague, another kind of flea is its main parasite. That flea carries the plague poorly, and for good measure, has little taste for human blood. Advances in medical knowledge did not contribute much to reducing the death rate in the eighteenth century. The most important advance in preventive medicine in this period was inoculation against smallpox. This great improvement was long confined mainly to England and probably did little to reduce deaths throughout Europe until the latter part of the century. However, improvements in the water supply and sewerage, which were frequently promoted by strong absolutist monarchies, resulted ins somewhat better public health and helped reduce such diseases such as typhoid and typhus in some urban areas of western Europe. Eighteenth century improvements in water supply and in the drainage of swamps and marshes also reduced Europe's large and dangerous insect population. Filthy flies and mosquitoes played major role in spreading serious epidemics and also in transmitting common diseases, especially those striking children and young adults. Thus early public health measures were probably more important than historians have previously believed, and they helped the decline in morality that began with the disappearance of plague to continue into the early nineteenth century. Human beings also became more successful in their efforts to safeguard the supply of food and protect against famine. The eighteenth century was a time of considerable canal and road building in western Europe. These advances in transportation, which were also among the more positive aspects of strong absolutist states, lessened the impact of local crop failure and famine. Emergency supplies could be brought in. the age-old spectacle of localized starvation became less frequent. Wards became more gentlemanly and less destructive than in the seventeenth century and spread fewer epidemics. New foods, particularly the potato from South America were introduced. Potatoes served as an important alternative source of vitamins A or C for the poor, especially when the grain crop were skimpy or had failed. (638-639)
Asiatic brown rat
It is now understood that bubonic plague is a disease of rats. More precisely, it is the black rat that spreads major epidemics, for the black rat's flea is the principal carrier of the plague bacillus. After 1600, for the reasons unknown, a new rat of Asiatic origin-the brown, or wander, rat-began to drive out and eventually eliminate its black competitor. In the words of a noted authority, "This revolution in the animal kingdom must have gone far to break the lethal link between rat and man." Although the brown rat also contracts the plague, another kind of flea is its main parasite. That flea carries the plague poorly, and for good measure, has little taste for human blood. Advances in medical knowledge did not contribute much to reducing the death rate in the eighteenth century. The most important advance in preventive medicine in this period was inoculation against smallpox. This great improvement was long confined mainly to England and probably did little to reduce deaths throughout Europe until the latter part of the century. (639)
British Navigation Acts
The result of the English desire to increase both military power and private wealth was the mercantile system of navigation Acts. The acts required that goods imported from Europe into England and Scotland be carried on British-owned ships with British crews or on ships of the country producing the article etc. Moreover, these laws gave British merchants and ship owners a virtual monopoly on trade with British monopolies. The Navigation Acts were a form of economic warfare. Their initial target was the Dutch, who were far ahead of the English in shipping and foreign trade in the mid-seventeenth century. The Navigation Acts, along with three Anglo-Dutch wars, did seriously damage Dutch shipping and commerce. (644-645)
Treaty of Paris
British victory in the Seven Years' War on all colonial fronts was ratified in the Treaty of Paris (1763). France lost all its possessions on the mainland of North America. Canada and all of French territory east of the Mississippi River passed to Britain, and France ceded Louisiana to Spain as compensation for Spain's loss to Britain. France also gave up most of its holdings in India, opening the way to British dominance on the subcontinent. (647)
Peace of Utrecht
The Peace of Utrecht was achieved in 1713. The war was "War of the Spanish Succession" (1701-1713). The war was over Frances Louis XIV claiming the succession of the Spanish throne, but was opposed by the Dutch, English, Austrians and Prussians. Louis's grandson, Phillip, remained the Bourbon king on the understanding that the French and Spanish crowns would never be united. The Peace of Utrecht had important international consequences. It represented the balance of power principle in operation; setting limits on to the extent to which any power-in this case France- could expand. The treaty completed the decline of Spain as a great power. It vastly expanded the British Empire. And it gave European powers experience in international cooperation, thus preparing them for the alliances against France at the end of the century. The Peace of Utrecht marked the end of France's expansionist policy. As a result of the Peace of Utrecht, Louis XIV was forced to cede Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and the Hudson Bay territory to Britain. (545)(645-646)
Spinning Jenny
This machine played an important role in the mechanization of textile production. Like the spinning wheel, it may be operated by a treadle or by hand. But, unlike the spinning wheel, it can spin more than one yarn at a time. The idea for multiple-yarn spinning was conceived about 1764 by James Hargreaves, an English weaver. In 1770, he patented a machine that could spin 16 yarns at a time. (643, 727)
Turnips
Because grain crops exhaust the soil and make fallowing necessary, the secret to eliminating the fallow lies in alternating grain with certain nitrogen-storing crops. The most important of these land-reviving crops are peas and beans, root crops such as turnips and potatoes, and clovers and grasses. In the eighteenth century, peas and beans were old standbys; turnips, potatoes, and clover were newcomers to the fields. (632)
Potatoes
Because grain crops exhaust the soil and make fallowing necessary, the secret to eliminating the fallow lies in alternating grain with certain nitrogen-storing crops. The most important of these land-reviving crops are peas and beans, root crops such as turnips and potatoes, and clovers and grasses. In the eighteenth century, peas and beans were old standbys; turnips, potatoes, and clover were newcomers to the fields. (632)
blood sports
"Blood sports" such as bullbaiting and cockfighting were popular leisure time events to watch in eighteenth century Europe. In bullbaiting the bull is attacked by ferocious dogs for amusement. The maimed and tortured animal is eventually slaughtered by a butcher and sold as meat. Cockfighting is another added attraction where two roosters battled it out to determine who is to be the survivor; the loser dies in the end. This attraction was a good chance for spectators to place bets on the lightning fast combat and its uncertain outcome. (p.683)
preindustrial childhood
If a woman married before the age of 30, she was likely to have more than six children. The newborn child entered a dangerous world. Infant mortality was very high during their preindustrial childhood. One in five children were sure to die. They were likely to catch a mysterious disease or illness. Childhood itself was a danger because of adult indifference, neglect, and even abuse. (p.666)
extended family
The typical family during the preindustrial times in Europe was the extended family. A newly married couple will go and live in either the bride or groom's family house. The wife and husband raise their children while living under the same roof with their brothers and sisters who will also be married and have children. (p.661)
smallpox inoculation
Inoculation of smallpox began in the Muslim lands of western Asia. The skin was deliberately broken and a small amount of matter taken from the pustule of a smallpox victim was applied. The person thus contacts a mild case of smallpox that gave lasting protection against future attack. (p.678)
demonic view of disease
Faith healers and their patients believed that demons and evil spirits caused disease. Faith healers "healed" the sick by exorcising the offending demon out of them. This demonic view of disease was the strongest in the countryside where people's belief was of the healing power of religious relics, prayer, and etc. (p.674)
nuclear family
In a nuclear family, when a couple married, they started their own household and lived apart from their parents. In this household, a parent moved in with a married child rather than the married couple moving in with either set of their parents. A nuclear family marriage joined a mature man and woman; two adults who had already experienced a great deal of life. A nuclear family called for the custom of late marriage because the wife and husband could not marry until they could support themselves economically. (p.661)
illegitimacy explosion
The number of illegitimate births soared between about 1750 and 185-0 as much of Europe experienced an "illegitimacy explosion." Fewer young women were abstaining from premarital sex and more importantly fewer young men were marrying the women they got pregnant. (p.664)
Methodists
John Wesley organized a Holy Club for similarly minded students who were known as "Methodists." He was inspired by the Pietism revival in Germany. The converts formed Methodist cells and eventually resulted in a new denomination. (p.682)
coitus interruptus
The coitus interruptus was a common French method of birth control. It was the withdrawal of the male before ejaculation. The French were the early leaders of this method; they used it to limit family size during the end of the eighteenth century. (p.664)
purging
Much of the medical profession believed that the regular "purging" of bowels was essential for good health and treatment of illnesses. Purging was the cleaning of the bowels in the 18th century. Much of purging was harmful, although people of Europe believed it to be a remedy. (p.674)
"killing nurses"
Many observers charged that nurses were often negligent and greedy. They claimed that large numbers of "killing nurses" existed with whom no child ever survived. The nurse let the child die quickly so that she could take another child and another fee. (p.666)
Jesuits
The aristocracy and the rich had led the way in the century with special colleges, often run by Jesuits. There elementary schools taught boys and girls in the areas of basic literacy and religion. (p.668-669)
Lady Mary Montague
An English aristocrat whose great beauty had been marred by the pox, Lady Mary Wortley Montague, learned about the practice of inoculation in the Ottoman Empire while her husband was serving as British ambassador there. She had her own son successfully inoculated in Constantinople and was instrumental in spreading the practice in England after her return in 1722. (p.678)
Edward Jenner
Edward Jenner (1749-1823), a talented country doctor, noted that in the English countryside there was a long-standing belief that dairy maids who had contracted cowpox did not get smallpox. Cowpox produces sores on the cow's udder and on the hands of the milker. The sores resemble those of smallpox, but the disease is mild and not contagious. For eighteen years Jenner practiced a kind of Baconian science, carefully collecting data on protection against smallpox by cowpox. Finally, in 1796, he performed his first vaccination on a young boy using matter taken from a milkmaid with cowpox. After Austrian medical authorities replicated Jenner's results, the new method of treatment spread rapidly. Smallpox soon declined to the point of disappearance in Europe and then throughout the world. Jenner eventually received prizes totaling £30,000 from the British government for his great discovery. (p.678-679)
James Graham
Marques of Montrose (1612-1650), James Graham Montrose, was a leading Scottish supporter of the Royalist cause during the English Civil War of the 1640's. In 1644, his force of Irishmen and Highlanders won the Battle of Tippermuir, captured Aberdeen, and won the Battle of Inverlochy. His victory at Kilsyth in 1645 gave him control of much of Scotland, but he was defeated at the Battle of Philiphaugh in the same year. Montrose left Scotland for Norway in 1646. He tried to raise the Highlands for Prince Charles in 1650. He was defeated at the Battle of Invercarron and was executed in Edinburgh on May 21, 1650. (Wikipedia-reliable)
Joseph II
Joseph II recalled the radical initiatives of the Protestant Reformation. In his Edict on Idle Institutions, Joseph abolished contemplative orders, henceforth permitting only orders that were engaged in teaching, nursing, or other practical work. The number of monks plunged from sixty-five thousand to twenty-seven thousand. The state also expropriated the dissolved monasteries and used their great wealth for charitable purposes and higher salaries for ordinary priests. (p.680)
John Wesley
Pietism had a great impact on John Wesley (1703-1791), who served as the catalyst for popular religious revival I England. Wesley came from a long line of ministers, and then he went to Oxford University to prepare for the clergy, he mapped a fanatically earnest "scheme of religion." Like some students during final exam period, he organized every waking moment. After becoming a teaching fellow at Oxford, he organized a Holy Club for similarly minded students, who were soon known contemptuously as "Methodists" because they were so methodical in their devotion. (p.682)
The bourgeoisie
In discussing the long-term origins of the French Revolution, historians have long focused on growing tensions between the nobility and the comfortable members of the third estate, usually known as the bourgeoisie, or middle class. The bourgeoisie was basically united by economic position and the class interest. The French bourgeoisie eventually rose up to lead the entire third estate in a great social revolution, a revolution that destroyed feudal privileges and established a capitalist order basted on individualism and a market economy. Rather than standing as unified blocks against each other, nobility and bourgeoisie formed two parallel social ladders increasingly linked together at the top by wealth, marriage, and Enlightenment culture. (692, 698-699)
Classical liberalism
The ideas of liberty and equality-the central ideas of classical liberalism-had deep roots in Western history. Classical liberalism first crystallized at the end of the seventeenth century and during the Enlightenment of the eighteenth century. Liberal ideas reflected the Enlightenment's stress on human dignity and human happiness on earth and its faith in science, rationality, and progress. Most of the writers of the Enlightenment were passionately committed to greater personal liberty and equal treatment even before the law. Liberals demanded that citizens' rights had no limits except those that assure rights to other. Revolutionary leaders believed that people were sovereign. It exemplified by the American Constitution and the Bill of Rights, liberty meant individual freedoms, and political safeguards, equality meant equality before the law, not equality of political participation or wealth. (692, 697)
Liberty and equality
These were two ideas that feulled the revolution the revolutionary period in America and Europe. The call for liberty was a call for a new kind of government. Revolutionary liberals believed that the people were sovereign. Equality was a more ambiguous idea. Eighteenth century liberals argued that, in theory, all citizens should have identical rights and civil liberties and that the nobility had no right to special privileges based on the accident of birth. However, liberals accepted some well-established distinctions. First, most eighteenth-century liberals were men of their times, and they generally shared with other men the belief that equality between men and women was neither practical nor desirable. Second, liberals never believed that everyone should be equal economically. Liberty meant individual freedoms and political safeguards. Liberty also meant representative government but did not necessarily mean democracy, with its principle of one person, one vote. Equality meant equality before the law, not equality of political participation or wealth. (691-692)
Checks and balances
In the new government, the strong rule would be placed squarely in the context of representative self-government. Senators and congressmen would be the lawmaking delegates of the voters, and the president of the republic would be an elected official. The central government would operate in Montesquieu's framework of checks and balances. The executive, legislative, and judicial branches would systematically balance one another. The power of the federal government would in turn be checked by the powers of the individual states. (695-696)
Natural or universal rights
Natural law had always stressed the duties over the rights of government and individuals. But in the late 1600's, natural law began to emphasize natural rights. This change was brought about largely by the writings of the English philosopher John Locke. Locke argued that governmental authority depends on the people's consent. According to Locke, people originally lived in a state of nature with no restrictions on their freedom. Then they came to realize that confusion would result if each person enforced his or her own rights. People agreed to live under a common government, but not to surrender their "rights of nature" to the government. Instead, they expected the government to protect these rights, especially the rights of life, liberty, and property. Locke's ideas of limited government and natural rights became part of the English Bill of Rights (1689), the French Declaration of the Rights of Man (1789), and the U.S. Bill of Rights (1791). (692)
Republican
A person for the nation, like that of a republic, a republican form of government. (694)
Popular sovereignty
The idea that people alone had the authority to make laws limited an individual's freedom of action, in practice this system of government meant choosing legislators who represented the people and were accountable to them. (692)
Tithe
As in the Middle Ages, France's 25 million inhabitants were still legally divided into three orders or "estates"-the clergy, the nobility, and everyone else. As the nation's first estate, the clergy numbered about 100,000 and had important privileges. It owned about ten percent of the land and paid only a "voluntary gift" rather than regular, to the government every five years. Moreover, the church levied a tax (the tithe) on landowners, which averaged somewhat less that 10 percent. Much of the church's income was actually drained away from local parishes by political appointees and worldly aristocrats at the top of the church hierarchy-to the intense dissatisfaction of the poor parish priests. (698)
Stamp Act
The American Revolution had its immediate origin in a squabble over increased taxes. Although the colonists had furnished little aid in the Seven Years' War, the British won and doubled its debt. The British government wanted the American colonists for their fair share of imperial expenses. In 1765, the government pushed through parliament the Stamp Act, which levied taxes on a long list of commercial and legal documents, diplomas, pamphlets, newspapers, almanacs, dice, and playing cards. A stamp glued to each article indicated the tax had been paid. The colonists protested the Stamp Act vigorously and violently, however, after their rioting and boycotts against British goods, Parliament repealed the new tax. (693)
Battle of Trafalgar
When Napoleon tried to bring his Mediterranean fleet around Gibraltar to northern France, a combined French and Spanish fleet was, after a series of mishaps, virtually annihilated by Lord Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar on October 21, 1805. invasion of England was henceforth impossible. Renewed fighting had its advantages, however, for the first consul used the wartime atmosphere to have himself proclaimed emperor in late 1804. (715)
American Bill of Rights
When the results of the secret deliberations of the Constitutional Convention were presented to the states for ratification, a great public debate arose. The opponents of the proposed constitution, the Antifederalists, charged that the framers of the new document had taken too much power from the individual states and made the federal government too strong. Moreover, many Antifederalists feared for the personal liberties and individual freedoms for which they had just fought. In order to overcome these objections, the Federalists solemnly promised to spell out these basic freedoms as soon as the new constitution was adopted. The result was the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which the first congress passes shortly after it met in New York in March 1789. These amendments formed an effective bill of rights to safeguard the individual. Most of them were trial by jury, due process of law, right to assemble, freedom from unreasonable search, had their origins in English law and the English Bill of Rights of 1689. Others, the freedoms of speech, the press, and religion, reflected the natural law theory and the American experience. The American constitution and the Bill of Rights exemplified the great strengths and the limits of what came to be called "classical liberalism." Liberty meant individual freedom and political safeguards. Liberty also meant representative government but did not necessarily mean democracy, with its principle of one person, one vote. (696)
Loyalists
Many American families remained loyal to Britain, many others divided bitterly. After the Declaration of independence, the conflict often took the form of a civil war pitting patriot against Loyalist. The Loyalists tended to be wealthy and politically moderate. Many patriots, too, were wealthy, individuals such as John Hancock and George Washington, but willingly allied themselves with farmers and artisans in a broad coalition. This coalition harassed the Loyalists and confiscated their property to help pay for the American war effort. The broad social base of the revolutionaries tended to make the liberal revolution democratic. (694)
Constitutional Convention of 1787
The liberal program of the American Revolution was consolidated by the federal constitution, the Bill of Rights, and the creation of a national republic. Assembling in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention were determined to end the period of economic depression, social uncertainty, and a very weak central government that had followed independence. The delegates thus decided to grant the federal, or central, government important powers: regulation of domestic and foreign trade, the right to tax, and the means to enforce its laws. (695)
Jacobins
When the National Assembly in France disbanded, it sought popular support by decreeing that none of its members would be eligible for election to the new Legislative Assembly. This meant that when the new representative body convened in October 1791, it had a different character.. The great majority of the legislators were still prosperous, well-educated, middle-class men, but they were younger and less cautious than their predecessors. Many of the deputies were loosely allied and called "Jacobins," after the name of their political club. All of the members of the National Convention were republicans, and at the beginning almost all belonged to the Jacobin club of Paris. The great majority also continued to come from the well-educated middle class. But control of the Convention was increasingly contested by two bitterly competitive groups-the Girondists, named after a department in southwestern France, and the Mountain, led by Robespierre and another young lawyer, Georges Jacques Danton. The uppermost left-hand benches of the assembly hall. A majority of the indecisive Convention members, seated in the "Plain" below, floated back and forth between the rival factions. (706-707)
Girondists
The control of the Convention was increasingly contested by two bitterly competitive groups-the Girondists, named after a department in southwestern France, and the Mountain, led by Robespierre and another young lawyer, Georges Jacques Danton. The Mountain was so called because its members sat on the uppermost left-hand benches of the assembly hall. A majority of the indecisive Convention members, seated in the "Plain" below, floated back and forth between the rival factions. The Girondists feared a bloody dictatorship by the Mountain. The petty traders and laboring poor were often known as the sans-culottes, "without breeches," because sans-culottes men wore trousers instead of knee breeches of the aristocracy and the solid middle class. The immediate interests of the sans-culottes were mainly economic, and in the spring of 1793 the economic situation was as bad as the military situation. Rapid inflation, unemployment, and food shortages were again weighing heavily on poor families. Moreover, by the spring of 1793, the sans-culottes had become keenly interested in politics. Encouraged by the so-called angry men, the sans-culottes men and women were demanding radical political action to guarantee them their daily bread. At first the Mountain joined the Girondists in violently rejecting these demands. But in the face of military defeat, peasant revolt, and hatred of the Girondists, the Mountain and especially became more sympathetic. The Mountain joined with sans-culottes activists in the city government to engineer a popular uprising which forced the convention to arrest thirty-one Girondists deputies for treason. All power passed to the Mountain. Robespierre and others from the Mountain joined the recently formed Committee of Public Safety, to which the Convention had given dictatorial power to deal with the national emergency. These developments in Paris triggered revolt in leading provincial cities, where moderates denounced Paris and demanded a decentralized government. (707-708)
Mountain
The control of the Convention was increasingly contested by two bitterly competitive groups the Girondists, named after a department in southwestern France, and the Mountain, led by Robespierre and another young lawyer, Georges Jacques Danton. The Mountain was so called because its members sat on the uppermost left-hand benches of the assembly hall. A majority of the indecisive Convention members, seated in the "Plain" below, floated back and forth between the rival factions. The Mountain was no less convinced that the more moderate Girondists would turn to conservatives and even royalists in order of retain power. The petty traders and laboring poor were often known as the sans-culottes, "without breeches," because sans-culottes men wore trousers instead of knee breeches of the aristocracy and the solid middle class. The immediate interests of the sans-culottes were mainly economic, and in the spring of 1793 the economic situation was as bad as the military situation. Rapid inflation, unemployment, and food shortages were again weighing heavily on poor families. Moreover, by the spring of 1793, the sans-culottes had become keenly interested in politics. Encouraged by the so-called angry men, the sans-culottes men and women were demanding radical political action to guarantee them their daily bread. At first the Mountain joined the Girondists in violently rejecting these demands. But in the face of military defeat, peasant revolt, and hatred of the Girondists, the Mountain and especially became more sympathetic. The Mountain joined with sans-culottes activists in the city government to engineer a popular uprising which forced the convention to arrest thirty-one Girondists deputies for treason. All power passed to the Mountain. Robespierre and others from the Mountain joined the recently formed Committee of Public Safety, to which the Convention had given dictatorial power to deal with the national emergency. These developments in Paris triggered revolt in leading provincial cities, where moderates denounced Paris and demanded a decentralized government. (707-708)
Reign of Terror
While the radical economic measures supplied the poor with bread and the armies with weapons, the Reign of Terror (1793-1794) was solidifying the home front. Special revolutionary courts responsible only to Robespierre's Committee of Public Safety tried rebels and "enemies of the nation" for political crimes. Drawing on popular, sans-culottes support centered in the local Jacobin clubs, these local courts ignored normal legal procedures. Some 40,000 French men and women were executed of died in prison. Another 300,000 suspects crowded the prisons and often brushed close to death in a revolutionary court. Robespierre's Reign of Terror was one of the most controversial phases of the French revolution. It was not directed against any specific class, instead it was rather a political weapon directed impartially against all who might oppose the revolutionary government. For many Europeans of the time, however, the Reign of Terror represented a terrifying perversion of the generous ideals that had existed in 1789. (708-709)
National Assembly
In May 1789, the twelve hundred delegates of the three estates paraded in medieval peasantry through the streets of Versailles to an opening session resplendent with feudal magnificence. The estates were almost immediately deadlocked. Delegates of the third estate refused to transact any business until the king ordered the clergy and nobility to go over to sit with them in a single body. Finally, after a six-week war of nerves, a few parish priests began to go over the third estate, which on June 17 voted to call itself the "National Assembly." (700)
Declaration of the Rights of Women
Among those who saw the contradiction in granting the supposedly universal rights to only half the population was Marie Gouze (1748-1793), known to history as Olympe de Gouges. The daughter of a provincial butcher and peddler, she pursued a literary career in Paris after the death of her husband. Between 1790 and 1793, she wrote more than two dozen political pamphlets under her new name. De Gouges' great work was her "Declaration of the Rights of Woman" (1791). It called on males to end their oppression of women and give women equal rights. A radical on women's issues, de Gouges sympathized with monarchy and criticized Robespierre in print. Convicted of sedition, she was guillotined in November 1793. (722)
Bastille
Against this background of dire poverty and excitement generated by the political crisis, the people of Paris entered decisively onto the revolutionary stage. They believed in a general, though ill-defined, way that the economic distress had human causes. They believed that they should have steady work and enough bread at fair prices to survive. Specifically, they feared that the dismissal of the king's moderate finance minister would put them at the mercy of aristocratic landowners. And grain speculators. Angry crowds formed. And passionate voices urged action. On July 13, the people began to seize arms for the defense of the city as the king's armies moved toward Paris, and on July 14 several hundred of the most determined people marched to the Bastille to search for weapons and gunpowder. A medieval fortress with walls ten feet thick and eight great towers each one hundred feet high, the Bastille had long been used as a prison. It was guarded by eighty retired soldiers and thirty Swiss mercenaries. The governor of the fortress-prison refused to hand over the powder, panicked, and ordered his men to fire, killing ninety-eight people attempting to enter. (701-702)
Sans-culottes
The petty traders and laboring poor were often known as the sans-culottes, "without breeches," because sans-culottes men wore trousers instead of knee breeches of the aristocracy and the solid middle class. The immediate interests of the sans-culottes were mainly economic, and in the spring of 1793 the economic situation was as bad as the military situation. Rapid inflation, unemployment, and food shortages were again weighing heavily on poor families. Moreover, by the spring of 1793, the sans-culottes had become keenly interested in politics. Encouraged by the so-called angry men, the sans-culottes men and women were demanding radical political action to guarantee them their daily bread. At first the Mountain joined the Girondists in violently rejecting these demands. But in the face of military defeat, peasant revolt, and hatred of the Girondists, the Mountain and especially became more sympathetic. The Mountain joined with sans-culottes activists in the city government to engineer a popular uprising which forced the convention to arrest thirty-one Girondists deputies for treason. All power passed to the Mountain. Robespierre and others from the Mountain joined the recently formed Committee of Public Safety, to which the Convention had given dictatorial power to deal with the national emergency. These developments in Paris triggered revolt in leading provincial cities, where moderates denounced Paris and demanded a decentralized government. (708)
"the baker, the baker's wife, and the baker's boy"
The poor believed the king was the baker, the queen was the baker's wife and the prince was the baker's boy. They wanted the king to give them bread and do something about the rising bread prices. (wikipedia)
Lord Nelson
When Napoleon tried to bring his Mediterranean fleet around Gibraltar to northern France, a combined French and Spanish fleet was, after a series of mishaps, virtually annihilated by Lord Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar on October 21, 1805. invasion of England was henceforth impossible. Renewed fighting had its advantages, however, for the first consul used the wartime atmosphere to have himself proclaimed emperor in late 1804. (715)
Mary Wollstonecraft
One passionate rebuttal came from a young writer in London, Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1707). Born into the middle class, Wollstonecraft was schooled in adversity by a mean-spirited father who beat his wife and squandered his inherited fortune. Determined to be independent in society that generally expected women of her class to become homebodies and obedient wives, she struggled for years to earn her living as a governess and teacher-practically the only acceptable careers for a single, educated woman-before attaining success as a translator and author. Interested in politics and believing that a "desperate disease requires a powerful remedy" in Great Britain as well as France, Wollstonecraft was incensed by Burke's book. She immediately wrote a blistering, widely read attack, a Vindication of the Rights of Man (1790). Then, fired up on controversy and commitment, she made a daring leap. She developed for the first time the logical implications of natural law philosophy in her masterpiece, A Vindication of the Rights of a Woman (1792). To fulfill the still-unrealized potential of the French Revolution and to eliminate the sexual inequality she had felt so keenly, she demanded that the rights of a woman be respected and there be justice for them. She advocated rigorous coeducation, which would make women better wives and mothers, good citizens, and even economically independent people. Women could manage businesses and enter politics if only men would give them a chance. Men themselves would benefit from women's rights.(705)
Edmund Burke
After the French Revolution began, conservative leaders such as Edmund Burke (1729-1797) were deeply troubled by the aroused spirit of reform. In 1790 Burke published Reflections on the Revolution in France, one of the great intellectual defenses of European conservatism. He defended inherited privileges in general and those of the English monarchy and aristocracy. He glorified the unrepresentative Parliament and predicted that thoroughgoing reform like that occurring in France would lead only to chaos and tyranny. Burke's work sparked much debate. (705)
Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette was the queen of France at the time of the Revolution. Marie Antoinette was widely despised for her frivolous and supposedly immoral behavior. When Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were arrested and returned to Paris after trying unsuccessfully to slip out of France in June 1791, the monarchs of Austria and Prussia issued the Declaration of Pillnitz. This carefully worded statement declared there willingness to intervene in France in certain circumstances and was expected to have a sobering effect on revolutionary France without causing war. (706)
Marquis de Lafayette
No country felt the consequences of the American Revolution more directly than France. Hundreds of French officers served in America and were inspired by the experience. The most famous of these, the young and impressionable marquis de Lafayette (1757-1834), left home as a great aristocrat determined only to fight France's traditional foe, England. He returned with a love of liberty and firm republican convictions. He quickly became one of Washington's most trusted generals. French intellectuals and publicists engaged in passionate analysis of the federal Constitution as well as the constitutions of the various states of the United States. The American Revolution undeniably hastened upheaval in France. (694) (696)
Thomas Jefferson
On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. Written by Thomas Jefferson, the Declaration of Independence boldly listed the tyrannical acts committed by George III and confidently proclaimed the natural rights of mankind and the sovereignty of the American states. (694)
Robespeirre
When Louis XVI accepted the final version of the completed constitution in September 1791, a young and still obscure provincial lawyer and member of the National Assembly named Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794) evaluated the work of two years and concluded, "The Revolution is over." Robespierre was both right and wrong. He was right in the sense that the most constructive and lasting reforms were in place. Nothing substantial in the way of liberty and useful reform would be gained in the next generation. He was wrong in the sense that a much more radical stage lay ahead. New heroes and new ideologies were to emerge in revolutionary wars and international conflict. The National Convention proclaimed France a republic in 1792. However, the convention was split between the Girondists and the Mountain, led by Robespierre and Danton. Robespierre established a planned economy to wage total war and aid the poor. The government fixed prices on key products and instituted rationing. Workshops were nationalized to produce goods for the war effort, and raw materials were requisitioned. Under Robespierre, the Reign of Terror was instituted to eliminate opposition to the Revolution, and some 40,000 people were jailed or executed. Robespierre cooperated with the san-culottes in bringing about a state-controlled economy--particularly fixing the price of bread. He was guillotined because Robespierre's Terror wiped out many of the angry men who had been criticizing Robespierre for being soft on the wealthy. (704-710)
John Locke
Certain English and French thinkers were mainly responsible for joining the Enlightenment's concern for personal freedom and legal equality to a theoretical justification of liberal self-government. One of them most important of these thinkers was John Locke. Locke maintained that England's long political tradition rested on "the rights of Englishmen" and on representative government through Parliament. He admired especially the great Whig nobles who had deposed James II and made the bloodless revolution of 1688-1689, and he argued that if a government oversteps its proper function of protecting the natural rights of life, liberty, and private property, it becomes a tyranny. (692)
Abbe Sieyes
Reflecting increased political competition and a growing hostility toward aristocratic aspirations, the abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyés in1789 in his famous pamphlet What is the Third Estate? That the nobility was a tiny, over privileged minority and that the neglected third estate constituted the true strength of the French nation. When the government agreed that the third estate should have as many as delegates as the clergy and the nobility combined, but then rendered this act meaningless by upholding voting by separate order, middle class leaders saw fresh evidence of an aristocratic conspiracy. (700)
Cottage workers
The cottage workers were use to the putting-out system so they were reluctant to work in factories, even if they received good wages because the factory work was more difficult yet appealing. The factory working life was more strict, organized, and disciplined. This was difficult for the cottage workers because they were not used to such work and discipline. The cottage workers had to mold their lives to the tempo of the factory life. The similarity between large brick factories and large stone poor houses increased the cottage workers fears of factories and their hatred of factory discipline. The refusal of cottage workers to work in factories led to child labor. (744)
Domestic system
(or cottage industry): a system of production in the Industrial Revolution where workers made or worked on products, such as clothes, usually at home, for a merchant who paid them for their work. (744)
Industrial Revolution
Building on technical breakthroughs, power-driven equipment, and large-scale enterprise, the Industrial Revolution in England greatly increased output in certain radically altered industries, stimulated the large handicraft and commercial sectors, and speeded up overall economic growth. The industrial revolution is a term used to describe the burst of major inventions and technical changes they had witnessed in certain industries. Building on technical breakthroughs, power-driven equipment, and large-scale enterprise, the Industrial Revolution in England greatly increased output in certain radically altered industries, stimulated the large handicraft and commercial sectors, and speeded up overall economic growth. (725-727)
Protective tariff
Friedrich List wanted a high protective tariff to encourage the infant industries to allow them to develop and eventually hold their own tariff against their more advanced British counterparts. It was a government's way of supporting and aiding their own economy by laying high tariffs on the cheaper, imported goods of another country, ex. when France responded to cheaper British goods flooding their country with high tariffs on British imports. (738)
Chartist movement
After the collapse of Owen's National Trade Union, the energy of the working people went into the Chartist Movement, whose goal was political democracy. Chartism was a workers' political movement that sought universal male suffrage, shorter work hours, and cheap bread. The key Chartist demand-that all men be given the right to vote-became the great hope of millions of aroused people. (749)
Energy crisis of the eighteenth century
Finding a solution to the energy problem was a major cause of the Industrial Revolution. Many of the forests in Britain were being replaced with fields for food. Wood served as the primary source of heat for all homes and industries and as a basic raw material. Processed wood (charcoal) was the fuel that was mixed with iron ore in the blast furnace to produce pig iron. Vast forests enabled Russia to become the world's leading producer of iron, much of which was exported to Britain. But Russia's potential for growth was limited, too, and in a few decades Russia would reach the barrier of in adequate energy that was already holding England back. Britain looked toward its abundant reserves of coal as an alternative to the vanishing wood. Coal was first used in Britain in the late Middle Ages as a source of heat. By 1640 most homes in London were heated with it, and it also provided heat for making beer, glass, soap, and other products. Coal was not used to produce mechanical energy or to power machinery. It was there that the coal's potential was enormous. Therefore, people turned to coal for the mechanical energy. (728-729)
real wages
Only after 1820, and especially after 1840, did real wages rise substantially, so that the average worker earned and consumed roughly 50 percent more in real terms in 1850 than in 1770. (743)
sexual division of labor
The man emerged as the family's primary wage earner, while the women found limited job opportunities. By tradition, certain jobs were defined by sex-women and girls for milking and spinning, men and boys for plowing and weaving. Normally denied jobs at good wages in the growing urban economy, women were expected to concentrate on unpaid housework, childcare, and craftwork at home. (746)
separate spheres
Studies show that married women in the working classes did not normally work full time outside the house after the first child. They still earned small amounts through putting-out handicrafts at home and taking in boarders. When married women did work for wages outside the house, they usually came from the poorest, most desperate families, where husbands were poorly paid, sick, unemployed, or missing. All women were generally confined to low-paying, dead-end jobs. Virtually no occupation open to women paid a wage sufficient for a person to live independently. The man emerged as the family's primary wage earner. (746-747)
patriarchial tradition
Sexist attitudes of a "patriarchal tradition," which predated the economic transformation. The reasons for reorganization of paid work along gender lines were ingrained in the idea of patriarchal tradition which grew out of the preindustrial craft unions. Scholars stress the role of male-dominated craft unions in denying workingwomen access t good jobs and in reducing them to unpaid maids dependent on their husbands. (746)
Thomas Malthus
He wrote Essay on the Principle of Population (1798). Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) argued the population would always tend to grow faster than the food supply. He believed that the only hope of warding off such "positive checks" to population growth as war, famine, and disease was "prudential restraint." Young men and women had to limit the growth of population by marrying late in life. He did not think this was possible however. The powerful attraction of the sexes would cause most people to marry early and have many children. Malthus and Ricardo were both proven wrong in the long run. (733)
David Ricardo
A wealthy English stockbroker and leading economist David Ricardo (1772-1823). Ricardo's depressing "iron law of wages" posited that because the pressure if population growth, wages would always sink to subsistence level. Wages would be just high enough to keep workers from starving. Wages would always be low according to Ricardo. Malthus and Ricardo were both proven wrong in the long run. (733-734)
Andrew Ure
Andrew Ure believed that conditions were improving for the working people. Ure wrote in 1835 in his study of the cotton industry that conditions in most factories were not harsh and were even quite good. (743)
Crystal Palace
In 1851 Great Exposition, held in the Crystal Palace, reflected the growth of industry and population in Britain and confirmed that Britain was the "workshop of the world." The Crystal Palace, an architectural masterpiece made entirely of glass and iron, both of which were cheap and abundant. Companies and countries displayed their products and juries awarded prizes in the strikingly modern Crystal Palace. (732)
Cartwrights' power loom
Edmund Cartwright invented a power loom that would save on labor costs in 1785. But the power looms of the factories worked poorly at first, and handloom weavers continued to receive good wages until at least 1800. (727-728)
Spinning jenny
James Hargreaves, invented his cotton-spinning jenny about 1765. Hargreaves' jenny was simple and inexpensive, and hand-operated. In early models, from six to twenty-four spindles were mounted on a sliding carriage, and each spindle spun a fine, slender thread. (727)
Zollverein
Was formed between 39 states of the German confederation during the Industrial Revolution to remove internal custom barriers. Zollverein was the formation of customs union. List supported the idea of a tariff-free zone in Germany, the Zollverein. (738)
Factory Act of 1833
It limited the Factory workday for children between nine and thirteen to eight hours and that of adolescents between fourteen and eighteen to twelve hours, although the act made no effort to regulate the hours of work for children at home of in small businesses. The law also prohibited the factory employment of children under nine; they were to be enrolled in the elementary schools that factory owners were required to establish. Due to this new act, the employment of children declined rapidly. Thus the Factory Act broke the pattern of whole families working together in the factory because efficiency required standardized shifts for all workers. (746)
Crédit Mobilier
Crédit Mobilier of Paris, was a corporate bank founded by Isaac and Emilie Pereire, two young Jewish journalists from Bordeaux. The Crédit Mobilier advertised extensively. It used the savings of thousands of small investors as well as the resources of big ones. The activities of the bank were far-reaching; it built railroads all over France and Europe. Most corporate banks usually worked in collaboration with governments; they established and developed many railroads and many companies working in heavy in heavy industry, which were increasingly organized as limited liability corporations. (739)
Combination Acts
In 1799 Parliament passed the Combination Acts, which outlawed unions and strikes. The Combinations Acts were widely disregarded by workers, yet the printers, papermakers, carpenters, tailors, and other such craftsmen continued to take collective action, and societies of skilled factory workers also organized unions. Unions sought to control the number of skilled workers, limit apprenticeship to members' own children, and bargain with owners over wages. They were afraid to strike; there was, for example, a general strike of adult cotton spinners in Manchester in 1810. In the face of widespread union activity, Parliament repealed the combinations Act in 1824, and unions were tolerated, though not fully accepted, after 1825. (749)
Parish "apprentices" in cotton mills
Therefore, factory owners turned to young children who had been abandoned by their parents and put in the care of local parishes. Parish officers often "apprenticed" such unfortunate foundlings to factory owners. The parish thus saved money, and the factory owners gained workers over whom they exercised almost the authority of slave owners. (728)
Henry Cort
In the 1780's Henry Cort developed the puddling furnace, which allowed pig iron to be refined in turn with coke. Strong, skilled ironworkers-the puddlers-"cooked" molten pig iron in a great vat, raking off globs of refined iron for further processing. Cort also developed heavy-duty, steam powered rolling mills, which were capable of spewing finished iron in every shape and form. The economic consequence of these technical innovations was a great boom in British iron industry. In 1740 annual British iron production was only 17,000 tons. With the spread of coke smelting and the fast impact of Cort's inventions, production reached 68,000 tons in 1788, 125,000 in 1796, and 260,000 tons in 1806. In 1844 Britain produced 3 million tons of iron. Once scarce and expensive, iron became cheap, basic, indispensable building block of the economy. (731)
James Hargreaves
A gifted carpenter and jack-of-all-trades, James Hargreaves, invented his cotton-spinning jenny about 1765. Hargreaves' jenny was simple and inexpensive. It was also hand-operated. In early models, from six to twenty-four spindles were mounted on a sliding carriage, and each spindle spun a fine, slender thread. (727)
Robert Owen
Robert Owen (1771-1858) was a self-made cotton manufacturer. He had pioneered in industrial relations by combining firm discipline with concern for the health, safety, and hours of his workers. After 1815, he experimented with cooperative and socialist communities. Then in 1834, Owen organized one of the largest and most visionary of the early national unions, the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union. (749)
James Watt
James Watt (1736-1819) was drawn to a critical study of the steam engine. After a series of observations, Watt saw why the engine wasted energy: The cylinder was being heated and cooled for every single stroke of piston. To remedy this problem, Watt added a separate condenser where the steam could be condensed without cooling the cylinder. This splendid invention greatly increased the efficiency of the steam engine. He increased the efficiency of the steam engine and began to produce them. (729-730)
Friedrich List
Friedrich List (1789-1746), a German journalist and thinker. He promoted government's greater role in industrialization on the continent. List thought that the growth of the modern industry was most important because manufacturing was the way to increase the well being of people and relieve poverty. List was a nationalist. He wrote "wider the gap between the backward and advanced nations, the more dangerous it is to remain behind." To promote industry was to defend the nation. The practical policies that List focused on in articles and in his influential National System of Political Economy (1841) were railroad building and the protective tariff. (738)
George Stephenson
As soon as a rail capable of supporting a heavy locomotive was developed in 1816, many experiments with the steam engines on rails went forward. In 1825, after ten years of work, George Stephenson built an effective locomotive. In 1830 his Rocket sped down the track of the just completed Liverpool and Manchester at sixteen miles per hour. (731)
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
In 1834 Owen organized one of the largest and most visionary of the early national unions, the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union (the GNCTU). When this and other grandiose schemes collapsed, the British labor movement moved once again after 1851 in the direction of craft unions. (749)
Emile and Isaac Pereire
The most famous industrial, corporate bank was the Crédit Mobilier of Paris, founded by Isaac and Emilie Pereire, two young Jewish journalists from Bordeaux. As Emilie Pereire had said in 1835, "It is not enough to outline gigantic programs on paper; I must write my ideas on the earth." (739)
Friedrich Engles
The pessimistic view of Malthus and Ricardo was accepted and reinforced by Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), the future revolutionary and colleague of Karl Marx. After studying working conditions in northern England, this young middle-class German published in 1844, The Condition of the Working Class in England, and a blistering indictment of the middle classes. The new poverty of industrial workers was worse than the old poverty of the cottage workers and agricultural laborers, according to Engels. The culprit was industrial capitalism, with its relentless competition and constant technical change. Engels' extremely influential charge of the middle-class exploitation and increasing worker poverty was embellished by Marx and later socialists. (743)
Craft Union
In 1834 Robert Owen organized one of the largest and most visionary of the early national unions, the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union. When this and other grandiose schemes collapsed, the British labor movement moved once again after 1851 in the direction of craft unions. The most famous of these "new model unions" was the Amalgamated Society of Engineers. These unions won real benefits for members by fairly conservative means and thus became an accepted part of the industrial scene. (749)
Storm and stress
"Sturm und Drang", German early Romantics of the 1770s and 1780s who lived lives of tremendous emotional intensity - suicides, duels, madness and strange illnesses were common. (p.766)
Congress of Vienna
The conservative aristocratic monarchies such as Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Britain met at the congress of Vienna to make a general peace settlement after they defeated Napoleon France. The political leader had to construct a settlement that would last and not sow the seeds of another war. Their efforts were successful and resulted in a century unmarred by war. (p.755-757)
balance of power
The balance of power meant an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression by any combination of state, worse, the domination of Europe by any single state. Balance of power kept order of Europe and kept any one nation from becoming top powerful, for example France. (p.757)
romanticism
Romanticism was characterized by a belief in emotional exuberance, unrestrained imagination, and spontaneity in both art and in personal life. Forerunners of the Romantic Movement appeared from about 1750 on. Of these, Rousseau-the passionate advocate of feeling, freedom, and natural goodness-was the most influential. Romanticism then fully crystallized in the 1790's. The Romantic Movement was in part a revolt against classicism and the Enlightenment. (p.766)
conservatism
Conservatism stressed on tradition, a hereditary monarchy, and an official church. Conservatives such as Metternich exemplified these characteristics and theological ideas through the diplomatic qualities of an empire, more specifically the Austrian Empire. The wanted to keep old traditions, ideas, values, and customs intact. (p.761)
dual revolution
In 1815, economic and political changes fused together in what was called the dual revolution. The dual revolution first altered Europe dramatically and then continued to alter the rest of the world. The interrelated economic and political transformation was built on complicated histories, strong traditions, and diverse cultures. The dual revolution also posed a great problem; economic, political, and social changes remained unclear. (p.755)
liberalism
Liberalism, as embodied in America and France, demands for representative government and civil liberties. Liberals believed that people, each national group, has a right to establish its own independent government and seek to fulfill its own destiny, the idea of national self-determination was repellent to Metternich. The main principles of liberalism were liberty and equality. The idea of liberty means specific individual freedoms: freedom of press, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom of arbitrary arrest. Liberal demands were a call for freedom and revolutionary change. (p.759,761)
nationalism
Nationalism was a second radical idea in the years after 1815, an idea that was to have an enormous influence in the modern world. Nationalism evolved from the concept of cultural unity, manifesting itself in a common language, history, and territory. Nationalists believed that every nation, like every citizen, had the right to exist in freedom and to develop its character and spirit. (p.762)
radicalism
Radicalism is a political philosophy that emphasizes the need to find and eliminate the basic injustices of society. The word radicalism comes from the Latin word radix, meaning root. Radicals seek what they consider the roots of the economic, political, and social wrongs of society and demand immediate and sweeping changes to wipe them out. The doctrines or practices of being radical. (p.761-762)
laissez-faire
The laissez-faire was the philosophy that promoted the free economy of equal opportunity for all people. Economic liberalism and laissez economic thought were embraced most enthusiastically by business groups and became a doctrine associated with business interests. Economic liberalism that believes in unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy. (p.761)
iron law of wages
David Ricardo formulated the iron law of wages, which said that because of the pressure of population growth, wages would be just high enough to keep workers from starving. (p.761)
utopian socialism
A socialism achieved by voluntary sacrifice. Planning greater economic equality, and state regulation of property-these were the key ideas of early French socialism and of all socialism since. (p.764-765)
Marxian socialism
Early French socialists often appealed to the middle class and the state to help the poor. Marx ridiculed such appeals as naïve. He argued that the interests of the middle class and those of the industrial working class were inevitably opposed to each other. In Marx's view, one class had always exploited the other, and because of modern history, society was more clearly split than ever before: between the middle class (the bourgeoisie) and the working class (the proletariat). The idea of Karl Marx who thought that the proletariat would rebel and set up the ideal government. It became communism. (p.765)
classicism
Aesthetic attitudes and principles manifested in the art, architecture, and literature of ancient Greece and Rome and characterized by emphasis on form, simplicity, proportion, and restraint. (p.766-767)
republicanism
Favoring a republic form of government as the best out of all other monarchies, oligarchies, democracies, and etc. (p.762)
The Great Famine
The result of four years of crop failure in Ireland, a country that had grown dependent of potatoes as a dietary staple. (p.777)
Klemens von Metternich
During the Congress of Vienna, Castlereagh and Metternich grew fed up with Russia and Prussia's demands that they almost initiated a war against them. Under Metternich's leadership, Austria, Russia, and Prussia started on a crusade against the ideas and politics of the dual revolution. Metternich was horrified when Spain and kingdoms of Italy granted liberals constitutions against the will of the Holy Alliance. Metternich battled against liberal political change in the following years. Metternich's policies dominated Austria and also the entire German confederation. Metternich's ruthless imposition of repressive internal policies on the governments of central Europe contrasted sharply with the intelligent moderation he displayed during the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Klemens von Metternich was an internationally oriented aristocrat who made a brilliant diplomatic career in Austria. He was loyal to his class and unfalteringly defended its rights and privileges till the day he died. A conservative, Metternich firmly believed that liberalism was the cause of war generations before him. He supported and strongly advocated conservatism. He blamed liberal revolutionaries for stirring up the way things were meant to be and the lower classes, which he believed desired nothing more than peace and quiet. Liberalism threatened the existence of the aristocracy, the class which Metternich belonged to, and also threatened to destroy the Austrian empire and revolutionize central Europe. (p.758-759)
Francis Palacky
The leader of the Czech cultural revival, the passionate democrat and nationalist historian Francis Palacky is a good example of the "they" tendency. He was a nationalist. Francis Palacky, Mazzini, and Michelet all spoke of national mission and the superiority of one nation over the other. Palacky lauded the Czech people's adherents, which he characterized as a long struggle against brutal German denomination.
Henri de Saint-Simon
One of the most influential socialist thinkers was a nobleman, Count Henri de Saint-Simon. He was an early utopian socialist, who advocated industrial development. Saint-Simon also stressed in highly moralistic terms that every social institution ought to have its main goal improved for the poor. Saint-Simon's stress on industry and science inspired middle-class industrialists and bankers such as the Pereire brothers, founders of the Crédit Mobilier. (p.764)
Charles Fourier
Fourier, a lonely, saintly man with a tenuous hold in reality, described a socialist utopia in lavish mathematical detail. He proposed new planned towns; he also criticized middle-class family life and sexual and marriage customs. He believed that marriage was another form of prostitution. Therefore, Fourier called for the abolition of marriage, free unions based only on love, and sexual freedom. (p.764)
Pierre Joseph Proudhon
Pierre Joseph Proudhon was a self-educated printer who wrote a pamphlet in 1840 titled What Is Property? His answer was that it was nothing but theft. Property was a profit that was stolen from the worker, who was the source of all wealth. Unlike most socialists, Proudhon feared the power of the state and was often considered an anarchist. (p.764)
Quadruple Alliance
The allied countries that defeated Napoleon's army. It consists of Austria, Britain, Prussia and Russia. They had finally reaffirmed their determination to hold France in line. They met at Congress of Vienna to solve other issues. (p.756-757)
Constitutional Charter of 1814 (France)
Louis XVIII's Constitutional Charter if 1814-theoretically a gift from the king but actually a response to political pressures-was basically a liberal constitution. It was undemocratic, but still protected the people against a return to royal absolutism and aristocratic privilege. (p.777-778)
Napoleon's Hundred Days
He was sent on exile and then when he came back he fought at Waterloo. Napoleon's gamble was a desperate long shot, for the allies were united against him. At the end of this frantic period known as the Hundred Days, they crushed his forces at Waterloo on June 18, 1815, and imprisoned him on the rocky island of St. Helena, far off the western coast of Africa. (p.758)
Congress of Troppau
Metternich was horrified because of the revolution rising once again. Calling a conference at Troppau in Austria under the provisions of the Quadruple Alliance Metternich and Alexander I proclaimed the principle of active intervention to maintain all autocratic regimes whenever they were threatened. (p.758)
congress system
The members of the Quadruple Alliance agreed to meet periodically to discuss their common interests and to consider appropriate measures for the maintenance of peace in Europe. This agreement was the beginning of the European "congress system." The congress system was established by the Holy Alliance which included the countries of Russia, Prussia, and Austria. (p.758)
Corn Law
Protected the English landowners by prohibiting the importation of foreign grain unless the domestic price rose above a certain level. (p.772-773)
Ten Hours Act of 1847 (Britain)
It limited the workday for women and young people in factories to ten hours. (p.776)
national workshops
Blanc asserted that permanent government sponsored cooperative workshops should be established for workers. A compromise between the socialists' demands for work for all and the moderates' determination to provide only temporary relief for the massive unemployment. (p.780)
Adam Smith
Scottish philosophy professor Adam Smith whose Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) founded modern economics. Smith criticized mercantilism and its attempt to regulate trade and economic activity. Smith argued in the laissez-faire and said that freely competitive private enterprise would result in greater income for everyone, not just the rich. (p.761)
Frankfurt Assembly
Meeting in Frankfurt in May, the National Assembly was a curious revolutionary body. A middle-class liberal body of lawyers, professors, doctors, officials, and businessmen that begun writing a constitution for a unified Germany. (p.782-784)
Schleswig-Holstein question
It was the fight between Denmark and Prussia over who would get the Schleswig-Holstein region. As the Schleswig-Holstein issue demonstrated, the national ideal was a crucial factor motivating the German middle classes in 1848. (p.783)
Louis Kossuth
He was a Hungarian revolutionary leader who sought Hungary's independence from Austria. Under Kossuth, the Hungarians demanded national autonomy, civil liberties, and universal suffrage. (p.782)
Jules Michelet
He was a French historian noted for his 17-volume Histoire de France. (p.762)
Johann Herder
German pastor and philosopher Johann Herder had argued that every people has its own particular spirit and genius, which expresses it through culture and language. Yet Herder could not clearly define the uniqueness of the French, German, and Slavic people without comparing and contrasting one another. Thus early nationalism developed a strong sense of "we" and "they". (p.763)
Frederick William IV
Frederick William IV was the king of Great Britain and Ireland. On Mach 21, he promised to grant Prussia a liberal constitution and to merge Prussia into a new national German state that was to be created. But urban workers wanted much more and the Prussian aristocracy wanted much less than the moderate constitutional liberalism the king conceded. The workers issued a series of democratic and vaguely socialist demands that troubled their middle-class allies, and the conservative clique gathered around the king to urge counter-revolution. He ascended the throne after a long naval career. (p.782)
Alexander Ypsilanti
He was a Greek nationalist who led them in 1821 to fight for the freedom of Turkey. The rising national movement led to the formation of secret societies and then to revolt in 1821, led by Alexander Ypsilanti, a Greek patriot and a general in the Russian army. (p.772)
Chartists
The key Chartist demand-that all men be given the right to vote-became the great hope of millions of aroused people. They also wanted to limit the workday in factories to ten hours and to permit duty-free importation of wheat into Great Britain to secure cheap bread. They saw complete political democracy and rule by the common people as the means to a good and just society. (p.776)
Karl Marx
In 1848 the thirty-year-old Karl Marx (1818-1883) and the twenty-eight-year-old Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) published The Communist Manifesto, which became the bible of socialism. He was a German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. He wrote books on explaining historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and these books have had a profound influence on the social sciences. In Marx's view, one class had always exploited the other, and with the advent of modern history, society was more clearly split than ever before: between the middle class (the bourgeoisie) and the working class (the proletariat). Just as the bourgeoisie had triumphed over the feudal aristocracy, Marx predicted, the proletariat would conquer the bourgeoisie in a violent revolution. (p.765)
Georg Hegel
Marx's theory of historical evolution was built on the philosophy of German Georg Hegel (1770-1831). Hegel believed that history is "ideas in motion": each age is characterized by a dominant set of ideas, which produces opposing ideas and eventually a new synthesis. The idea if being had been dominate initially, for example, and it had produced its antithesis, the idea of nonbeing. This idea in turn had resulted in the synthesis pf becoming. Thus history has pattern and purpose. (p.766)
Louis Phillippe
Louis Philippe, (1773-1850), was king of France from 1830 to 1848. He is often called The Citizen King. He was born on Oct. 6, 1773, in Paris, the eldest son of Philippe Egalite, Duke of Orleans. He sympathized with the liberal ideas of the French Revolution and joined the National Guard at the beginning of the revolt. He was proclaimed "Citizen King" of France after Charles X was forced to give up the throne in 1830 and he ruled after the overthrow of the Bourbons in the July Revolution and abdicated during the Revolution of 1848. During his reign, he became unpopular with all classes of the French people. The legitimists opposed him because they were loyal to the descendants of Charles X. The liberals disliked his increasing suppression of disagreement. Louis Philippe's reign was prosperous but uneventful, as his ministers pursued cautious policies. The Revolution of 1848 broke out partly because he refused to reform election laws. He was forced to give up his throne, and escaped to England. (p.778)
Communist Manifesto
In 1848 the thirty-year-old Karl Marx (1818-1883) and the twenty-eight-year-old Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) published The Communist Manifesto, which became the bible of socialism. According to the Manifesto, the "history of all previously existing society is the history of all class struggles." In Marx's view, one class had always exploited the other, and with the advent of modern history, society was more clearly split than ever before: between the middle class (the bourgeoisie) and the working class (the proletariat). Marx predicted, the proletariat would conquer the bourgeoisie in a violent revolution. While a tiny minority owned the means of production and grew richer, the ever-poorer proletariat was constantly growing in size and in class-consciousnesses. It was the key work of socialism. (p.765)
Robert Peel
He was a British policeman who established the London police force and helped pass the Catholic Emancipation Act. He later served as prime minister. To avert the impending catastrophe, Tory Prime Minister Robert Peel joined with the Whigs and a minority of his own party to repeal the Corn Laws in 1846 and allow free imports of grain. England escaped famine. Thereafter, the liberal doctrine of free trade became almost sacred dogma in Great Britain. (p.776)
William Wordsworth
A towering leader of English romanticism, William Wordsworth (1770-1850) traveled in France after his graduation from Cambridge. There he fell passionately in love with a Frenchwoman, who him a daughter. He was deeply influenced by the philosophy of Rousseau and the spirit of the early French Revolution. In defiance of classical rules, Wordsworth and Coleridge abandoned flowery poetic conventions for the language of ordinary speech, simultaneously endowing simple subjects with the loftiest majesty. This twofold rejection of classical practice was first ignored and then harshly criticized, but by 1830 Wordsworth had triumphed, (p.768)
Walter Scott
Born in Edinburgh, Walter Scott (1770-1832) personified the Romantic Movement's fascination with history. He was also deeply influenced by German romanticism, particularly by the immortal poet and dramatist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832). Scott translated Goethe's famous Gotz von Berlichingen, a play about a sixteenth-century knight who revolted against centralized authority and championed individual freedom-at least in Goethe's romantic drama. A natural storyteller, Scott then composed long narrative poems and a series of historical novels. Scott excelled in faith fully re-creating the spirit of bygone ages and great historical events, especially those of Scotland. (p.768)
George Sand
Amandine Aurore Lucie Dupin (1804-1876), strong-willed and gifted woman generally known by her pen name, George Sand, defied the narrow conventions of her time in an unending search for fulfillment. She endured eight years of an unhappy marriage until finally abandoning her husband and taking her two children to pursue a career as a writer. There Sand soon achieved fame and wealth, eventually writing over eighty novels on a variety of romantic and social themes. All were shot through with a typically romantic love of nature and moral idealism. George Sand's striking individualism went far beyond her flamboyant preference for men's clothing and cigars and her notorious affairs with poet Alfred de Musset and composer Frédéric Chopin, among others. Her semi-autobiographical novel Lélia was shockingly modern, delving deeply into her tortuous quest for sexual and personal freedom. (p.769)
Victor Hugo
Victor Hugo (1802-1885) was the greatest in both poetry and prose. Son of a Napoleonic general, Hugo achieved an amazing range of rhythm, language, and image I his lyric poetry. His powerful novels exemplified the romantic fascination with fantastic characters, strange settings, and human emotions. A great admirer of William Shakespeare, whom classical critics had derided as undisciplined and excessive, Hugo also championed romanticism in drama. His play Hercules (1830) consciously broke all the old rules, as Hugo announced his early conservatism and equated freedom in literature with liberty in politics and society. Hugo's political evolution was thus exactly the opposite of Wordsworth's, in whom youthful radicalism gave way to middle-aged caution. (p.769)
Eugene Delacroix
The greatest and move moving romantic painter in France was Eugéne Delacroix (1798-1863), probably the illegitimate son of foreign minister Talleyrand. Delacroix was a master of dramatic, colorful scenes that stirred the emotions. He was fascinated with remote and exotic subjects, whether lion hunts in Morocco or the languishing, sensuous women of a sultan's harem. Yet he was also a passionate spokesman for freedom. His masterpiece, Liberty Leading the People, celebrated the nobility of popular revolution in general and revolution in France in particular. He was known for his vast, dramatic, canvases, and exuberant use of color. (p.769)
Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) was the first master of romantic music. He was one of the greatest composers in German history. He composed 9 symphonies, 5 piano concerts, a violin concerto, 32 piano sonatas, 2 Masses, and an opera. At the peak of his fame, in constant demand as a composer and recognized as the leading concert pianist his day, Beethoven began to lose his hearing. He considered suicide but eventually overcame despair. Among other achievements, he fully exploited for the first time the richness and beauty of the piano. Beethoven never heard much of his later work, including the unforgettable chorale finale to the Ninth Symphony, for the last years were silent, spent in total deafness. (p.771-772)
Antiseptic principle
Was developed by English surgeon Joseph Lister. It was the idea that a chemical disinfectant applied to a wound dressing would destroy aerial bacteria. (p.792)
Darwin's theory of biological evolution
Charles Darwin (1809-1882). Darwin proposed that earth and the organisms living on it were incredibly old and that these organisms had evolved from a common origin. He suggested that every organism in every species had slight variations that made it more or less fit for its environment. Only those organisms with the most advantageous variations survived. (p.814-815)
Sweated industries
With an unskilled or unemployed husband and a growing family, such a woman often had to join "sweated industries." These industries flowed after 1850 and resembled the old putting-out and cottage industries of earlier times. The women normally worked at home, paid by piece and not by hour. They and their young daughters, for whom organization and collective action were virtually impossible, earned pitiful wages and lacked any job security. (p.802)
Labor aristocracy
The labor aristocracy contained the highly skilled workers. It made up about fifteen percent of the working class at the turn of the twentieth century. They developed a high lifestyle of stern morality. They considered themselves the leaders of the working class. And they had strong political and philosophical beliefs. (p.801)
Realist movement
Realism emerged in the 1840's and continued to dominate Western culture and style until the 1890's. Realist writers believed that literature should depict life as it exactly was. Using poetry for prose and the personal, emotional viewpoint of the romantics for strict, scientific objectivity, the realists simply observed and recorded content let the facts speak for themselves. (p.815)
Miasmatic theory
Early reformers such as Chadwick handicapped by the prevailing miasmatic theory of disease-the belief that people contract disease when they breathe the bad odors of decay and putrefying excrement-in short the theory that smells cause disease. The miasmatic theory was a reasonable deduction from empirical observations: cleaning up filth did produce viable results. (p.792)
Middle-class mortality
The middle class was loosely united by a shared code of expected behavior and morality. This code was strict and demanding. It laid great stress on hard work, self-discipline, and personal achievement. Men and women who fell into crime or poverty were generally assumed to be responsible for their own circumstances. Traditional Christian morality was reaffirmed by this code and was preached tirelessly by middle-class people. Drunkenness and gambling were denounced as vices; sexual purity and fidelity were celebrated as virtues. In short, the middle-class was supposed to know right from wrong and was expected to act accordingly. (p.801)
Comte's positivism
Auguste Comte's discipline of sociology postulated that "each branch of our knowledge passes successively through three different theoretical conditions; the Theological, or fictitious; the Metaphysical, or abstract; and the Scientific, or positive." (p.813)
Benthamite
It is a term used to describe a follower of Jeremy Bentham, a radical philosopher that taught that public problems could be solved using a rational, scientific basis. (p.792)
Germ theory
It was the theory that specific diseases were caused by specific living organism (germs) and that these organisms could be controlled in people, wine, beer, and milk. (p.792-793)
"Illegitimacy explosion"
The period between 1750 and 1850 marked by a high number of illegitimate births - by the 1840s, as many as one birth in three was occurring outside of wedlock in many large cities. (p.805)
Social Darwinism
It was applying Darwin's ideas to human affairs. A group of thinkers popular with the upper middle class who saw the human race being driven forward to ever-greater specialization and progress by the unending economic struggle determining "the survival of the fittest." (p.815)
Edwin Chadwick
Edwin Chadwick was one of the commissioners charged with the administration of relief to paupers under Britain's revised Poor Law of 1834. Chadwick believed that disease and death actually cause poverty simply because a sick worker was an unemployed worker and orphaned children were poor children. He also believed that cleaning up the urban environment could prevent disease, which was his "sanitary idea." He collected detailed reports from local Poor Law officials on the "sanitary conditions of the laboring population" and published his hard-hitting findings in 1842. This mass of widely publicized evidence proved that disease was related to filthy environment of conditions, which were in turn caused largely by lack of drainage, sewers, and garbage collection. He also proposed the installation of running water and sewers. Putrefying, smelly excrement was worse than just revolting. It polluted the atmosphere and caused disease. Chadwick's report became the basis of Great Britain's first public health law, which created a national health board and gave cities broad authority to build modern sanitary systems. (p.792)
Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was a French chemist who began studying fermentation in 1854 at the request of brewers. Pasteur found that fermentation depended on the growth of living organisms and that the activity of these organisms could be suppressed by heating the beverage-by "pasteurizing" it. (p.792-793)
Robert Koch
In the middle of the 1870's, German country doctor Robert Koch and his coworkers developed pure cultures of harmful bacteria and described their life cycles, the dam broke. Over the next twenty years, researchers-mainly Germans-identified the organism responsible for disease after disease. These discoveries led to the development of a number of effective vaccines. (p.793)
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
The evolutionary view of biological development, first proposed by Greek Anaximander in the sixth century B.C., re-emerged in a more modern form in the work of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829). Lamarck asserted that all forms of life had arisen through a long process of continuous adjustment to the environment. Lamarck's work was flawed-he believed that the characteristics parents acquired in the course of their lives could be inherited by their children-and was not accepted. (p.814)
Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin (1809-1882), the most influential of all nineteenth century evolutionary thinkers. Darwin carefully collected specimens of the different animal species he encountered on the voyage. Back in England, convinced by fossil evidence and by his friend Lyell that the earth and life were immensely ancient, Darwin came to doubt the general belief in a special divine creation of each species of animal. Instead, he concluded, all life had gradually evolved from a common ancestral origin in an unending "struggle for survival." After a long hesitation, Darwin published his research, which immediately attracted wide attention. (p.814)
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), the Viennese founder of psychoanalysis, formulated the most striking analysis of the explosive dynamics of the family, particularly the middle-class family in the late nineteenth century. A physician by training, Freud began his career treating mentally ill patients. He noted that the hysteria of his patients appeared to originate in bitter early-childhood experiences wherein the child had been obliged to repress string feelings. When these painful experiences were recalled and reproduced under hypnosis of through the patient's free association of ideas, the patient could be brought to understand his or her unhappiness and eventually deal with it. (p.812)
Gustave Flaubert
Madame Bovary (1857), the masterpiece of Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880), if fart narrower in scope than Balzac's work but unparalleled in its depth and accuracy of psychological insight. Unsuccessfully prosecuted as an outrage against public morality and religion, Flaubert's carefully crafted novel tells the ordinary, even banal, story of a frustrated middle-class housewife who has an adulterous love affair and is betrayed by her lover. Without moralizing, Flaubert portrays the provincial middle class as petty, smug, and hypocritical. (p.816)
Emile Zola
In 1868 Emile Zola (1840-1902), the giant of the realist movement in literature, defended his violently criticized first novel against charges of pornography and corruption of morals. Zola's literary manifesto articulated the key themes of realism, which had emerged in the 1840's and continued to dominate Western culture and style until the 1890's. Zola was most famous for his seamy, animalistic view of working-class life. But he also wrote gripping carefully researched stories featuring the stock exchange, the big department store, and the army, as well as urban slums and bloody coal strikes. (p.815)
Auguste Comte
He was a French philosopher that applied scientific methods to the study of society and formed the positivist method. Auguste Comte's discipline of sociology postulated that "each branch of our knowledge passes successively through three different theoretical conditions; the Theological, or fictitious; the Metaphysical, or abstract; and the Scientific, or positive." (p.814)
Joseph Lister
English surgeon Joseph Lister (1827-1912) immediately grasped the connection between aerial bacteria and the problem of wound infection. He reasoned that a chemical disinfectant applied to a wound dressing would "destroy the life of the floating particles." Lister's "antiseptic principle" worked wonders. In the 1880s, German surgeons developed the more sophisticated practice of sterilizing not only the wound but also everything-hands, instruments, clothing-that entered the operating room. (p.793)
Baron Haussmann
Baron Georges Haussmann (1809-1884), an aggressive, impatient Alsatian whom he placed in charge of Paris, Napoleon III found an authoritarian planner capable of bulldozing both buildings and opposition. In twenty years, Paris was transformed. Haussmann and his fellow planners proceeded on many interrelated fronts. With bold energy that often shocked their contemporaries, they razed old buildings in order to cut broad, straight, tree-lined boulevards through the center of the city as well as in new quarters on the outskirts. Haussmann and Napoleon III tried to make Paris a more beautiful city, and to a large extent they succeeded. The broad, straight boulevards, such as those radiating out like the spokes of a wheel from the Arch of Triumph and those centering on the new Opera House, afforded impressive vistas were their achievements. (p.793-795)
Gustave Droz
Gustave Droz, the author of the bestseller Mr., Mrs., and Baby went through 121 editions between 1866 and 1884; saw love within marriage as the key to human happiness. He condemned man who made marriage sound dull and practical, men who were exhausted by prostitutes and rheumatism and who wanted their young wives to be little angels. He urged women to follow their hearts and marry a man more nearly their own age. (p.810)
Red shirts
Guerrilla army of Guiseppe Girabaldi who invaded Sicily in 1860 in an attempt to "liberate" it and won the hearts of the Sicilian peasantry. (p. 828)
Modernization
A vague and often overworked term, modernization is a great umbrella under which some writers place most of the major developments of the last two hundred or even five hundred years. Yet defined narrowly-as changes that enable a country at a given time-modernization can be a useful concept. It fits Russia after the Crimean War particularly well. (p.837-838)
Zionism
The creation of a Jewish state. (Internet: www.jewishsociety.com)
Russian serfdom
Serfdom was still the basic social institution. Bound to the lord on a hereditary basis, the peasant serf was little more than a slave. Individual serfs and serf families were regularly sold, with and without land, in the early nineteenth century. Serfs were obliged to furnish labor services or money payments as the lord saw fit. Moreover, the lord could choose freely among serfs for army recruits, who had to serve for twenty-five years, and he could punish a serf with deportation to Siberia. Sexual exploitation of female serfs by their lords was common. 4. Serfdom had become the great moral and political issue for the government by the 1840's, but is still might have lasted many more years if it wasn't for the Crimean War (1853-1856). (p.838)
Zemstvo
In 1864, the Russian government established a new institution of local government, the Zemstvo. Members of this local assembly were elected by a three-class system of towns, peasant villages, and noble landowners. A zemstvo executive council dealt with local problems. The establishment of the zemstvos marked a significant step toward popular participation, and Russian liberals hoped it would lead to an elected national parliament. They were soon disappointed. The local zemstvo remained subordinate to the traditional bureaucracy and the local nobility, which were heavily favored by the property-based voting system. (p.838)
Thirteenth Amendment (USA)
The Thirteenth Amendment of 1865 ended slavery in the U.S. after a Civil War. (p.836)
Nationalism
Western society progressively found a new and effective organizing principle capable of coping with the many-sided challenge of the dual revolution and the emerging urban civilization. That principle was nationalism-dedication to identification with the nation-state. From the mid-nineteenth century on, Western society became nationalistic as well as urban and industrial. Nation-states and strong-minded national leaders gradually enlisted widespread support and gave men and women a greater sense of belonging. Even socialism became increasingly national in orientation, gathering strength as a champion of working-class interests in domestic politics. Yet even though nationalism served to unite peoples, it also drove them apart. Though most obvious in the United States before the Civil War and in Austria-Hungary and Ireland, this was in a real sense true for all of Western civilization. The universal national faith, which reduced social tensions within states promoted a bitter, brutal competition between states and thus threatened the progress and unity it had helped to build. (p.851-852)
Authoritarian nationalism
Napoleon I's France had already combined national devotion with authoritarian rule. Significantly, it was Napoleon's nephew, Louis Napoleon, who revived and extended this merger. He showed how governments could reconcile popular and conservative forces in an authoritarian nationalism. (p.823)
Zollverein
Modern industry grew rapidly in Europe throughout the 1850's. Nowhere was this growth more rapid than within the German customs union (Zollverein). Developing gradually under Prussian leadership after 1818 and founded officially in 1834 to stimulate trade and increase the revenues of member states, the Zollverein had not included Austria. After 1848, this exclusion became a crucial factor in the Austro-Prussian rivalry. The Zollverein's tariff duties were substantially reduced so that Austria's highly protected industry could not bear to join. In retaliation, Austria tried to destroy the Zollverein by inducing the south German states to leave it, but without success. Indeed, by the end of 1853 all the German states except Austria had joined the customs union. A new Germany excluding Austria was becoming an economic reality. Middle-class and business groups in the Zollverein were enriching themselves and finding solid economic reasons to bolster their idealistic support of national unification. The growing economic integration of the states within the Zollverein gave Prussia a valuable advantage in its struggle against Austria's supremacy in German political affairs. (p.830)
Bismarck's "blood and iron" philosophy
Declaring that the government would rule without parliamentary consent, Bismarck lashed out at middle-class opposition: "The great questions of the day will not be decided by speeches and resolutions=that was the blunder of 1848 and 1849-but by blood and iron." (p.831)
North German Confederation
The German Confederation was dissolved after the Austro-Prussian War and Austria agreed to withdraw from German affairs. The states north of the main river were grouped in the new North German Confederation, led by an expanded Prussia. In the aftermath of victory, Bismarck fashioned a federal constitution for the new North German Confederation. Each state retained its own local government, but the King of Prussia became president of the confederation and the chancellor-Bismarck-was responsible only to the president. The federal government -William I and Bismarck-controlled the army and foreign affairs. There was also a legislature consisting of two houses that shared equally in the making of laws. Delegates to the upper house were appointed by the different states, but members of the lower house were elected by universal, single-class, male suffrage. (p.832)
Russian revolution of 1905
Imperialist ambitions brought defeat at the hands of Japan in 1905 and political upheaval at home. The Bloody Sunday massacre, when the tsar's troops fired on a crowd of protesting workers, produced a wave of indignation. By the summer of 1905, strikes, uprisings, revolts, and mutinies were sweeping the country. A general strike in October forced Nicholas II to issue the October Manifesto, which granted full civil liberties and promised a popularly elected parliament (Duma). The Social Democrats rejected the manifesto and led a bloody workers' uprising in Moscow in December. Middle-class moderates helped the government repress the uprising and survive as a constitutional monarchy. (p.840-841)
Russian Duma
Russian parliament opened in 1906, elected indirectly by universal male suffrage but with absolute veto power from the tsar. (p.841)
German Social Democratic party
In 1878, after two attempts on the life of William I by radicals (though not socialists), Bismarck used a carefully orchestrated national outcry to ram through the Reichstag a law that strictly controlled socialist meetings and publications and outlawed the Social Democratic party, which was thereby driven underground. (p.842)
British Third Reform Bill of 1884
The Third Reform Bill of 1884 gave the vote to almost every adult male. It made a giant leap for democracy in Britain. (p.846)
Socialist "revisionism"
Revisionism-that most awful of sins in the eyes of militant Marxists in the twentieth century-was an effort by various socialists to update Marxian doctrines to reflect the realities of the time. (p.851)
Otto von Bismarck
The most important figure in German history between Luther and Hitler is Otto van Bismarck (1815-1898). He was a master of politics. Born into the Prussian landowning aristocracy, the young Bismarck was a wild and tempestuous student given to duels and drinking. Proud of his Junker heritage and always devoted to his Prussian sovereign, Bismarck had a string personality and an unbounded desire for power. Yet in his drive to secure power for himself and for Prussia, Bismarck was extraordinarily flexible and pragmatic. He concluded that the path to his goal was to weaken Austria. He supported German nationalism. His view was that middle-class parliamentary liberalism was not the way to unify Germany-"blood and iron" was. Nevertheless, Prussian voters opposed him by sending large liberal majorities to the parliament. He saw the Austro-Prussian War as the first step to unification. Austria lost the war and was withdrawn from German affairs. The German Confederation was dissolved and a new North German Confederation was formed. He believed that the liberal middle class could be led to prefer national unity to liberal institutions. He created a constitution for North Germany that allowed for some local controls but with the king in control of the army and foreign affairs. Bismarck used a patriotic war against France to bring southern Germany into the union. (p.830-834)
Benjamin Disraeli
In 1867 Benjamin Disraeli and the Conservatives extended the vote to all middle-class males and the best-paid workers. The son of a Jewish stockbroker and himself a novelist and urban dandy, the ever-fascinating Disraeli (1804-1881) was willing to risk this "leap in the dark" in order to gain new supporters. The Conservative party, he believed, needed to broaden its traditional base of aristocratic and landed support if it was to survive. After 1867 English political parties and electoral campaigns became more modern, the "lower orders" appeared to vote as responsibly as their "betters." (p.846)
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
Louis Napoleon was elected because he allowed universal male suffrage, which gave him four times as many votes as the other four candidates combined. He also had the great name of his uncle. As Karl Marx stressed at the time, middle-class and peasant property owners feared the socialist challenge of urban workers, and they had wanted a tough ruler to provide protection. He also had a positive "program" for France, this program had been elaborated earlier in two pamphlets, which was widely circulated and was to guide him, through his reign. Louis believed that the government should represent all people and it should help them economically. The answer was a strong and authoritarian ruler, not parliaments and political parties. The leader would e linked to all people by direct democracy, uncorrupted by politicians and legislative bodies. Rather than doing nothing, he provided only temporary relief for the awful poverty of the poor, the state and its leader had a sacred duty to provide jobs and stimulate the economy. All classes would benefit from this. (p.823)
Jules Ferry
Under the leadership of Jules Ferry, the moderate republicans of small towns and villages passed a series of laws between 1879 and 1886 establishing free compulsory elementary education for both girls and boys. At the dame time, they greatly expanded the state system of public tax-supported schools. Thus, France shred fully in the general expansion of public education, which served as a critical nation-building tool throughout the Western world in the late nineteenth century. (p.844)
Sergei Witte
Russia, and indeed all of Europe, experienced hard times economically in the 1880's. Political modernization remained frozen until 1905, but economic modernization sped forward in the massive industrial surge of the 1890's. Nationalism played a decisive role, as it had after the Crimean War. The key leader was Sergie Witte, the tough, competent minister of finance form 1892 to 1903. Early in his career, Witte found in the writings of Friedrich List an analysis and a program for action. List had stressed the peril for Germany of remaining behind England in the 1830s and 1840s. Witte saw the same threat of industrial backwardness threatening Russia's power and greatness. He believed that railroads were important, so the government built state owned railroads rapidly, doubling the network of thirty-five thousand miles by the end of the century. The gigantic trans-Siberian line connecting Moscow with Vladivostok on the Pacific Ocean five thousand miles away was Witte's pride, and it was largely completed during his term of office. Following List's advice, Witte established high protective tariffs to build Russian industry, and he put the country on the gold standard of the "civilized world" in order to strengthen Russian finances. Witte's greatest innovation was to use the West to catch up with the West. He aggressively encouraged foreigners to use their abundant capital and advanced technology to build great factories in backward Russia. (p.840)
Alexander II
Alexander II (r. 1855-1881), told the serfs owners, if would be better if reform came from above. Military disaster thus forced Alexander II and his ministers along the path of rapid social change and general modernization. In 1881, Alexander was assassinated by a small group of terrorists. (p.838-839)
Camillo Benso di Cavour
Sardinia had the good fortune of being led by a brilliant statesman, Count Camillo di Cavour, the dominant figure in the Sardinian government from 1850 until his death in 1861. Cavour came from a noble family and embraced the economic doctrines and business activities associated with the prosperous middle class. Cavour's national goals were limited and realistic, until 1859 he sought unity only for the states of northern and perhaps central Italy in a greatly expanded kingdom of Sardinia. He did not seek to incorporate the Papal States of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, with different cultures and governments, into an Italy of all Italians. He was a moderate nationalist who sought unity only for the northern and perhaps central areas of Italy. He worked in the 1850s to consolidate Sardinia as a liberal state capable of leading northern Italy. Cavour used France to engineer a war with Austria to further his plans for unification. Central Italy joined with Sardinia in 1860 to form a united northern Italian state under Cavour. Cavour got the south to join his Sardinia-with Garibaldi's approval-to form a parliamentary monarchy. (p.826-830)
Edward Bernstein
The socialist Edward Bernstein (1850-1932) argued in 1899 in his Evolutionary Socialism that Marx's predictions of ever-greater poverty for workers and ever-greater concentration of wealth in ever-fewer hands had been proved false. Therefore, Bernstein suggested, socialists should form their doctrines and tactics. They should combine with other progressive forces to win gradual evolutionary gains for workers trough legislation, unions, and further economic development. (p.851)
Alfred Dreyfus
Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish captain in the French army, was falsely accused and convicted of treason. A Jewish French army captain. He was accused of treason and then later proclaimed innocent. This divided France into two groups. The army, anti-Semites, and the church against the civil libertarians and the radical republicans. (p.845-846)
Pius IX
As for the papacy, the initial cautious support by Pius IX (r. 1846-1878)) for unification had given way to fear and hostility after he was temporarily driven from Rome during the upheavals of 1848. For a long generation, the papacy would stand resolutely opposed not only to national unification but also to most modern trends. In 1864 in the Syllabus of Errors, Pius IX strongly denounced rationalism, socialism, separation of church and state, and religious liberty, denying, "The Roman pontiff can and ought to reconcile and align himself with progress, liberalism, and modern civilization." (p. 826)
William Gladstone
In the 1840's, Ireland had been decimated by famine, which fueled an Irish revolutionary movement. Thereafter, the English slowly granted concessions, such as the abolition of the privileges of the Anglican Church and rights for Irish peasants. Liberal Prime Minister William Gladstone (1809-1898), who had proclaimed twenty years earlier "my mission is to pacify Ireland," introduced bills to give Ireland self-government in 1886 and in 1893. They failed to pass. (p.847)
Giuseppe Garibaldi
For super patriots such as Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882), the job of unification was only half done when Cavour had unified the northern part of Italy. Italy's superpatriot. He wanted to unify the country more that what Cavour had done. He captured Sicily and Naples but then made peace with Cavour in a joining of North and South. (p.827-829)
William I of Germany
Along with his top military advisers, the tough-minded William I of Prussia (r, 1861-1888), who had replaced the unstable Frederick William IV as regent in 1858 and became king himself in 1861, was convinced of the need for major army reforms William I wanted to double the size of the highly disciplined regular army. He also wanted to reduce the importance of the reserve militia, a semi-popular force created during the Napoleonic wars. Army reforms meant a bigger defense budget and higher taxes. (p.830)
William II of Germany
In 1890 the new emperor, the young, idealistic, and unstable William II (r. 1888-1918), opposed to Bismarck's attempt to renew the law outlawing the Social Democratic party. Eager to rule in his own right and to earn the support of workers, William II forced Bismarck to resign. After "dropping of the pilot," German foreign policy changed profoundly and mostly for the worse, but the government did pass new laws to aid workers and to legalize socialist political activity. Yet William II was no more successful than Bismarck in getting workers to renounce socialism. (p.843)
John Stuart Mill
In his famous essay On Liberty, published in 1859, philosopher John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), the leading heir to the Benthamite tradition, probed the problem of how to protect the rights of individuals and minorities in the emerging age of mass electoral participation. Mill pleaded eloquently for the practical and moral value inherent in safeguarding individual differences and unpopular opinions. (p.846)
People's Budget (Britain)
Proposed after the liberal party came to power in England in 1906 and vetoed by the lords, it was designed to increase spending on social welfare issues. As part of the People's Budget, the taxes of the rich were substantially raised. This income helped the government pay for national health insurance, unemployment benefits, old-age pensions, and a host of other social measures. The state was integrating the urban masses socially as well as politically. (p.847)
30 Napoleon III's coup d'état
In 1851 Louis Napoleon began to conspire with key army officers. On December 2, 1851, he illegally dismissed the Assembly and seized power in a coup d'état. There was some armed resistance in Paris and widespread insurrection in the countryside in southern France, but the army crushed these protests. Restoring universal male suffrage, Louis napoleon called on the French people, as his uncle had done, to legalize his actions. They did: 92 percent voted to make him president for ten years. A pear later 97 percent in a plebiscite made him a hereditary emperor; for the third time, and by the greatest margin yet, the authoritarian Louis napoleon was overwhelmingly elected to lead the French nation. (p.824)
31. May Day
The International was only a federation of nationalist socialist parties, but it had a great psychological impact. Every three years, delegates from the different parties met to interpret Marxian doctrines and plan coordinated action. May 1 (May Day) was declared an annual international one-day strike, a day of marches and demonstrations. A permanent executive for the International was established. Many feared and many others rejoiced in the growing power of socialism and the Second International. Revisionist socialists believed in working with capitalism (through labor unions, for example) and no longer saw the future in terms of capitalist-worker warfare. (p.851)
32. Assassination of Tsar Alexander II
In 1881 Alexander was assassinated by a small group of terrorists. The era of reform came to an abrupt end. (p.839)
33. Establishment of the Zollverein (1834)
Modern industry grew rapidly in Europe throughout the 1850's. Nowhere was this growth more rapid than within the German customs union (Zollverein). Developing gradually under Prussian leadership after 1818 and founded officially in 1834 to stimulate trade and increase the revenues of member states, the Zollverein had not included Austria. After 1848, this exclusion became a crucial factor in the Austro-Prussian rivalry. The Zollverein's tariff duties were substantially reduced so that Austria's highly protected industry could not bear to join. In retaliation, Austria tried to destroy the Zollverein by inducing the south German states to leave it, but without success. Indeed, by the end of 1853 all the German states except Austria had joined the customs union. A new Germany excluding Austria was becoming an economic reality. Middle-class and business groups in the Zollverein were enriching themselves and finding solid economic reasons to bolster their idealistic support of national unification. The growing economic integration of the states within the Zollverein gave Prussia a valuable advantage in its struggle against Austria's supremacy in German political affairs. (p.830)
34. Establishment of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy
In the wake of defeat by Prussia in 1866, a weakened Austria was forced to strike a compromise and establish the so-called dual monarchy. The empire was divided in two, and the nationalistic Magyars gained virtual independence for Hungary. Henceforth each half of the empire agreed to deal with its own "barbarians"-its own minorities-as it saw fit. The two states were joined only by a shared monarch and common ministers of finance, defense, and foreign affairs. (p.847)
35. Treaty of Villafranca
In a complicated series of diplomatic maneuvers, Cavour worked for a secret diplomatic alliance with Napoleon III against Austria. Finally, in July 1858 he succeeded and goaded Austria into attacking Sardinia in 1859. Napoleon III came to Sardinia's defense. Then after a victory of the combined Franco-Sardinian forces, Napoleon III did a sudden about-face. Deciding it was not in his interest to have too strong a state on his southern border and criticized by French Catholics for supporting the pope's declared enemy, Napoleon III abandoned Cavour. He made a compromise peace with the Austrians at Villafranca in July 1859. Sardinia would receive only Lombardy, the area around Milan. (p.826)
36. Paris Commune of 1871
When national elections then sent a large majority of conservatives and monarchists to the National Assembly and France's new leaders decided they had no choice but to surrender Alsace and Lorraine to Germany, the traumatized Parisians exploded in patriotic frustration and proclaimed the Paris Commune in March 871. Vaguely radical, the leaders of the Commune wanted to govern Paris without interference from the conservative French countryside. The National Assembly, led by aging politician Adolphe Thiers, would hear none of it. The Assembly ordered the French army into Paris and brutally crushed the commune. Twenty thousand people died in the fighting. (p.844)
Ulster revolt of December 1913
The Irish people was outraged when a bill was passed different from what they had accepted. (p.846)
Third World
Is a term widely used by international organizations and by scholars to group Africa, Asia, and Latin America into a single unit. (856)
The great migration
It was a great movement that was the central experience in the saga of Western expansion, one reason why the West's impact on the world in the nineteenth century was so powerful and many-sided. (865)
"New imperialism"
The political annexation of territory in the 1880's-the "new imperialism," as often called by historians-was the capstone of a profound underlying economic and technological process. It was the political annexation of territory in the 1880s. It was the capstone of economic and technological progress. Many factors contributed to it including economic motives. (857, 877)
Traditionalist response to imperialism
The initial response of African and Asian rulers was to try driving the unwelcome foreigners away. This was the case in China, Japan, and the upper Sudan. Violent and anti-foreign reactions exploded elsewhere again and again, but the superior military technology of the industrialized West almost invariably prevailed. Beaten in battle, many Africans and Asians concentrated on preserving their cultural traditions at all costs. (880)
Modernist response to imperialism
The modernizers believed themselves as superior, and that it was necessary to reform the societies and copy European achievements. (880)
Social Darwinism
Many criticized theories of brutal competition among races. It can be best summed up by the quote "The strongest nation has always been conquering the weaker...and the strongest tend to be best". It fostered imperialist expansion. Many rebelled against the thought of Social Darwinism. European nations, which were seen as racially distinct parts of the dominant white race, had to seize colonies to show they were strong and virile. Since racial struggle was nature's inescapable law, the conquest of inferior peoples was just. Social Darwinism and harsh racial doctrines fostered dominant imperialistic expansion. (878)
"Hundred days of reform"
Was launched in 1898 by the Chinese government in an attempt to meet foreign challenge. (882)
"The white man's burden"
"The White Man's Burden" is a poem written by Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936). Many Americans accepted this ideology, and believed they should rule instead of liberate the Philippines. Americans believed their civilization had reached new heights and they had "unique benefits" to bestow on less advanced nations. (879)
"Great white walls"
Were laws designed by Americans and Australians to keep Asians out. (868)
Qing Dynasty
Also known as the Manchu Dynasty. Trade with Europe was controlled by them. They also tried to stop the flow of opium into china, and they ordered the foreingn merchants to obey the Chinese laws. This eventually led to war. At about 1860, it appeared on the verge of collapse but still help on for a few more years. (862)
Pale of [Jewish] Settlement
Market towns and small cities where Jews were confined by the New Russian Tsar in 1881. There, they worked as artisans and petty, and owned no land. They migrated to escape from factory competition and oppression. (868)
International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of Central Africa
In 1876 Leopold formed the African International Association and financed an expedition by explorer Henry Morton Stanley to the Congo (1879-84). At a European conference in 1885 Leopold was named sovereign over the Congo Free State (later renamed Zaire and now called the Democratic Republic of the Congo). He then used slave labor and torture to extract raw materials (mostly rubber) and build his personal fortune. By 1908 criticism of his rule forced his withdrawal as sovereign and the region was annexed to Belgium. (873)
Egyptian Nationalist Party
National control evoked a violent nationalistic reaction among Egyptian religious leaders, young intellectuals, and army officers. In 1879, under the leadership of Colonel Ahmed Arabi, they formed the Egyptian Nationalist Party. (865)
Suez Canal
Intercontinental trade was enormously facilitated by the Suez and Panama Canals. Of great importance, too, was large and continual investment in modern port facilities, which made loading and unloading cheaper, faster, and more dependable. Each leading country saw colonies as crucial to national security, military power, and international prestige. For instance, safe guarding the Suez Canal played a key role in the British occupation of Egypt and protecting Egypt in turn led to the bloody conquest of Sudan. Ismail, the grandson of Muhammed Ali, borrowed large sums to build the Suez Canal. It was expensive, and even the sale of his stock in the Suez Canal could not repay the debt. Safeguarding it played a key role in the British Occupation of Egypt. (865)
Omdurman
Another British force under General Horatio H. Kitchener, moved cautiously and more successfully up the Nile River, building a railroad to supply arms and reinforcements as it went. Finally, in 1898 these British troops met their foe at Omdurman, where Muslim tribesmen with spears charged time and time again only to be cut down by the recently invented machine gun. In t he end, eleven thousand brave but poorly armed Muslim tribesmen lay dead, while only twenty Britons had been killed. (875)
British Opium trade
In the opium trade, Britain found something the Chinese really wanted. By means of fast ships and bribed officials, it was smuggled into China. The Chinese government tried to stop it with no success, and it led to a war with Britain. The Manchu government forced the foreign merchants to obey China's laws when they refused war broke out. The Chinese lost and had to open four large cities for foreign trade, had to cede Hong Kong and pay an indemnity of $100 million. (862)
Pierre de Brazza
Led an expedition for France, and in 1880, he signed a treaty of protection with the chief of a large Teke tribe and began to establish a French protectorate on the North Bank of the Congo River. (873)
Muhammad Ali
Albanian-born Turkish general, Muhammad Ali (1769-1849) set out to build his own stated on the strength of a large powerful army. For the first time, he drafted the peasant masses of Egypt, and he had French and Italian army officers to train the new recruits. He encouraged the development of commercial agriculture geared towards the European market. The new landlords due to this system made the peasants their tenants and forced them to grow crops. (863)
Leopold II
He, Leopold II of Belgium (r. 1865-1909), formed a financial syndicate to send Henry M. Stanley to the Congo basin to establish trading stations, sign treaties with the African chiefs, and to plant Leopold's flag. In "retaliation", France sent an expedition under Pierre de Brazza (873)
Matthew Perry
He was a commodore who steamed into Tokyo (Edo Bay back then) in 1853 and demanded diplomatic negotiations with the emperor. Japan entered a grave crisis. Japan then realized their vulnerability and signed a treaty with the United States that opened 2 ports and permitted trade. (862)
Boers
The Boers proclaimed their independence and defended their land against the British armies. By the 1880s, they and the British armies had taken control much of South Africa from several African peoples. (871)
Dowage Empress Tzu His
The empress dowager Tzu-Hsi (1835-1908), a truly remarkable woman, governed in the name of her young son and combined shrewd insight with vigorous action to revitalize the bureaucracy. She drew on conservative forces, like the court eunuchs surrounding her, to maintain her power. (885)
John Hobson
Radical economist who delivered a forceful attack in his Imperialism. He contended that the rush to acquire colonies was die to the economic needs of unregulated capitalism, particularly the need of the rich to find an outlet for their surplus capital. He also argued that the quest for empire diverted attention away from domestic reform and the need to reduce the great gap between the rich and the poor. (880)
Heinrich von Treitschke
Stated that "All great nations in the fullness of their strength have desire to set their mark upon barbarian lands and those who fail to participate in this great rivalry will play a pitiable role in time to come. (873)
Japanese "opening" of Korea in 1876
This shows that Japan was copying the imperialism of the western society. It proved that Japan was strong, and cemented the nation together in a great mission. Having "opened" Korea with the gunboat diplomacy of imperialism in 1876, Japan decisively defeated China in a war over Korea in 1894 to 1895 and took Formosa. By 1910, with the annexation of Korea, Japan had become a major imperialist power; continually expanding it's influence in China in spite of sharp protests from its distant Pacific neighbor, the United States. Japan became the first non-western country to use an ancient love of country to transform itself and meet the challenges of western expansion. It also demonstrated that an Asian nation could defeat a western power. (884)
Berlin Conference of 1884 - 1885
Jules Ferry of France and Otto von Bismarck of Germany arranged an international conference on Africa in Berlin in 1884 and 1885. The conference established the principle that European claims to African territory had to rest on "effective occupation" in order to be recognized by other states. It established the principle that European claims to African territory had to rest on "effective occupation", which made it so that no single power could claim all of Africa. It also agreed to work to stop slavery and the slave trade in Africa. (873)
Fashoda crisis of 1898
Continuing up the Nile after the Battle of Omdurman, Kitchener's armies found that a small French force had already occupied the village of Fashoda. France had tried to beat Britain to the untaken lands past the Upper Nile, which led to a serious diplomatic crisis and the threat of war. The Dreyfus affair and the unwillingness to fight caused the French to back down, allowing Britain to take over. (845)
Great Trek of the Boers
The British takeover of Cape Town led the Dutch cattle ranchers and farmers to make their great trek to the interior in 1835. There, they fought the Zulu and Xhosa peoples for land. (871)
Treaty of Nanking, 1842
In the Treaty of Nanking in 1842, the Chinese government was forced to cede the island of Hong Kong to Britain forever, pay an indemnity of $100 million, and open up four large cities to foreign trade with low tariffs. The Treaty of Nanking was the result of the Anglo-Chinese war over the trade of opium in China. (862)
Clermont experiment of 1807
The power of steam revolutionized transportation by sea as well as by land. In 1807 inhabitants of the Hudson Valley in New York saw the "Devil on the way to Albany in a saw-mill," as Robert Fulton's steamship Clermont traveled 150 miles upstream in thirty-two hours. Steam power finally began to supplant sails on the oceans of the world in the late 1860's. (859)
Meiji Restoration of 1867
The restoration of political power of the emperor when a coalition led by patriotic samurai seized control of the government with very little bloodshed. It was a great turning point in Japanese development. (883)
Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)
The Sino-Japanese War of 1884 to 1895 and the subsequent harsh peace treaty revealed China's helplessness in the face of aggression, triggering a rush for foreign concessions and protectorates in China. (885)
Trench warfare
fighting behind rows of trenches, mines and barbed wire, the cost in lives was staggering and the gains in territory minimal. (895)
Congress of Berlin, 1878
A first step was the creation in 1873 of the conservative Three Emperors League, which linked the monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia in an alliance against radical movements. In 1877 and 1878, when Russia's victories in a war with the Ottoman Empire threatened the balance of Austrian and Russian interests in the Balkans and the balance of British and Russian interests in the Middle East, Bismarck had played the role of sincere peacemaker. Bismarck had helped resolve an issue at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, which worked out the partial division of Turkish possessions in Europe. Austria-Hungary obtained the right to "occupy and administer" Bosnia and Herzegovina. Serbia and Romania won independence, and a part of Bulgaria won local autonomy. The Ottoman Empire retained important Balkan holdings; For Austria-Hungary and Russia each feared the other's domination of totally independent states in the area. (891)
Schlieffen Plan
The German general staff had also thought only in terms of a two-front war. The staff's plan for war-the Schlieffen plan, the work of count Alfred von Schlieffen, chief of the German general staff from 1891 to 1906 and a professional military man -called for knocking out France first with a lighting attack through neutral Belgium before turning on Russia. (897)
"Total war"
In each country, a government of national unity began to plan and control economic and social life in order to wage "total war." Free market capitalism was abandoned, at least "for the duration." Instead, government-planning boards established priorities and decided what was to be produced and consumed. The government imposed rationing, price and wage controls, and eve restrictions on worker's freedom of movement. Only through such regimentation could a country make the greatest possible military effort. (904)
Totalitarian
Under a totalitarian regime, the state controls nearly every aspect of the individual's life. Totalitarian governments do not tolerate activities by individuals or groups such as labor unions that are not directed by the state's goals. Totalitarian regimes maintain themselves in power through secret police, propaganda disseminated through the media, the elimination of open criticism of the regime, and use of terror tactics. Internal and external threats are created to foster unity through fear. Totalitarian derived from the concept of total war. (904)
Western front
The front between Germany and France. Most of the causalities were on this front and there was really harsh fighting here. (902)
Bolsheviks
The Russian party of Marxian socialism promptly split into two rival factions. Lenin's camp was to be called Bolshevik or "majority group." Lenin's party. It stood for the majority group. An attempt to seize power collapsed, and Lenin went into hiding. They appealed effectively to the workers and Soldiers, and their membership soared. They seized government buildings and the provisional government, and they came into power for three reasons: power was there for those who would take it, the Bolsheviks had a determined and superior leadership, and they succeeded in appealing to many soldiers and urban workers. (913)
Principle of national self-determination
The principle of national self-determination, which had played such a large role in starting the war, was accepted and served as an organizing framework. (921)
War reparations
In the Treaty of Versailles, Germany's colonies were govern away to British, French, and Japanese delegates. Germany's army could not exceed 100,000 men and they could build no military fortifications in the Rhineland. They also had to pay for all civilian damages caused by the war. (919-21)
First Balkan War, 1912
In 1912, in the first Balkan War, Serbia turned southward with Greece and Bulgaria, it took Macedonia from the Ottoman Empire and then quarreled with Bulgaria over the spoils of victory-a dispute that led to the second Balkan war in 1913. (895)
Lawrence of Arabia
More successful was the Entente's attempt to incite Arab nationalists against their Turkish overlords. An enigmatic British colonel, soon known as Lawrence of Arabia, aroused the Arab princes to revolt in early 1917. In 1918 British armies from Egypt smashed the Ottoman Empire one and for all. In the Middle East campaign, the British drew on forces from Australia, New Zealand, and India. Contrary to German hopes, the colonial subjects of the British (and French) did not revolt but loyally supported their foreign masters. (903)
Reinsurance Treaty
The purpose of the German-Russian Reinsurance Treaty was because Russia had refused to renew the Alliance of the Three Emperors. Bismarck craftily substituted the Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty, by which both states promised neutrality if the other was attacked. It was ended in 1890 because the new Emperor William of Germany had dismissed Bismarck because of his friendly policy toward Russia. Then he had refused to renew the treaty. (893)
Algeciras Conference of 1906
Frustrated by Britain's turn toward France in 1904 and wanting a diplomatic victory to gain popularity at home, Germany's leaders decided to test the strength of the entente and drive a wedge between Britain and France. First Germany threatened and bullied France into dismissing Déclassé, France foreign minister. However rather than accept the typical territorial payoff of imperial competition in return for French primacy in Morocco, the Germans foolishly rattled their swords by insisting in 1905 in an international conference on the whole Moroccan question; nor did the Germans present precise or reasonable demands. Germany's crude bullying forced France and Britain closer together and Germany left the resulting Algeciras Conference of 1906 empty-handed and isolated (except for Austria-Hungary). (893-894)
Anglo-French Entente of 1904
Britain improved its often-strained relations with the United States and in 1902 concluded a formal alliance with Japan. Britain then responded favorably to the advances of France's skillful foreign minister, Theophile Déclassé, who wanted better relations with Britain and was willing to accept British rule in Egypt in return for British support of French plans to dominate Morocco. The resulting Anglo-French Entente of 1904 settled all outstanding colonial disputes between Britain and France. (893)
"Third Balkan War" (1914)
The assassination of the Austrian archduke Francis Ferdinand (1914) resulted in Bosnia by Serbian revolutionaries. Austria gave Serbia an ultimatum on July 23. The Serbian government had just forty-eight hours in which to agree to cease all subversion in Austria and all anti-Austrian propaganda in Serbia. When Serbia responded moderately but evasively, Austria began to mobilize and then declared war on Serbia on July 28. Thus a desperate multinational Austria-Hungary deliberately chose war in a last-ditch attempt to stem the rising tide of hostile nationalism within its borders and save the existing state. The "Third Balkan War" or World War I had just begun. (895)
Lusitania
In May 1915, after sinking about ninety ships in the British war zone, a German submarine sank the British passenger liner Lusitania, which was also carrying arms and munitions. More than 1,000 live, among them 139 Americans, were lost. President Woodrow Wilson protested vigorously. Germany was forced to relax its submarine warfare for almost two years; the alternative was almost certain war with the United States. (904)
Admiral Tirpitz
Germany's decision to add a large, enormously expensive fleet of big-gun battleships to its already expanding navy also heightened tensions after 1907. German nationalists, led by the extremely persuasive Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, saw a large navy as the legitimate mark of a great world power and as a source of pride and patriotic unity. (894)
(German) Auxiliary Service Law of 1916
In December 1916, military leaders rammed through the Reichstag the Auxiliary service Law, which required all males between seventeen and sixty to work only at jobs considered critical to the war effort. Although women and children were not specifically mentioned, this forced-Labor law was also aimed at them. Many women already worked in war factories, mines, and steel mills, where they labored, like men, at the heaviest and most dangerous jobs. With the passage of the Auxiliary Service Law, many more women followed. Children were organized by their teacher into garbage brigades to collect every scrap of useful materials: grease strained from dishwater, coffee grounds, wastepaper, tin cans, metal door knockers, bottles, rags, hair, bones, and so forth as well was acorns, chestnuts, pine cones, and rotting leaves. (906)
David Lloyd George
By 1915, however, a serious shortage of shells had led to the establishment of the Ministry of Munitions under David Lloyd George. The ministry organized private industry to produce for the war; controlled profits, allocated labor, fixed wage rates, and settled labor disputes. By December 1916, when Lloyd George became prime minister, the British economy was largely planned and regulated. More than two hundred factories and 90 percent of all imports were brought and allocated directly by the state. Subsequently, even food was strictly rationed, while war production continued to soar. (906)
Rasputin
With the tsar in the field with the troops, control of the government was taken over by the hysterical empress, Tsarina Alexandra, and a debauched adventurer and self-proclaimed holy man, Rasputin. Her most trusted adviser was "our Friend Grigori," an uneducated Siberian preacher who was appropriately nicknamed "Rasputin"-the "Degenerate." Rasputin began his career with a sect noted for mixing sexual orgies with religious ecstasies, and his influence rested on mysterious haling powers. Alexandra's son and heir to the throne suffered form hemophilia and Rasputin could heal him when he got a cut. The empress's faith in Rasputin was limitless. In this atmosphere of unreality, the government slid toward revolution. In a desperate attempt to right the situation and end unfounded rumors that Rasputin was the empress's lover, three members of the high aristocracy murdered Rasputin in December 1916. (909)
Georges Clemenceau
A rising tide of war-weariness and defeatism also-swept France's civilian population before Georges Clemenceau emerged as a ruthless and effective wartime leader in November 1917. Clemenceau (1841-1919) established a virtual dictatorship, pouncing on strikers and jailing without trial journalists and politicians who dared to suggest a compromise peace with Germany. (907)
Duma
Russia's lower house. They voted war credits, and they took the lead of the full mobilization. They set up special committees to coordinate defense, industry, transportation, and agriculture. These efforts improved the military situation. (909)
Tsar Nicholas II
Tsar Nicholas II ordered a partial mobilization against Austria-Hungary. Almost immediately he found that this was impossible. Russia ordered full mobilization and in effect declared general war. Repeated the oath Alexander I had sworn in 1813 and vowed never to make peace as long as the enemy stood in Russian soil. He wished to maintain the sacred inheritance of supreme loyal power, which, with the Orthodox Church was for him the key to Russia's greatness. Nicholas failed to form a close partnership with his citizens in order to fight the war more effectively. (896)
Petrograd Soviet
Throughout the summer, the Bolsheviks had appealed very effectively to the workers and soldiers of Petrograd, markedly increasing their popular support. Party membership has soared form 50,000 to 240,000 and in October the Bolsheviks gained a fragile majority in the Petrograd soviet. Soviet is a Russian word that means council. Russian revolutionary groups were known as soviets. The first soviets were formed during the Russian workers' revolution in 1905. Soviets were formed throughout Russia after the downfall of the tsar in March 1917. These soviets were councils made up of workers, peasants, and soldiers. These councils rallied groups of people to support the Socialist plan for setting up a Russian government. In 1917, Communists led by V. I. Lenin gained control of the soviets and of Russia. In 1922, the Soviet Union, officially known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was formed under Russia's leadership. (910)
Leon Trotsky
He was the second most important person in the Russian revolution. A radical Marxist and supporter of Lenin, Trotsky centered his power in the Petrograd Soviet. Trotsky engineered a Soviet overthrow of the provisional government. He reestablished the draft and the most drastic discipline for the newly formed Red Army. Soldiers deserting or disobeying an order were shot at. (913)
Petrograd bread riots (1917)
On March 8, women calling for bread in Petrograd started riots, which spontaneously spread to the factories and then elsewhere. From the front, the tsar ordered troops to restore order, but discipline broke down, and the soldiers joined the revolutionary crowd. The tsar then abdicated. (910)
Congress of the Soviets
The first convocation of a Congress of Soviets in Russia opened on June 3, 1917 and was attended by some 1,090 delegates (784 with full vote). Approximately: from 53 regional/provincial soviets (106 deputies), 305 local soviets (610 deputies), and 34 military organizations (68 delegates). (<http://www.marxists.org/glossary/orgs/c/o.htm>)
Kiev mutiny (1918)
On November 3, sailors in Kiel mutinied and throughout northern Germany soldiers and workers began to establish revolutionary councils on the Russian soviet model. (916)
Alexander Kerensky
Fiery agrarian socialist refused to confiscate large landholdings and give them to peasants, fearing that such drastic action in the countryside would only complete the disintegration of Russia's peasant army. For him, the continuation of war was the all-important national duty. (910)
Vladimir Lenin
Lenin believed that revolution was necessary to destroy capitalism. He also believed that Marxist revolution could occur in Russia despite its absence of advanced capitalism if led by an intellectual elite. From, his youth his whole life had been dedicated to revolution. As a law student, Lenin began searching for a revolutionary faith. He found it in Marxian socialism, which bean to win, converts among radical intellectuals as industrialization surged forward in Russia. (912)
Army Order No. 1
It was issued to all Russian military forces as the provisional government was forming. It stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected communities of common soldiers. It was designed primarily to protect the revolution from some counter-revolutionary Bonaparte on horseback, Army order No. 1 led to a total collapse of army discipline. It was issued by the Petrograd Soviet. This order stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers. (910)
Constituent Assembly
It was created by elections. It met for only one day on January 18, 1918. It was then permanently disbanded by Bolshevik soldiers acting under Lenin's orders. Thus even before the peace with Germany, Lenin was forming a one party government. (914)
White opposition
The officers of the old army took the lead in organizing the so-called White opposition to the Bolsheviks in southern Russia, Ukraine, Siberia and west of Petrograd. The whites came from many social groups and were united only by their hatred of the Bolsheviks-the reds. It caused the Russian civil war. (914)
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918)
After Lenin got a hold of the government; he wanted to end the war between Germany. A third of old Russia's population was sliced away by the German meat ax in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. It was the sacrifice of all of Russia's western territories. (914)
Battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes
Russia was pushing into eastern Germany, but these battles led to German victories. Russia was very badly damaged by the Germans in the Battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes under Generals Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff in August and September 1914. Russia never threatened Germany again. (909)
First Battle of the Marne
Under the leadership of steel-nerved General Joseph Joffre, the French attacked a gap in the German line at the Battle of the Marne on September 6. For three days, France threw everything into the attack. At one point, the French government desperately requisitioned all the taxis to Paris to rush reserved to the troops at the front. Finally, the Germans fell back. Paris and France had been miraculously saved. It turned the war into a long stalemate. (899)
Battles of the Somme and Verdun
In the Battle of Somme in the summer of 1916, the British and French lost 600,000 soldiers for 125 square miles while the Germans lost 500,000 men. That same year, the unsuccessful German campaign against Verdun cost 700,000 lives on both sides. (899)
Nietzsche's dictum "God is dead."
In his most famous line, a wise fool proclaims God is Dead because He had been murdered my modern Christians who no longer believed in him. He viewed the pillars of morality as outworn social and psychological constructs whose influence was suffocating self-realization and excellence. (928)
Gustav Stresemann
In August 1923, as the mark fell and political unrest grew throughout Germany, Gustav Stresemann (1878-1929) assumed leadership of the government. Stresemann adopted a compromising attitude. He called off passive resistance in the Ruhr and in October agreed in principle to pay reparations but asked for a re-examination of Germany's ability to pay. Poincaré accepted. His hard line was becoming increasingly unpopular with French citizens, and it was hated in Britain and the United States. The moderate businessmen who tended to dominate the various German coalition governments were convinced that economic prosperity demanded good relations with the Western powers, and they supported parliamentary government at home. Streseman himself was a man of this class, and he was the key figure in every government until his death in 1929. (942-943)
Ramsay MacDonald
He was the leader of the Labour Party. They governed the country with the support of the smaller Liberal Party. His government followed the orthodox economic theory. The budget was balanced, but unemployment workers received barely any welfare. (944)
"Little Entente" of 1921
An alliance of France with Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia against Hungary. France was isolated, and thus formed these alliances. (941)
Ruhr crisis of 1923
Despite strong British protests, French and Belgian armies began to occupy the Ruhr district, the heartland of industrial Germany, creating the most serious international crisis of the 1920's. If forcible collection proved impossible, France would use occupation to paralyze Germany and force it to accept the Treaty of Versailles. Strengthened by a wave of patriotism, the German government ordered the people of the Ruhr to stop working and start passively resisting the French occupation. The coal mines and steel mills of the Ruhr grew silent, leaving 10 percent of Germany's total population in need of relief. The French answer to passive resistance was to seal off not only the Ruhr but also the entire Rhineland from the rest of Germany, letting in only enough food to prevent starvation. The French also revived plans for a separate state in the Rhineland. (941)
Locarno meetings of 1925
In 1925 the leaders of Europe signed a number of agreements at Locarno, Switzerland. Germany and France solemnly pledged to accept their common border, and both Britain and Italy agreed to fight either France or Germany if one invaded the other. Streseman also agreed to settle boundary disputes with Poland and Czechoslovakia by peaceful means, and France promised those countries military aid if German attacked them. For years, a "spirit of Locarno" gave Europeans a sense of growing security and stability in international affairs. (942)
Munich beer hall "revolution" of 1923
In 1923 communists momentarily entered provincial governments, an in November an obscure nobody named Adolf Hitler leaped onto a table in a beer hall in Munich and proclaimed a "national socialist revolution." But Hitler's plot to seize control of the government was poorly organized and easily crushed. (942)
Principle of uncertainty
In 1927 German physicist Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976) formulated the "principle of uncertainty," which postulates that because it is impossible to know the position and speed of an individual electron, it is impossible to predict is behavior. Instead of Newton's dependable, rational laws, there seemed to be only tendencies and probabilities in an extraordinary complex and uncertain universe. (932)
French Popular Front
Inspired by Roosevelt's New Deal, the Popular Front encouraged the union movement and launched a far-reaching program of social reform, complete with paid vacations and a forty-hour workweek. Popular with workers and the lower middle class, these, measures were quickly sabotaged by rapid inflation and cries of revolution from fascists and frightened conservatives. Wealthy people sneaked their money out of the country, labor unrest grew, and France entered a severe financial crisis. The Popular front quickly collapsed after Blum resigned in 1937. (952)
National Recovery Administration
The most ambitious attempt to control and plan the economy was the National Recovery Administration (NRA), established by Congress right after Roosevelt took office. The key idea behind the NRA was to reduce competition and fix prices and wages for everyone's benefit, along with sponsoring enough public works projects to ensure recovery. The NRA's goal required government, business, and labor to hammer out detailed regulations for each industry. Because NRA broke with the cherished American tradition of free competition and aroused conflicts among business people, consumers, and bureaucrats, it did not work well. (948)
Agricultural Adjustment Act
The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 also aimed at raising prices and farm income by carefully restricting the acreage farmers could cultivate and then paying them cash for the set-asides. These planning measures worked, at least for a while, and farmers enthusiastically repaid Roosevelt in 1936 with overwhelming support. (948)
BBC
In Great Britain Parliament set up an independent, public corporation, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), supported by licensing fees. Elsewhere in Europe the typical pattern was direct control by the government. (939)
Raymond Poincaré
The British were willing to accept a moratorium on reparations, but the French were not. Led by their tough-minded, legalistic prime minister, Raymond Poincaré (1860-1934), they decided they had to either call Germany's bluff or see the entire peace settlement dissolve to France's great disadvantage. By early 1926, the franc had fallen to 10 percent of its prewar value, causing a severe crisis. Poincaré was recalled to office, while Briand remained minister of foreign affairs. The Poincaré government proceeded to slash spending and raise taxes, restoring confidence in the economy. (941-943)
John Maynard Keynes
Many English people agreed with the analysis of the young English economy John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946), who eloquently denounced the Treaty of Versailles in his famous Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919). According to Keynes interpretation, astronomical reparations and harsh economic measures would indeed reduce Germany to the position of an impoverished second-rate power, but such impoverishment would increase economic hardship in all countries. Only a complete revision of the foolish treaty could save Germany-and Europe. Keynes's attack exploded like a bombshell and became very influential. It stirred deep guilt feelings bout Germany in the English-speaking world, feelings that often paralyzed English and American leaders in their relations with Germany and its leaders between the First and the Second World Wars. (940)
Sergei Eisenstein
Motion picture also became powerful tools of indoctrination, especially in countries with dictatorial regimes. Lenin himself encouraged the development of Soviet film making, believing that the new medium was essential to the social and ideological transformation of the country. Beginning in the mid-1920's, a series of epic films, the most famous of which were directed by Sergie Eisenstein (1898-1898), brilliantly dramatized the communist view of Russian history. (940)
Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928
In 1928 fifteen counties signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact, initiated by French prime minister Aristide Briand and U.S. secretary of state Frank B. Kellogg. This multinational pact "condemned and renounced war as an instrument of national policy." These signing states agreed to settle international disputes peacefully. Often seen as idealistic nonsense because it made no provisions for action in case of war actually occurred, the pact was still a positive step. (942)
Adolf Hitler
In 1923 communists momentarily entered provincial governments; an in November an obscure nobody named Adolf Hitler leaped onto a table in a beer hall in Munich and proclaimed a "national socialist revolution." But Hitler's plot to seize control of the government was poorly organized and easily crushed, and Hitler was sentenced to prison, where he outlined his theories and program on his book Mein Kampf (My Struggle). Throughout the 1920's, Hitler's Nationalist Socialist party attracted support only from a fanatical anti-Semites, ultra nationalists, and disgruntled ex-servicemen. In 1928 his party had an insignificant twelve seats in the Reichstag. Indeed. After 1923 democracy seemed to take root in Weimar Germany. (942)
Paul Valéry
No one expressed this state of uncertainty better than the French poet Paul Valéry (1871-1945) in the early 1920's. Speaking of the "crisis of the mind," Valéry noted that Europe was looking as its future with dark foreboding. In the midst of economic, political, and social disruptions, Valéry saw the "cruelly injured mind," besieged by doubts and suffering from anxieties. This was the general intellectual crisis of the twentieth century, which touched almost every field of thought. (927)
Friedrich Nietzsche
Among those thinkers in the late nineteenth century who challenged the belief in progress and the general faith in the rational human mind, German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) was particularly influential. Never a systematic philosopher, Nietzsche wrote as a prophet in a provocative and poetic style. His first great work in 1872 argued that ever since classical Athens, the West had overemphasized rationality and stifled the passion and animal instinct that drive human activity and true creativity. Nietzsche went on to question all values. He claimed that Christianity embodied a "slave morality," which glorified weakness, envy, and mediocrity. (928)
Georges Sorel
Another thinker who agreed about the limits of rational thinking was French socialist Georges Sorel (1847-1922). Sorel characterized Marxian socialism as an inspiring but un-provable religion rather than a rational scientific truth. Socialism would come to power, he believed, through a great, violent strike of all working people, which would miraculously shatter capitalist society. Sorel rejected democracy and believed that the masses of the new socialist society would have to be tightly controlled by a small revolutionary elite. (929)
Henri Bergson
In the 1890's, French philosophy professor Henri Bergson (1859-1941) convinced many young people through his writing that immediate experience and intuition were as important as rational and scientific thinking for understanding reality. Indeed, according to Bergson, a religious experience or a mystical poem was often more accessible to human comprehension than a scientific or a mathematical equation. (929)
Ludwig Wittgenstein
The outlook of logical empiricism began primarily with Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), who later immigrated to England, where he trained his disciples. Wittgenstein argued in his pugnacious Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (Essay on Logical Philosophy) in 1922 that philosophy is only the logical clarification pf thoughts, and therefore it becomes the study of language, which expresses thoughts. The great philosophical issues of the ages-God, freedom, morality, and so on-are quite literally senseless, a great waste of time, for statements about them can neither be tested by scientific experiments nor demonstrated by the logics of morality. (929)
Jean-Paul Sartre
In the words of the famous French existentialist Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980), human beings simply exist: "They turn up, appear on the scene." Only after they "turn up" do they seek to define themselves. Honest human beings are terribly alone, for there is no God to help them. They are bounded to by despair and the meaninglessness of life. The crisis of the existential thinker epitomized the modern intellectual crisis-the shattering beliefs in God, reason, and progress. (930)
Max Planck
Building in this and other work in radiation, German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947) showed in 1900 that subatomic energy is emitted in uneven little spurts, which Planck called "quanta," and not in a steady stream, as previously believed. Planck's discovery called into question the old sharp distinction between matter and energy; the implication was that matter and energy might be different forms of the same thing. The old view of atoms as the stable, basic building blocks of nature, with a different kind of unbreakable atom for each of the ninety-two chemical elements, was badly shaken. (932)
Albert Einstein
His famous theory of special relativity postulated that time and space are relative to the viewpoint of the observer and that only the speed of light is constant for all frames of reference to the universe. The closed framework of Newtonian physics was quite unlimited compared to that of Einsteinian physics, which unified an apparently infinite universe with the incredibly small, fast-moving subatomic world. Moreover, Einstein's theory said that both matter and energy are interchangeable. (932).
Ernest Rutherford
He showed that the atom could be split, and later seven subatomic particles had been identified. This was the "road to the atomic bomb". (932)
Marcel Proust
The great French novelist Marcel Proust (1871-1922), in his semi-autobiographical Remembrance of Things Past (1913-1927), recalled bittersweet memories of childhood and youthful love and tried to discover their innermost meaning. To do so, Proust lived like a hermit in a soundproof Paris apartment for ten years, with drawing from the present to dwell on the past. (934)
George Orwell
Englishman George Orwell (1903-1950), however, had seen both that reality and its Stalinist counterpart by 1949, when he wrote perhaps the ultimate anti-utopian literature: 1984. Orwell set the action in the future, in 1984. Big Brother-the dictator-and his totalitarian states use a new kind of language, sophisticated technology, and psychological terror to strip a weal individual of his last shred of human dignity. A phenomenal bestseller, 1984, spoke to millions of people in the closing years of the age of anxiety. (935)
Oswald Spengler
In 1918 an obscure German high-school teacher named Oswald Spengler (1880-1936) published The Decline of the West, which quickly became an international sensation. According to Spengler, every culture experiences a life cycle of growth and decline. Western civilization, in Spengler's opinion, was in its old age, and death was approaching in the form of conquest by the yellow-race. (934)
Logical empiricism
In English-speaking countries, the main development was the acceptance of logical empiricism in university circles. In continental countries, where esoteric and remote logical empiricism did not win many converts, the primary development was existentialism. Logical empiricism was truly revolutionary. It quite simply rejected most of the concerns of traditional philosophy, from existence of God to the meaning of happiness as nonsense and hot air. (929)
Modern existentialism
Existentialists did recognize that human beings, unless they kill themselves, must act. There is therefore the possibility of giving meaning to life through actions, of defining oneself through choices. To do so, individuals must become "engaged" and choose their own actions courageously and consistently an din full awareness of their inescapable responsibility for their own behavior. Modern existentialism first attained prominence in Germany in the 1920's when the philosophers Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers found a sympathetic audience among disillusioned postwar university students. (930)
Functionalism in architecture
Modernism in the arts was loosely unified by a revolution in architecture. This revolution intended nothing less than a transformation of the physical framework of urban society according to a new principle: functionalism. Buildings, like industrial products, should be useful and "functional"-that is, they should serve, as well as possible, the purpose for which they are made. (935)
Chicago school of architecture
Was led by Louis H. Sullivan. It used cheap steel, reinforced concrete, and electric elevators to build skyscrapers and office buildings lacking of any exterior ornamentation. (935)
Expressionism in painting
By 1890, when impressionism was finally established, a few artists known as postimpressionists, or sometimes as expressionists, were already striking out in new directions. After 1905 art increasingly took on a nonrepresentational, abstract character, a development that reached its high point after World War II. Fascination with form, as opposed to light, was the characteristic of postimpressionism and expressionism. (937)
Cubism
Founded by Pablo Picasso, cubism concentrates on a complex geometry or zigzagging lines and sharply angled, overlapping planes. (937)
Dadaism
Dadaism attacked all accepted standards of art and behavior, delighting in outrageous conduct. Its name, from the French word dada, meaning "hobbyhorse," if deliberately nonsensical. (937)
Surrealism
After 1924 many dadaists were attracted to surrealism, which became very influential in art in the late 1920's and 1930's. Surrealists painted a fantastic world of wild dreams and complex symbols, where watches melted and giant metronomes beat time in precisely drawn but impossible alien landscapes. Refusing to depict ordinary visual reality, surrealist's painters made powerful stamens about the age of anxiety. (938)
Expressionism in music
Developments in modern music were strikingly parallel to those in painting. Composers were attracted by the emotional intensity of expressionism. The combination of pulsating, dissonant rhythms from the orchestra pit and an earthy representation of lovemaking by the dancers on the stage seemed a shocking, almost pornographic enactment of a primitive fertility rite. (938)
Atonality in music
The musical notes in a given piece were no longer united and organized by a key; instead they were independent and unrelated. Schonberg's twelve-tone music of the 1920's arranged all twelve notes of the scale in an abstract, mathematical pattern, or "tone row." This pattern sounded like no pattern at all to the ordinary listener and could be detected only by a highly trained eye studying the musical score. Accustomed to the harmonies of classical and romantic music, audiences generally resisted modern atonal music. Only after the Second World War did it begin to win acceptance. (938)
blitzkrieg
Using planes, tanks, and trucks in the first example of a blitzkrieg, or "lightning war," Hitler's armies crushed Poland in four weeks. It happened again when German motorized columns broke through southern Belgium. (979)
conservative authoritarianism
Although some of the conservative authoritarian regimes adopted certain Hitlerian and fascist characteristics in the 1930s, their general aims were limited. They were concerned more with maintaining the status quo than with forcing society into rapid change or war. (958)
modern totalitarianism
Totalitarian leaders believed in will power, conflict, the worship of violence and the idea that the individual was less valuable than the state. Conservative authoritarianism were more concerned with maintaining the status quo than with forcing society into rapid change. (958)
Hitler's final solution
The answer to "The Jewish Question". It was a mass murder of all Jews. He set up extermination camps and forced millions of Jews to enter gas chamber, ovens, and fire pits. (981)
"socialism in one country"
A theory that was more appealing to the majority of communists than Trotsky's doctrine of permanent revolution. Stalin argued that the Russian dominated Soviet Union had the ability to build socialism on its own. (962)
appeasement
Britain adopted a policy of appeasement, granting Hitler everything he could reasonably want in order to avoid war. The first step was an Anglo German naval agreement in June 1935 that broke Germany's isolation. The second step came in March when Hitler marched his armies into the demilitarized Rhineland, violating the Treaties of Versailles and Locarno. (977)
fascism
Nazism had fascist origins, but German fascism in power ultimately presented only superficial similarities with fascism in Italy. Nazi fascism, racism and unlimited aggression made war inevitable. (988)
anti-Semitism
Hitler eagerly absorbed virulent anti-Semitism, racism and hatred of Slavs. He developed an unshakable belief in the crudest, most exaggerated distortions of the Darwinian theory of survival. It became Hitler's most passionate convictions. (970_
Weimar Republic
It seemed on the verge of collapse, and Hitler, inspired by Mussolini's recent easy victory, decided on an armed uprising in Munich. Despite the failure of the poorly organized plot and Hitler's arrest, Nazism had been born. (971)
National Socialist German Workers' Party
Was the Nazi organization which included the workers who were forced to work for Hitler and stripped of their land, livestock and all of their properties. (970)
Benito Mussolini
Mussolini's movement and his seizure of power were important steps in the rise of dictatorships in Europe between the two world wars. Like all the future dictators, the young Mussolini hated liberalism and wanted to destroy it in Italy. (968)
Leon Trotsky
Trotsky maintained that socialism in the Soviet Union could succeed only if revolution occurred quickly throughout Europe. To many communists, his views seemed to sell their country short and to promise risky conflicts with capitalist countries. (962)
General Paul Hindenburg
Unable to gain the support of a majority in the Reichstag, Heinrich Bruning convinced the president, the aging war hero General Hindenburg, to authorize rule by decree. After he forced Bruning to resign in May 1932, his successor continued to rule by decree. (972)
Neville Chamberlain
While proclaiming peaceful intentions to the British and their gullible prime minister, Chamberlain, Hitler told his generals his real plans. (978)
kulaks
They were the better off peasants. Stalin instructed party workers to liquidate them as a class. Stripped of land and livestock, the kulaks were generally not even permitted to join the collective farms. Many starved or were deported to forced labor camps for "re-education." (963)
Nazi Labor Front
Professional people like doctors, lawyers, teachers, and engineers saw their previously independent organizations swallowed up by Nazi associations. The associations took control of publishing houses, universities and writers. (973)
Nazi Storm Troopers (the SA)
The quasi-military band of 3 million toughs in brown shirts who had fought communists and beaten up Jews before the Nazis took power. They expected top positions in the army and even talked of a second revolution against capitalism. (973)
Joseph Goebbels
When modern art and architecture were ruthlessly prohibited, he put it as, "When I hear the word 'culture' I reach for my gun." This was to show that brutal dictatorship characterized by frightening dynamism and obedience to Hitler was already largely in place. (973)
Auschwitz-Birkenau Camp
A Nazi death/concentration camp. Many Jews were taken in overcrowded trains and tortured, and burned to death. They were stripped of everything. The families were split. They burned the babies and women, and also anyone who was not able to work. Many were put in ovens and tortured in gas chambers. (990)
Stalin's collectivization program
The forcible consolidation of individual peasant farms into large, state controlled enterprises. Peaasants all over the Soviet Union were ordered to give up their land and animals and become members of the collective farms, although they continued to live in their homes. (963)
Lenin's New Economic Policy (1921)
Re-established limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry. Lenin substituted a grain tax on the country's peasant producers, who were permitted to sell their surpluses in free markets. (961)
Mussolini's march on Rome (1922)
A large group of fascists marched on Rome to threaten the king and force him to call on Mussolini. The threat worked. Mussolini was asked to form a new cabinet. (969)
Hitler's Munich plot (1923)
Hitler's plot to seize control of the government. It was poorly organized and easily crushed. Hitler was sentenced to prison, where he outlined his theories and program in his book Mein Kampf. (942)
Great Depression in Germany (1929-1933)
Shattering economic prosperity, it presented Hitler with a fabulous opportunity. Unemployment boomed, and industrial production fell by half. No factor contributed more to Hilter's success than the economic crisis. (971)
Munich Conference (1938)
Returning to London from the Munich Conference, Chamberlain told cheering crowds that he had secured "peace with honor..peace for our time." (979)
Russo-German ("Nazi-Soviet") nonaggression pact (1939)
Stalin and Hitler promised to remain neutral if the other became involved in war. It was enough to make Britain and France cry treachery, for they, too, had been negotiation with Stalin. (979)
Stalin's five-year plans
The first five-year plan to increase industrial and agricultural production was extremely ambitious, but Stalin wanted to erase the NEP, spur the economy, and catch up with the West. (960)
Grand Alliance
Was the alliance of United States, Great Britain, and Soviet Union. The military resources of the Grand Alliance were awesome. The strengths of the United States were its mighty industry, its large population, and its national unity. (983)
Battle of Stalingrad, 1942
Soviet armies counterattacked the Germans by rolling over Romanian and Italian troops to the north and south of Stalingrad, quickly closing the trap and surrounding the entire German Sixth army of 300,00 men. (985)
Battle of El Alamein, 1942
In May 1942, combined German and Italian armies were finally defeated by British forces at the Battle of El Alamein, only seventy miles from Alexandria. (986)
Battle of the Coral Sea, 1942
In this battle, Allied naval and air power stopped the Japanese advance and also relieved Australia from the threat of invasion. This victory was followed by the Battle of Midway Island. (985)
Normandy invasion, June 6, 1944
American and British forces under General Dwight Eisenhower landed on the beaches of Normandy, France, in history's greatest naval invasion. In a hundred days more than 2 million men were dead. (987)
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
United states dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. Mass bombing of ciies and civilians, one of the terrible new practices of WWII had ended in the final nightmare- unprecedented human destruction in a single blinding flash. Japanese announced their surrender. (987)
Christian Democrats
progressive Catholics and revitalized Catholic political parties that became influential after the Second World War. (995)
Cold War
The most powerful allies in the wartime coalition-the Soviet Union and the United States-began to quarrel almost as soon as the unifying threat of Nazi Germany disappeared. A tragic disappointment for millions of people, the hostility between the Eastern and Western superpowers was the sad but logical outgrowth of military developments, wartime agreements, and longstanding political ad ideological differences. (993)
Decolonization
It was the rising demand of Asian and African people for national self-determination, racial equality, and personal dignity. The Indian independence played a big role in decolonization. Decolonization is much of Africa proceeded smoothly. Colonies were given a choice of a total break or immediate independence within a commonwealth. This resulted in increase of western European countries' economic and cultural ties with former African colonies. (1001)
Neocolonialism
System designed to perpetuate Western Economic domination and undermine the promise of political independence. It extended to Africa and Asia the economic subordination that the U.S had established in Latin America. (1003)
European Steel and Coal Community
Its purpose was to bind the six member nations together economically so that war among them would be virtually impossible. The Treaty of Rome's goals were gradual reduction of tariffs, free movement of capital and labor, and common economic policies. (999)
Détente
It was the progressive relaxation of Cold War tensions. The West German chancellor flew to Poland for the signing to a historical treaty of reconciliation. He also negotiated treaties with the Soviet Union, Poland, and Czechoslovakia. It encouraged Nixon to sponsor an American led framework of reducing East-West tensions in the early 1070s. This policy gradually faded in the 1970s. (1017)
Truman Doctrine
It aimed at containing communism to areas already occupied by the Red Army (995)
De-Stalinization
It was Khrushchev's attempt to change Russia. Resources shifted from heavy industry to consumer goods and agriculture. He stated peaceful coexistence with capitalism was possible. It stimulated rebelliousness in the Eastern European satellites. It ended in 1964 when Khrushchev's rule fell. (1006)
OPEC
An Arab led organization. It reversed the decline the trend of decreasing crude oil prices by presenting a unified from against oil companies. It declared an embargo on oil shipments to the U.S. since they supported Israel in the Arab-Israel war. (1019)
Economic Nationalism
It resulted in short term benefits for countries such as Germany but not long term benefits occurred. (997)
Managerial Class
A new breed of managers and experts replaced traditional property owners as the leaders of the middle class. Ability to serve the needs of a big organization largely replaced inherited property and family connection in determining an individual's social position. Thus the new middle class, which was based largely in specialized skills in high levels of education, was more open, democratic, and insecure than the old propertied middle class. The structure of the lower class also became more flexible and open. (1012)
"Brain Drain"
The rapid expansion of government-financed research in the United States attracted many of Europe's best scientists during the 1950s and 1960s. Thoughtful Europeans lamented this "brain drain" and feared that Europe was falling hopelessly behind the United States in science and technology. (1010)
NATO
In 1949, the United States formed an anti-Soviet military alliance of Western governments: the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The United States also supplied strong and creative leadership, providing western Europe with both massive economic aid and ongoing military protection through the Marshall Plan, and military security through NATO, which featured American troops stationed permanently in Europe and the American nuclear umbrella. (995-997)
British Labour Party
The British Labour Party was determined to leave India when it came to power in 1945. British socialists were opposed to imperialism, and the heavy cost of governing India had become an intolerable burden. The privatization initiative created a whole new class of property owners, thereby eroding the electoral base of Britain's socialist Labour Party. (1001, 1020)
Brown vs. The Board of Education
The civil right movement advanced in several fronts. Eloquent lawyers from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) challenged school segregation in the courts. In 1954 they won a landmark decision in the Supreme Court, which ruled in Brown vs. The Board of Education that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." (1003)
Martin Luther King
Blacks effectively challenged institutionalized inequality with bus boycotts, sit-ins, and demonstrations. As the civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-168, told the white power structure, "We will not hate you, but we will not obey your evil laws." (1003)
Warsaw Pact
It was Stalin's response to NATO. He tightened his hold on his which were united by the Warsaw Pact. (995)
Organization of European Economic Cooperation
It was created due to the close cooperation required the Marshall Plan. It also led to the Council of Europe, which was hoped would evolve into a free European parliament. It did not succeed. (999)
Common Market (EEC)
It was the European Economic Community. Its goals were to gradually reduce tariffs, free movement of capital and labor, and common economic and political institutions. It was a great success, since it encouraged companies and regions to specialize in what they did best. (999)
Taft-Hartley Act
Taft-Hartley Act is the popular name for the federal Labor-Management Relations Act of 1947. The act was named for its main sponsors, Senator Robert A. Taft and Representative Fred Hartley. It was an amendment to the Wagner Act (National Labor Relations Act of 1935). It continued the Wagner Act's basic guarantees of workers' rights, outlawed certain union tactics, and expanded the act's concept of unfair labor practices to include practices of labor organizations. The Taft-Hartley Act provided that the start of strikes that might cause a national emergency can be delayed for 80 days. (World Book Encyclopedia)
Franklin D. Roosevelt
He tried to meet Stalin's wartime demands whenever possible. He agreed too many of Stalin's demands since the soviet union was in a stronger position. He was succeeded by Truman, who was not as compromising. (994)
Josip Tito
Resistance leader and communist chief of Yugoslavia. He resisted Soviet domination successfully. Yugoslavia prospered until the 1980s, and then it stated to break apart. Tito's successes led to the re-enactment of the Great Show Trials. (1006)
Johnson's "War on Poverty"
Congress and the administration created a host of antipoverty projects. Programs were directed were directed to all poor Americans, but were also intended to increase economic equality for blacks. The U.S. became more of welfare state. (1004)
Nikita Khrushchev
Reformers, who were led by Nikita Khrushchev, argued for major innovations. Khrushchev (1894-1971), who had joined the party as an uneducated coal miner in 1918 at the age of twenty-four and had been one of the new people rising to a high-level position in the 1930's, emerged as a new rule in 1955. To strengthen his position and that of his fellow reformers within the party, Khrushchev launched an all-out attack on Stalin and his crimes at a closed session of the Twentieth Party Congress in 1956. Khrushchev was to reform by de-Stalinization. (1006)
Lazaro Cardenas
Lázaro Cardenas, (1895-1970), served as president of Mexico from 1934 to 1940. More than any other president since the beginning of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, he carried out the revolution's reform aims. He established a program that gave land to the poor. In addition, he promoted the construction of schools and brought foreign-owned oil companies under government control. Cardenas also greatly reduced the influence of the nation's rich landowners and of its military. The vast power of these groups had been left over from pre-modern Mexico. By reducing their influence, Cardenas helped pave the way for the development of agricultural and commercial capitalism in Mexico. (World Book Encyclopedia)
Simone de Beauvoir
The first and one of the most influential major works produced by the second wave was The Second Sex (1949) by the French writer and philosopher Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986). Beauvoir analyzed the position of women within the framework of existential thought. She argued that women-like all human beings-were in essence free but that they had almost always been trapped by particularly inflexible and limiting conditions. (1024)
Betty Friedan
One women who played a key role in reopening a serious discussion of women's issues in the United States was Betty Friedan (b. 1924). Unlike Beauvoir, who epitomized French individualism in believing that each women had to chart her own course, Friedan reflected the American faith in group action and political solutions. (1024)
Charles de Gaulle
In the 1960's the hopes of rapid progress were frustrated by resurgence of more traditional nationalism. Franc took the lead. Mired in a bitter colonial war in Algeria, the French turned in 1958 to General de Gaulle, who established the fifth republic and ruled as its president until 1969. De Gaulle was at heart a romantic nationalist, and he labored to re-create a powerful, truly independent France. (999)
Tet Offensive
Criticism of the Vietnam War reached a crescendo after the Vietcong Tet Offensive in January 1968. This, the communists' first comprehensive attack with conventional weapons on major cities in South Vietnam, failed militarily: the Vietcong suffered heavy losses, and the attack did not spark a mass uprising. (1016)
Brezhnev Doctrine
Shortly after the invasion of Czechoslovakia, Brezhnev declared the so-called Brezhnev Doctrine, according to which the Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need. (1009)
"Socialism with a human face"
Was a name for something that the Czech reformers wanted to build with their determination, which frightened hard-line Communists. (1007)
Willy Brandt
West German chancellor who took lead of the détente. He signed a treaty of reconciliation with Poland, and he laid a wreath at the Polish tomb of the unknown soldier. He aimed at nothing less than a comprehensive peace settlement for central Europe and the two German states established after 1945. He negotiated treaties with the Soviet Union, Poland, and Czechoslovakia. (1017)
Leonid Brezhnev
Under Leonid Brezhnev (1906-1982), the Soviet Union began a period of stagnation and limited "re-Stalinization." Brezhnev's Soviet Union ignored human rights provisions of the Helsinki agreement. And East West political competition remained very much alive outside Europe. (1007, 1018)
Chiang Kai-Shek
Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975) was the political and military leader of the Nationalist Chinese government on Taiwan from 1949 until his death in 1975. He took command of the Kuomintang Party in the 1920's. This was the Nationalist Party that had overthrown the Manchu (Qing) dynasty and proclaimed a republic in 1912. Chiang was the decisive power in China from the mid-1920 until 1949, when Communists took control. He then fled to Taiwan and established his government there. (World Book Encyclopedia)
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Tito joined with India's Jawaharlal Nehru and Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser to lead and inspire the movement of nonaligned, newly independent countries. (1008)
Getulio Vargas
Vargas Getulio (1883-1954), served as president of Brazil from 1930 to 1945 and from 1950 to 1954. He was the governor of Rio Grande do Sul for two years before he seized the presidency in 1930 with a group of reforming army officers. Vargas was forced out by an army ultimatum in 1945, but he was elected president again in 1950. He was born in Sao Borja on April 19, 1883. He committed suicide when the army demanded his resignation again in 1954. (World Book Encyclopedia)
Yevgeny Yevtushenko
Russian poet. Most of his works are directed toward people who grew up in the Soviet Union after World War II ended in 1945. Yevtushenko is a master of technique and uses straightforward language. Yevtushenko became famous in the West as one of the first writers in the Soviet Union to criticize Soviet society. (World Book Encyclopedia)
Casablanca (January 1943)
Where the Casablanca Conference was held and President Franklin and Roosevelt made the decision to fight until the axis powers surrendered unconditionally. (993)
Teheran (November 1943)
At the Teheran Conference the "Big Three" jovially reaffirmed their determination to crush Germany and searched for the appropriate military strategy. Churchill argued that American and British forces should follow up their Italian campaign with an indirect attack on Germany through the Balkans. Roosevelt agreed with Stalin that an American-British frontal assault through France would be better. It meant that the Soviet and the American-British armies would come together in defeated Germany along a north-south line and that only Soviet troops would liberate Eastern Europe. (993-994)
Yalta (February 1945)
At the Yalta Conference, it was agreed that Germany would be divided into zones of occupation and would pay heavy reparations to the Soviet Union. The Big Three struggled to reach an ambiguous compromise at Yalta: eastern European governments were to be freely elected but pro-Russian. The Yalta compromise over Eastern Europe broke down almost immediately. (993-994)
Potsdam (July 1945)
At the Potsdam Conference in 1945, Truman demanded free elections throughout Eastern Europe, but Stalin refused. Here, then, is the key to the much-debated origins of the cold war. American ideals, pumped by the crusade against Hitler, and American politics, heavily influenced by millions of voters from Eastern Europe, demanded free elections in the Soviet occupied Eastern Europe. Stalin, suspicious by nature, believed that only communist states could be truly dependable allies, and he realized that free elections would result in independent and possibly hostile governments on his western border. Moreover, by the middle of 1945, there was no way short of war that the United States could determine political developments in Eastern Europe, and war as out of the question. Stalin was bound to have his way. (993-994)
Berlin Airlift of 1948
When Stalin blocked all traffic through the Soviet zone of Germany to Berlin, the former capital, which the occupying powers had also divided into sectors at the end of the war, the Western allies acted firmly but not provocatively. Hundreds of planes began flying over the Soviet road blocks around the clock, supplying provisions to the people of West Berlin and thwarting Soviet efforts to swallow up West Berliners. (995)
Schumann Plan (1950)
The French foreign minister Robert Schuman, took the lead in 1950 and called for a special international organization to control and integrate all European steel and coal production. West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg accepted the French idea in 1952. The immediate economic goal-a single steel and coal market without national tariffs or quotas-was rapidly realized. The more far-reaching political goal was to bind the six member nations so closely together economically that war among them would eventually become unthinkable and virtually impossible. (999)
Twentieth Party Congress of the Soviets (1956)
To strengthen his position and that of his fellow reformers within the party, Khrushchev launched an all-out attack on Stalin and his crimes at a closed session of the Twentieth Party Congress in 1956. In gory detail, he described the startled Communist delegates how Stalin had tortured and murdered thousands of loyal Communists, how he had trusted Hitler completely and bungled the country's defense, and hoe he had "supported the glorification of his own person with all conceivable methods." Khrushchev's "secret speech" was read at Communist party meetings held throughout the country, and it strengthened the reform movement. Khrushchev was to reform by de-Stalinization. (1006)
Civil Rights Act of 1964
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 categorically prohibited discrimination in public services and on the job. (1003)
Partition of Palestine (1948)
In 1947, the United Nations voted to partition Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state and to place Jerusalem under international control. The Jews in Palestine accepted this plan, but the Arabs rejected it. Israel came into existence in 1948. War immediately broke out between Israel and the surrounding Arab countries. By 1949, Israel had defeated the Arabs and gained control of about half the land planned for the new Arab state of Egypt. (World Book Encyclopedia)
Bay of Pigs invasion (1961)
John F. Kennedy became president of the United States in January 1961. Cold War tensions were high—in Europe, in Asia, and even on the doorstep of the United States, in Cuba. The Cuban government of Fidel Castro became increasingly Communist in 1961. Castro condemned the United States and began to receive military aid from the Soviet Union and other Communist countries. The Cuban government seized millions of dollars' worth of American property in Cuba. The United States ended diplomatic relations with Cuba in January 1961. In April 1961, the United States sponsored an invasion of Cuba by anti-Castro Cubans at the Bay of Pigs. The attack was poorly planned and failed badly. The unsuccessful invasion strengthened Castro's control of Cuba, and it caused the United States to lose face. (World Book Encyclopedia)
Liberal democracy
triumphed throughout most of Europe but was accompanied by the return of nationalism. It united Europe in a common political-cultural ideology. (Study guide 770)
Gdansk Agreement of 1980
In August 1980, sixteen thousand workers at Lenin Shipyards in Gdansk laid down their tools and occupied the showpiece plant. After eighteen days of shipyard occupation, as families brought food to the gates and priests said Mass daily amid huge overhead cranes, the government gave in and accepted the workers' demands in the Gdansk agreement. The workers gained their revolutionary demands including the right to form free trade unions, freedom of speech, release of political prisoners, and economic reforms. (1034)
Single European Act of 1986
it laid down a detailed legal framework for establishing a single market, which would add the free movement of labor, capital, and services to the existing free trade in goods. It also gave a powerful second wind to the western European unity. (1055)
Maastricht Treaty of 1990
a treaty created in 1991 that set strict financial criteria for joining the proposed monetary union, with it single currency and set 1999 as the start date for its establishment. (p. 1057)
Paris Accord of 1990
a general peace treaty that brought an end to World War II and the cold war that followed - it called for a scaling down of all armed forces and the acceptance of all existing borders as legal and valid. (p. 1045)
"Polish miracle" of 1980
occurred when the economic crisis became a spiritual one as well. This was created by the new Polish communist leader. He believed that massive inflows of Western Capitalism and technology would help bring up the economy. However, it did the opposite, it send the economy into a nosedive. Luckily, a real miracle occurred when the Pope moved to Poland, which brought tons of tourists. (1034)
Solidarity
Group of workers who organized their free and democratic trade union led by Lech Walesa They quickly became a union of a nation with a full-time staff of 40,000 and 9.5 million union members by March 1981. The rise and survival of Solidarity showed again the fierce desire of millions of eastern Europeans for greater political liberty. The union's strength also demonstrated the enduring appeal of cultural freedom, trade-union rights, patriotic nationalism, and religious feeling. Solidarity's challenge encouraged fresh thinking in the Soviet Union. (1033-1035)
Perestroika
An economic "restructuring" reform implemented by Gorbachev that permitted an easing of government price controls on some goods, more independence for state enterprises, and the setting up of profit-seeking private cooperatives to provide personal services for consumers. (1036)
Glasnost
An "openness," part of Gorbachev's campaign to "tell it like it is" marked a break from the past were long banned writers sold millions of copies of their works, and denunciations of Stalin and his terror were standard public discourse. (1037)
"Euro" currency
Established by the Maastricht treaty. The "Euro," is the official currency of Europe. It was first brought upon by the Maastricht treaty, along with political unification. Some people opposed this idea believing it would bring political instability and grasp for power. In the end, it did create a balanced system that allowed for all of Europe to exchange goods with the same currency. (1057)
Slobodan Milosevic
President Slobodan Milosevic of the Serbian republic speeded up preparations for a "greater Serbia" intending to grab territory from Yugoslavia's other republics and combine al Serbs in a single state. His threats strengthened the cause of separatism, and in June 1991 Slovenia and Croatia declared their independence. His army seized about thirty percent of the territory, burning villages, and pounding historic towns to pieces. (1054)
Mikhail Gorbachev
A new Soviet leader to open up the era of reform. His reforms rapidly transformed soviet culture; politics and they drastically reduced cold war tensions. But communism, he wanted to so desperately to revitalize in order to save it, continued to decline as a functioning system through the soviet bloc. (1031-1036)
Boris Yeltsin
Highly successful in politics. Opted for breakneck economic liberalization of 1992. in 1993 he won in a struggle between those who wanted a strong presidency and those who wanted a strong parliament. Military steadily declined under his rule. He wanted to create conditions that would prevent forever a return to communism and would also right the faltering economy. (1049-1050)
Lech Walesa
Lead the new democratic trade union movement called Solidarity. Its demands were for industrial, political, economic rights. Lech Walesa was a Polish politician and human rights activist. His significance was that he co-founded solidarity, the Soviet Union's first independent trade union. This allowed workers to organize their free and democratic trade union. It allowed for the unification of workers to gain respect and power of government. (1034)
Nicolae Ceausescu
he was an iron-fisted communist dictator Nicolae Ceausescu and he had long combined Stalinist brutality with stubborn independence from Moscow. Soon his forces were defeated, him and his wife were captured and executed by a military court. The coalition government emerged from the fighting, although the legacy of Ceausescu's oppression left a very troubled country. (1040)
Bill Clinton
President Bill Clinton brought the warring sides to Dayton, Ohio, where in November 1995, they reached a complicated accord. The Dayton accord forced the Bosnian Serbs to remain in a loose federal state. He used the US. troops to impose peace, and an agreement that was reached that divided Bosnia between Bosninan Serbs and Croatians. (1054)
Helmut Kohl
a West German chancellor Helmut Kohl skillfully exploited the historic opportunity on their doorstep. He represented a ten-point plan for a step by stem unification in cooperation with both East Germany and the international community. He then promised the ordinary citizens of a struggling, bankrupt East Germany an immediate economic bonanza. (1044)
Saddam Hussein
he set out to make himself the leader of the entire Arab world. He eyed the great oil wealth of his tiny southern neighbor, and sent his military forces into Kuwait in August 1990 and proclaimed Iraq's annexation of Kuwait. (1045)
Francois Mitterand
Francois Mitterand was the President of France. During his term, he dissolved the Parliament, and created a monarchy almost. This caused him to not be ever again re-elected. His significance was that him and Helmut Kohl took the lead in pushing for a monetary union of EU members. He was the socialist party leader. His government had been forced to adopt conservative financial policies in the 1980's. (1055-7)
Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac is the current President of France. His significance is that his policies have included lower tax rates, the removal of price controls, strong punishment for crime and terrorism, and business privatization. He also argued for more socially responsible economic policies. The president who continued to lead an all European effort to reduce national budget deficits to three percent of gross national product, to achieve low inflation, and curb the growth of the national debt. (1056)