Soil Erosion

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Desertification definition
Productive potential of arid or semi arid land falls by at least 10 percent due to human activity and or climate change
Desertification symptoms
Loss of native vegetation
Increased wind erosion salinization
drop in water table reduce surface water supply
Desertification remediation
1.Reduced over grazing
2. Reduced deforestation 3. Reduce destructive forms of planting
4. irrigation
5. Mining
6. Plant trees and grass is to hold soil
Salinization definition
Water that is not absorbed into the soil and evaporates leaves behind dissolved salts in topsoil
Salinization symptoms
Stunted crop growth
Lower yield
Eventual destruction of plant life
Sanitation remediation
1. Take land out of production for a while
2. Install underground perforated drainage pipes
3. Flush soil with fresh water in two separate lines evaporation ponds
4. Plant halophyted salt loving plants: barley, cotton, sugar beets and / or semi dwarf wheat.
Waterlogging definition
Saturation of soil with water resulting in a rise in the water table
Waterlogging symptoms
Salling water envelops deep roots, killing plants, lowers productivity, ➡ eventual destruction of plant life
Waterlogging remediation
1. Switch to less water demanding plants in areas susceptible to water logging
2. Plant waterlogging resistant trees with deep roots
3. Take land out of production for a while
4. and/or install pumping stations with drainage pipes that lead to catchment evaporation basins
Broad spectrum pesticides problem
When good species of insects are killed along with target species
Broad-spectrum pesticides
Chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT and deildrin)
Organophosphate (malathion or parathion)
Soil Erosion
Movement of weathered rock or soil components from one place to another
Causes of soil erosion
Flowing water
Wind
human activity: population of inappropriate land burning of native vegetation
deforestation construction
Effects of soil erosion
1.Destroy the soil profile
2.Decreases the water holding capacity of the soil
3. increases soil compaction
Positive feedback of soil erosion
Because the water can't penetrate through the soil it runs off the land taking more soil with it
Agricultural to cultural techniques that lead to soil erosion
1. Monoculture
2. Row cropping
3. Over-grazing
4. Improper plowing of the soil
5. Removing crop wastes instead of following the organic material back into the soil
3 common types of soil erosion
1. sheet erosion
2. Rill erosion
3. Gully erosion
sheet erosion
soil moved off as a horizontal layer
Rill erosion
Fast flowing water cut small channels in the soil
Gully erosion
Extreme case of rill erosion, where over time, channels increase in size and depth
Dust Bowl
1930 Oklahoma Texas and Kansas
Plowing the prairies ➡ loss of natural gasses that rooted the soil. Droughts and wind blew most of the topsoil away causing people to leave the area.
Landslide
Occur when masses of rocks earth or debris move down a slope.
Mudslides
Debris flows are mudflows common type of fast-moving landslide that tends to flow and channels
Causes of landslides
Disturbances in the natural stability of a slope:
Heavy rains
Droughts
Earthquakes
volcanic eruptions
Cause of mudslides
What are rapidly collects in the ground and results in a surge of water soaked earth and debris

Steep slopes
natural disasters
Areas likely to experience landslides or mud slides
1. Where wild fires or construction have to try vegetation and there too. 2. Areas where landslides before
3. Steep slopes and areas at the bottom of slopes canyons
4. That have been altered for construction of buildings and roads
5. Channels along a stream or river
6. Where surface runoff is directed
1935 soil erosion act
As a result of the Dust Bowl this Act established the soil conservation service which mandate the protection of the nation's soil reserves
Deals with soil erosion problems
Soil surveys
does research on soil salinity
1977 Soil and Water Conservation Act
Provides for a continuing appraisal of U.S. soil water and related resources, including fish and wildlife habitats, and a soil and water conservation program to assist landowners and land users in furthering soil and water conservation.
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