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blood patch

done to relieve postspinal headaches, blood is withdrawn from her vein and injected into the epidural space in the area of the subarachnoid puncture, the blood clots and forms a seal that stops spinal fluid leakage

bradley method

Was the first childbirth method that included the father and emphasizes slow abdominal breathing and relaxation techniques during birth.

cleansing breath

Each breathing pattern during childbirth begins with a deep cleansing breath and ends with one. They help the woman to relax and focus on relaxing.


Light, continuous-stroking massage movement applied with fingers and palms in a slow and rhythmic manner.


Lock receptor sites for chemicals that transmit pain messages to the brain

focal point

A specific spot to which one's attention is directed

lamaze method

a woman is physically and psychologically prepared through prenatal training; uses controlled breathing and has a partner to facilitate the process of natural childbirth

pain threshold

the amount of pain stimulation a requires before feeling pain

pain tolerance

Level of intensity or duration of pain that a person is able or willing to endure

gait control theory

the presence of neural gating mechanisms at the segmental spinal cord level to account for interactions between pain and other sensory modalities. Used by CBU

Butorphanol (stadol)

mixed narcotic reduces pain, is thought to cause less respiratory depression than meperidineshould not be used in woman that are drug addicts.

Naloxone (narcan)
(opoid antagonist)

does not have any sort of analgesia or respiratory depression because it's an ANTAGONIST - given for reversal of opioid induced respiratory depression; remember you are reversing analgesia also, so pt will be in pain
-commonly given when respirations dip below 10-12/min

Fentanyl (sublimaze)

The most powerful pain killer available. 50 to 100 times stronger than morphine.Rapid onset and short duration of action


most common means of labor analgesia used in small doses to avoid fetal resp. depression avoided if birth is expected within one hour

sacral pressure

firm pressure on lower back, helps with back labor


manual turning of a fetus in the uterus (usually to aid delivery)


artificial rupturing of the fetal membranes


difficult labor and childbirth


excessive amount of amniotic fluid


Cervical dilators


a roll of hair worn at the nape of the neck


large-bodied baby commonly seen in diabetic pregnancies


This category of meds are used to stop contractions


Spontaneous Rupture of Membranes

fetal heart rate outside the norm rangeof 100-160?

suggests a prolapsed embilical cord

hypertonic labor

Ineffective uterine contractions in latent phase; Increase in frequency, May decrease in intensity, Painful, Ineffective in dilating/effacement of cervix, May prolong latent phase of labor.

hypotonic labor

starts normal then slows and stops


person familiar with childbirth who provides emotional and physical support throughout labor and delivery


fetus, placenta, amniotic fluid, amniotic membranes


Soft spot (incomplete bone formation) between the skull bones of an infant

leopolds manuever

method to determine presentation of fetus via palpation of abdomen


thinning of the cervix wall


a toxemia of late pregnancy, characterized by hypertension, protein in urine and edema- can lead to seizures and coma


a more serious form of preeclampsia, characterized by convulsions and sometimes coma


Presence of an abnormal amount of protein in the urine

hydatiform mole

hCG levels high U/S shows no sac or fetus, but molar growth


obstetric procedure in which a nonabsorbable suture is used for holding the cervix closed to prevent spontaneous abortion in the woman who has an incompetent cervix.


Excessive volume of amniotic fluid, more than about 2000 mL at term (also called polyhydramnios).


Substance that can produce developmental malformations (birth defects) during the prenatal period


the first milk produced by a woman's breast after childbirth; it is rich in antibodies to protect the child from disease


T-term 37 weeks
P-pre-termafter 20 or before 37
A-aborted before 20 weeks
M-mult. birth numbers of mult. pregnancies

goodell's sign

softening of the cervix during pregnancy

chadwick's sign

A bluish-purple discoloration of the cervix and vagina. Caused by increased blood supply.

Hegar's sign



mask of pregnancy; pigmentation disorder that occurs during pregnancy characterized by brown spots on the face


woman pregnant for the first time


a woman who has given birth to one or more children who reached the age of viability living or dead


a woman who has given birth

age of viability

20 weeks


a woman who has not given birth to a child who reached the point of viability (miscarriage)before 20 weeks


the thin outer membrane that encloses the embryo


membrane, continuous with and covering the fetal side of the placenta, that forms the outer surface of the umbilical cord

decidua basilis

maternal part of placenta

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