APUSH period 6 vocabulary
Terms in this set (92)
A group of corporations run by a single board of directors
Creator of the Standard Oil Company who made a fortune on it and joined with competing companies in trust agreements that in other words made an amazing monopoly.
An influential banker and businessman who bought and reorganized companies. His US Steel company would buy Carnegie steel and become the largest business in the world in 1901
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
American Federation of Labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
Labor activist who was a member of the Knights of Labor union and who used publicity techniques to create awareness of the plight of mine workers and child laborers.
Buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
System of farming in which a person rents land to farm from a planter
America's oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization founded in 1892 in San Fransisco, Cali first President was John Muir group was pushed by the wealthy bc they wanted to conserve the nature (despite all the land the already own and "corrupted") for their later generations
Dept. of Interior
1849- takes care of public lands and natural resources
Booker T Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."
Ida B Wells
African American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcards or shop in white owned stores
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
In 1888, he wrote Looking Backward, 2000-1887, a description of a utopian society in the year 2000.
A California printer, journalist, and influential activist whose ideas about taxes and reform, expressed in Progress and Poverty (1879), were widely propagated.
is a social theory that implies only the most competent individuals will survive and flourish with their companies in the market place, and the less fit will be consumed. Monopolies will buy out weaker companies as the market place becomes more cut throat. Carnegie and Rockafeller were prime examples
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
American Protective Association
An organization created by nativists in 1887 that campaigned for laws to restrict immigration
Passed in 1903 created the department of commerce and helped make more jobs
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor
A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.
A cult that tried to call the spirits of past warriors to inspire the young braves to fight. It was crushed at the Battle of Wounded Knee after spreading to the Dakota Sioux. The Ghost Dance led to the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. This act tried to reform Indian tribes and turn them into "white" citizens. It did little good.
Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations
1887 law which gave all Native American males 160 acres to farm and also set up schools to make Native American children more like other Americans
Are institutions of higher education in the United States that have been designated by each state to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890
A government payment that supports a business or market
..., National American Woman Suffrage Association; founded in 1890 to help women win the right to vote
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom. HULL HOUSE
A party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity
(BH) , Founded 1891 - James B. Weaver, problem was overproduction, called for free coinage of silver and paper money, national income tax, direct election of senators, regulation of railroads, and other government reforms to help farmers
Colored Farmer's Alliance
Excluded on the basis of race from membership in the Southern Farmers' Alliance, the blacks formed a separate organization in Texas in 1886. The Colored Farmers' Alliance comprised both black farmers and farm workers. They were active in the publication of a weekly newspaper and a variety of educational programs. In 1891, a strike of cotton pickers was called, but coordination was poor and the strike failed. Also lost support when the populist party arose.
Las Gorras Blanca
the White Caps, group of Mexican Americans living in New Mexico who attempted to protect their land and way of life from encroachment by white landowners.
"Patrons of Husbandry"; organization for American farmers that encourages farm families to band together for their common economic and political well-being
An involvement in risky business transactions in an effort to make a quick or large profit.
A cash refund given for the purchase of a product during a specific period
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
(435) Company took over all different businesses on which it relied for its primary function (Carnegie Steel came to control not only steel mills but mines, railroads, etc)
A form of monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control of one aspect of an entire industry or manufacturing process, such as a monopoly on auto assembly lines or on coal mining, for example.
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
Interstate Commerce Act
monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
Sherman Anti-trust Act
..., First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
strike in Chicago that turned violent killing 8 policemen and a number of civilians; Workers were striking for an 8 hour work day and better working conditions.
Economic liberalism that believes in unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.
(439) Famous promoter of success story... Started as minister of small town (had sexual scandals..lol) but moved to NY and wrote +100 novels all about "rags to riches," which captured aspirations of many men.
A community experiencing a sudden growth in business or population
Helen Hunt Jackson
United States writer of romantic novels about the unjust treatment of Native Americans (1830-1885)
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
head of the U.S. Forest Servic under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them
(1838-1914) Naturalist who believed the wilderness should be preserved in its natural state. He was largely responsible for the creation of Yosemite National Park in California.
The rise of a South after the Civil War which would no longer be dependent on now-outlawed slave labor or predominantly upon the raising of cotton, but rather a South which was also industrialized and part of a modern national economy
Editor of the Atlanta Constitution, preached about economically diversified South with industries and small farms, and absent of the influence of the pre-war planter elite in the political world.
Civil Rights Cases 1883
Name attached to five cases brought under the Civil Rights Act of 1875. In 1883, the Supreme Court decided that discrimination in a variety of public accommodations, including theaters, hotels, and railroads, could not be prohibited by the act because such discrimination was private discrimination and not state discrimination.
Jim Crow Law
(AJohn) , Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Munn v Illinois
1876; The Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws. The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.
Wabash v Illinois
1886 - Stated that individual states could control trade in their states, but could not regulate railroads coming through them. Congress had exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce.
Ocala Platform 1890
National Farmers Alliance start a new political party, gov ownership of railroads, banks and telegraphs, ban on large land owning companies, graduated income tax, 8 hour work days, immigration restriction become known as Populist Party
Frederick Jackson Turner
(1861 - 1932) He was an American historian in the early 20th century. He is best known for The Significance of the Frontier in American History, where he stated that the spirit and success of the United States is directly tied to the country's westward expansion. According to Turner, the forging of the unique and rugged American identity occurred at the juncture between the civilization of settlement and the savagery of wilderness.
Founded WCTU to outlaw selling/drinking alcohol. She was married to an abusive man that she killed with an axe and she didn't get punished for it. She formed a group that walked into bars with axes.
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be
..., United States writer and humorist best known for his novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (1835-1910)
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing
Also known as The Eight, a group of American Naturalist painters formed in 1907, most of whom had formerly been newspaper illustrators, they beleived in portraying scenes from everyday life in starkly realistic detail. Their 1908 display was the first art show in the U.S.
A leading architect of skyscrapers in the late nineteenth century, stressed the need for building designs that followed function. His works combined beauty, modest cost, and efficient use of space.
Frank Lloyd Wright
..., Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.
..., United States newspaper publisher (born in Hungary) who established the Pulitzer prizes (1847-1911), A Hungarian immigrant who had bought the New York World in 1883, pioneered popular innovations, such as a large Sunday edition, comics, sports coverage and women's news.
William R. Hearst
Vigorous promoter of sensationalistic anti-Spanish propaganda and eager advocate of imperialistic war, Newspaper publisher whose yellow journalism style helped create public pressure for Spanish-American War. He once said to Remington, "You provide the pictures and I'll provide the war."
Jelly Roll Morton
African American pianist, composer, arranger, and band leader from New Orleans; Bridged that gap between the piano styles of ragtime and jazz; Was the first important jazz composer
Rum, Romanism & Rebellion
this statement attacked the Democratic party, rebellion referred to civil war, romanism referred to catholicism(anti), rum referred to drinking, anti immigrant part
Republican campaign tactic that blamed the Democrats for the Civil War; it was used successfully in campaigns from 1868 to 1876 to keep Democrats out of public office, especially the presidency.
Term applied to the one-party (Democrat) system of the South following the Civil War. For 100 years after the Civil War, the South voted Democrat in every presidential election.
(adj.) strong and sturdy; brave; resolute; (n.) a brave, strong person; a strong supporter; one who takes an uncompromising position
republican reformers who were accused of backing reform simply to create openings for their own supporters, led by James G. Blaine
A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine., Republicans who did not play the patronage game were ridiculed for "sitting on the fence."
Pendleton Act 1881
republicans reformed spoils system with Pendleton Act would give government jobs based on skills rather than based on connections
McKinley Tariff 1890
raised tariffs to the highest level they had ever been. Big business favored these tariffs because they protected U.S. businesses from foreign competition.
Wilson-Gorman Tariff 1894
1894 act setting the tariff at 41.3%; not as low as Democrats wanted it to be. Cleveland was outraged that it did not go by his campaign pledges. He had to sign it to have a lower tariff, but he was annoyed with its ineffectiveness. It also was the first bill to introduce an income tax, but that was later struck down as unconstitutional.
He was the Populist candidate for president in the election of 1892; received only 8.2% of the vote. He was from the West.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890
Increased the amount of silver the gov. baught for coinage, but the money supply did not increase enough to satisfy silver supporters
Bland-Allison Act 1878
passed over the veto of President Rutherford B. Hayes requiring the U.S. treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars. The goal was to subsidize the silver industry in the Mountain states and inflate prices. The law was replaced in 1890 by the similar Sherman Silver Purchase Act, which in turn was repealed by Congress in 1893.
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver
the 1892 platform of the Populist party repudiating laissez-faire and demanding economic and political reform
unemployed workers marched from ohio to wahsington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for goverment relief
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
An industrialist and Republican politician from Ohio. The campaign manager of McKinley in the 1896, in what is considered the forerunner of the modern political campaign, and subsequently became one of the most powerful members of the U.S. Senate.
Currency of the United States, prior to 1873, which consisted of gold or silver coins as well as U.S. treasury notes that could be traded in for gold or silver