HAP chapter 5- joints

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hold bones
mobility
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fibrous cartilaginous synoviallisted structural classificationsutures syndesmoses gomphxsesexamples of fibrous jointssyndesmosesallow movement and is found in the ends of tibia and fibulaGomphosesfound where teeth and facial bones meetsymphyses and synchondrosesexamples of cartilaginous jointssymphysesconnected by fibrocartilage and is slightly moveablepubic symphysis intervertebral jointsexamples of symphysessynchondrosesconnected by hyaline cartilage and is slightly moveableepiphyseal plate manubriumexamples of synchondrosessynovialarticulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity that is filled w synovial fluid and is freely moveablenonaxial unixial biaxial multiaxialtypes of synovial jointsnon axialgliding motion plane jointuniaxial1 plane of motion hinge joint pivot jointbiaxial2 planes of motion condyloid joint saddle jointmultiaxialuniversal motion ball and socket jointsuturesbetween bones of skullsyndesmosesDistal tibiofibular joint, length of radius and ulnagomphosestooth in socketsynchondrosesepiphyseal plate, costal cartilagessymphysesintervertebral joints, sternal angle, pubic symphysishingeelbow, knee, interphalangeal jointspivotatlantaoaxial, proximal radioulnarcondyloidmetacarpophalangealsaddlejoint of thumb onlyball and sockethip and shouldernon axial (plane)intercarpal, inter tarsalarticular cartilagecovers the ends of bones in joint to cushion and protect themarticular capsulea double layered membrane that encloses the joint cavityinternal layer of synovial membranewhat is the articular capsule lined withfibrous capsulefuses to the periosteum of the bonejont cavitycontains synovial fluid to lubricate the jointsynovial fluidlubricates the joint and reduces friction and nourishes the articular cartilagesynovial membranesecretes synovial fluid that lines the jointreinforcing ligamentslocated in the intracapsular, extra capsular, and capsularbursaeflattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane and filled with synovial fluidligaments, muscles, skin, and bones that rub togetherwhere is bursae locatedtrue bursaeborn withfalse bursaedevelop at areas of high frictiontendon sheathelongated bursae that wraps around tendonarticular surfacesdeeper articular surface= more stabilitymuscle toneincreased muscle tone= more stabilityligamentsstronger ligaments=more stabilityfontanelsfibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones"soft spots" compressible allow brain growth ossify by age 2fontanels characteristicsbone growthgrowth of cranium is related to ___________increase in size of face teeth enlargement of respiraratorygrowth of cranium2 yr old craniumskull is 3/4 size of adult skull8/9 yr old craniumskull is near adult size6-11 yr old craniumface grows out from skull50% at age 65+osteoporosis in women20% at age 70+osteoporosis in menkyphosisvertebral collapseestrogenwhat hormone aids women in osteoporosispain stiffness swellingsymptoms of arthritisosteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis gouty arthritis lyme arthritistypes of arthritisosteoarthritischronic degenerative and non inflammatoryrheumatoid arthritischronic inflammatory autoimmune diseasegouty arthritisbuildup of sodium urate crystalslyme arthritiscaused by lyme disease, passed through tick biteshoulder jointmost freely moveable but least stable jointglenoidrim of fibrocartilage that deepens glenoid cavitymuscle tendonsmost important factor in stabilizing the shoulder jointrotator cuffuses fused tendons for stabilityrotator cuff fused tendonssupraspinatus infraspinatus subscapularies teres majorinferiorly and anteriorlywhich way does the rotator cuff dislocateelbow jointstable hinge jointtrochlea with semilunar notchmain portion of elbow jointtendons and ligaments crossingwhat makes the elbow joint stablehip jointless moveable but very stableacetabular labrumenhances depth of sockethip displacementsrare dislocation and takes great force to dislocate due to sizeligamentum teressmall intracapular ligament that contains small artery that supplies nutrients to head of femurarthritisdamage to ligaments teres leads to _________Acetabulum and head of femurmost common joint replacedknee jointlargest and most complex joint in the bodymeniscideepen articular surface and absorbs tibia shockc shaped fibrocartilagewhat is menisci made ofouter marginwhere is the menisci locatedExtracapsularhelp stabilize entire jointlateral collateralcritical in preventing lateral angular motionmedial collateralcritical in preventing medial angular motionIntracapsularhelp prevent displacement of articular surfacesanterior cruciate ligamentattached to anterior tibia and prevents overextension but is tight when extendedposterior cruciate ligamentattached to posterior tibia and prevents over flexion but is tight when knee is flexedmedial meniscus medial collateral ligament anterior cruciate ligamentthree most common injured structures