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15 terms

Criminology Chapter 3

STUDY
PLAY
PTSD
psychological reaction to a highly stressful event; symptoms may include depression, anxiety, flashbacks, and recurring nightmares
cycle of violence
victims of crime, especially victims of childhood abuse, are more likely to commit crimes themselves
victim precipitation theory
view that victims may initiate, either actively or passively, the confrontation that leads to their victimization
active precipitation
aggressive or provocative behavior of victims that results in their victimization
passive precipitation
personal or social characteristics of victims that make them attractive targets for criminals; may unknowingly either threaten or encourage their attackers
lifestyle theories
views on how people become crime victims because of lifestyles that increase their exposure to criminal offenders
deviant place theory
view that victimization is primarily a function of where people live
routine activities theory
view that victimization results from the interaction of three everyday factors: the availability of suitable targets, the absence of capable guardians, and the presence of motivated offenders
suitable targets
objects of crime (persons or property) that are attractive and readily available
capable guardians
effective deterrents to crime, such as police or watchful neighbors
motivated offenders
people willing and able to commit crimes
victim-witness assistance programs
government programs that help crime victims and witnesses; may include compensation, court services, and/or crisis intervention
compensation
financial aid awarded to crime victims to repay them for their loss and injuries; may cover medical bills, loss of wages, loss of future earnings, and/or counseling
crisis intervention
emergency counseling for crime victims
victim-offender reconciliation programs
mediated face-to-face encounters between victims and their attackers, designed to produce restitution agreements and, if possible, reconciliation