religion Chapter 2-3
Terms in this set (83)
When did Israelites look to texts as a prominent place to hear God's word?
exile of Judah (around sixth century B.C.E.)
How did Christians in 1st 4 centuries deal with the problem of finding mistakes in the Bible?
Sometimes plenary inspiration, which means they believed the holy Spirit made changes in the Bible. For historical problems they use allegory.
What led those who came after Luther and Calvin to begin to redefine inspiration?
They stated one cannot demand a literal interpretation
primary purpose is to establish the most accurate form of the biblical text
Masoretic text (1000 C.E.)
congruence of books that Judaism granted holy
paper made of reeds
Chester Beatty Papyri
come from the year 200 and contain most of the New Testament
other extremely important early evidence for the text of the New Testament
manuscripts in the forms of books rather than scrolls
Codex Vaticanus & Codex Sinaiticus
From 4th century, two of the most important witnesses
copy rightists would rage about this and change the texts. An example is John 1:18 "the only begotten god" rather than the original "the only begotten son"
Variant readings (4 points)
1. the more difficult reading is probably earlier
2. the shorter reading is usually preferred
3. Copyists are more likely to harmonize
4. Unusual words/phrases are preferred
as much of a word-for-word reading as possible
paraphrases rather than straightforward translations
Jewish translation of the Hebrew Bible
not reading something for its literal sense
of Alexandria. 1st century Jew. used allegory to extensively interpret texts of the Hebrew Bible, though his interpretations were different from those of the early church
Origen & John Chrysostom (347-407)
talked about the Spirit making accommodations to the authors of biblical books when they found contradictory texts or historically inaccurate statements
held that text was full of meaning, full of the word of God, but not factually correct
Questions about what it means to say scripture is inspired increased during this era
John Chrysostom (347-407)
the bishop of Constantinople and a theologian
rejected inclusions of much contemporary scholarship about nature of texts and defended understanding of the scripture based on Reformation's affirmations of its infallibility
Study seven definitions of inspiration
signified a theological connection between human words on the page and divine word inspiring them from outside.
Three examples with women
Study seven features of authority
books found in the septuagint, but not in hebrew bible. never accepted as canonical by jewish community
one who is sent
4th century bishop of alexandria. power opponent of theological position koan as arianism (which says crhist is a created being)
his festal letter of easter in 367 contains first listing of 27 books now in new testament w his comment that these are the books that should be read in church
empire that rises to regional dominance in 7th/6tg century b.c.e.
replace assyrian empire as dominant power in region. capital is near baghdad, iraq
texts of hebrew bible are written in hebrew and aramaic, the new testament of apocrypha written in greek
group of authoritative writings. tanakh is the canon of judaism, while hebrew bible & new testament make up christian canon
Roman emperor who first granted toleration of the church and began to favor it because he thought the God of the church had granted him victory that enable him to have control of empire. also summoned the council of nice
Council of Trent
anti-reformation council (1545-63)
This council rejected many reformation doctrines and included the first official declaration about which books of the Bible were canonical
Dead Sea Scrolls
manuscripts found in the caves around the qumran compound at the northwestern end of the daed sea. Among scrolls were commentaries on biblical books. provide some info about essenes, movement about scrolls
books included in the roman catholic and eastern orthodox canons, but that do no possess quite as much authority as the other canonical books. these are also called the apocrypha
belief that most scholars think develops in the 2nd century C.E. that incorporates elements of mysticism and a radial rejection of the value of the material world. It seems to begin within Judaism and then quickly moves into Christianity.
books of the bible that were written in hebrew and Aramaic. Theya re the authoritative writings for Judaism and contain the same thirty-nine books as the Protestant old test. but are in different orders.
Woman recognized as a prophet who confirmed that the book found in the temple by workers during Josiah's reform was God's word
Biblical scholar who translated the Bible into Latin. His translation, called the Vulgate, becomes church's standard translation for centuries
1st century Jewish writer who was a general in the revolt of 66-70. After his capture he becomes the historian for the Roman general Vespasian. His writings give us important info about 1st century Judaism and the war in which the Jerusalem temple was destroyed
1- one of the twelve sons of Jacob who are traditional ancestors of 12 tribes of Israel
2- name of the southern kingdom whose capital was in Jerusalem
3- Region around Jerusalem, known as Judea
native of Asia minor who went to Rome in about 140 and tried to gain a position of leadership in the church. argued the hebrew bible came from a different god than the God seen in Jesus. He accepted as Scripture only 10 letters of Paul and an edited version of Luke, accepted none of the Hebrew Bible
early church designated this to Jesus, one who fills all expectations
list of canonical writings set down probably in the late second century in Rome
27 writings that the church added to the Hebrew scriptures to complete their canon
Chrstian designation for Hebrew bible
first 5 books of the Bible. These books are also known as the Torah
Second Temple Judaism
various forms of religious expression practiced by Jews in their worship of God of Abraham in the time period beginning w the rebuilding of the Jerusalem temple at their return from Babylonina exile and ending with destruction of the temple by the Romans in 70C.E.
Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures that began coming together in the second-third century
Name used in Judaism for the first five books of the Bible. Also known as the Pentateuch.
The Latin translation of the whole Bible completed by Jerome in about 405 C.E.
Becomes the standard translation of the church for several centuries
What does it mean to call the Bible the canon
this creates a standard for Christians, as it gives the Bible authority
why do groups need a canon
they must have a purpose and agree upon means of working toward that purpose
When did the hebrew bible begin to take a relatively firm shape? why then?
6th century B.C.E.
what is the apocrypha? why is it not part of the hebrew bible?
seven books in the roman catholic bible that make up the septuagint. they appear in different order than the ehbrew bible. THEY WERE NOT ORIGINALLY WRITTEN IN HEBREW
looking back, what criteria did the church use to identify the books that should be authoritative (part of the canon)
a common message, rule of faith, and
how did martin luther influence the formation of the canon?
He questioned the value and teachings of four new testament books. The counter-reformation council of trent responded declaring it an article of faith everyone must accept all of them or none of them.
manuscript in the form of a modern book. has individual leaves for pages, rather than a continuous roll
4th century codex of the Bibel housed in the Vatican. it is one of the most reliable manuscripts for books of the new testament.
person whose occupation is to replicate documents by hands so that multiple copies are available
king james version
translation of bible into english in 1611. becomes standard english translation through first half of 20th century
standard text of the hebrew bible that comes from the scholars known as the majorettes, who meticulously copied the text. they added vowels and accents to make the text easier to read
a Greek text produced in 1516 by the scholar erasmus. based mostly on the byzantine textual family, which most textual critics do not think is among the most reliable families of textual traditions. this edition became the basis for the 1611 king james version. recent discoveries show the text has many errors
How do we know that the text of the hebrew bible we have today is much like the text the jewish community was reading in the first century?
from papyrus findings and the dead sea scrolls
what ancient manuscripts do scholars see as the most important evidence for what new testament authors actually wrote? why do they think these are so important?
chester beatty papyri as they determine what the authors of the new testament actually wrote
what are some unintentional changes that came to be part of some copies of biblical texts? what are some intentional changes? explain how each got into the text.
unintentional- leaving out a word due to speed of copyists
intentional- their own spellings, or to change it to eliminate historical problems or harmonize it with the Gospels
what are some criteria textual critics use to decide what the original text was?
1. the more difficult reading is probably earlier
2. shorter reading is usually preferred
3. copyists are more likely to harmonize
French leader in protestant reformation. he took religious and political control of geneva by 1555. his writings, especially institutes and his commentaries on biblical books, have been very influential. churches in the reformed tradition have their roots in his work
Bishop of Constantinople and theologian. he was a gifted preacher, and advocated finding spiritual meaning in biblical texts
18th century movement that said humans should rely on reason and empirical knowledge for truth. Thus, proponents after discounted the slue and validity of divine revelation and religious tradition
belief that God was involved with the writing and/or the reading of the Bible
German leader of the protestant reformation who questioned a number of teachings of the catholic church at that time. After hw was excommunicated, he translated the Bible into German and wrote an influential commentary on Romans, as well as books on many theological topics. he argued that scripture was the only guide to what the church should believe
Biblical scholar and theologian he is known for seeing three levels of meaning in scripture; literal, moral, and allegorical. he thought allegorical was more important than literal
movement with roots in the early 14th century that questioned the authority of the teaching and hierarchy of the catholic church. the movement gained significant momentum when martin luther publicly called for discussion of many issues in 1517
When did Israelites begin looking to texts as a prominent place to hear God's word?
During the exile of Judah, they could no longer turn to prophets for guides
How did Christians in the first 4 centuries deal with the problem of finding historical, geographical, or factual mistakes in the Bible?
allegory, "plenary inspiration"
What led those who came after Luther and Calvin to redefine inspiration?
the reformation. they believed the spirit could have no faults either
Describe the beginnings of the Fundamentalist movement. What moved them to define inspiration as they di?
the attacks on the bible from the enlightenment movement. Because the Bible is inspired by God, it can have no faults
What are two basic ways to think about what it means to say the Bible is inspired?
God wrote it/ inspired people to write it
Seven Features of Authority
1. neither the authors or the texts hold authority without the consent of the readers
2. The Bible persists as a cultural document
3. Authority signifies both stability and adaptability
4. Power of description marks authority
5. Tension between descriptive & prescriptive readings involves context
6. Conflicts and contradictions within the Bible also witness to its authority
7. Choice characterizes biblical authority
The rivalry between brothers (human conflict)