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Ap Euro Chapter 13
Terms in this set (51)
Word used to describe the Italian Renaissance, including the flourish of art, literature, music, and architecture. It literally means the 1500's.
Was a Renaissance artist who pioneered in perspective in painting. He competed in the competition to build the bronze doors of Florence's Baptistry, but lost to Lorenzo Ghiberti. He was designated to build the dome of the cathedral in Florence.
The Florentine cloth merchants chose him to design the bronze doors of Baptistry to represent the merchants' influence on the community. Lorenzo had a very high salary as an artist of 200 florins a year, which was huge sum of that time. Lorenzo was very proud and boastful of his work, particularly of the bronze doors.
Such a person protects, fosters, or supports some person or enterprise. In the Renaissance they supported the Artist class. Had it not been for them the artist class would not have become so popular and wealthy. The Patrons consisted of Merchants, bankers, popes and princes. They all used the artists as a way of glorifying themselves and their families (sometimes they would depict themselves/their families doing charitable deeds instead of the ancient saints or people of the myths).
He was a Florentine painter who began the use of realism, creating portraits so similar to reality. His paintings of the human body were very realistic in comparison to the their old artificial representations.
Perspective in Painting
The linear representation of distance and space on a flat surface.
He was a Florentine sculptor whose statues show an appreciation of the variety of human nature. He greatly influenced art and revived the classical human body as opposed to the medieval spiritual and moral human body. His statue of David was the first freestanding bronze statue of a human created in Europe since antiquity.
He was a famous Renaissance artist and is known for painting the entire Sistine Chapel ceiling and designing the dome of St. Peter's Basilica. He also sculpted statues of David and The Last Judgment, which portrayed the male body as strong and heroic.
Leonardo Da Vinci
Leonardo Da Vinci was a famous Renaissance artist who was a painter, sculptor, and inventor. Two of his most famous paintings were Mona Lisa and The Last Supper; he epitomized the Italian Renaissance man. His skills were not only of art rather he was also a musician, architect, astronomer, etc.
In the fifteenth century there was an advance in the study of classical texts, which influenced classical themes and motifs, such as the lives of pagan gods and goddesses, shown in the paintings and sculptures of artists. He is known for his famous painting, Primavera, which represents classical mythology, portraying numerous gods and goddesses in a grove of orange trees. He assisted in decorating the Sistine Chapel and is known for Birth of Venus and Primavera.
Jan Van Eyck
He was a Flemish Painter who was considered the artistic equal of Italian painters and was much admired in Italy. He worked a generation before Leonardo and Michelangelo. He was one of the earliest artists to use oil based paints successfully and was very detailed in his paintings. He was known for his excellent and often-symbolic pictures; Ghent Altarpiece and Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride were two famous examples of his work
He was a great painter who when the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, was visiting him, dropped his paintbrush, and the emperor picked it up for him. The emperor was honored in the act of honoring the artist. He produced portraits, religious and mythological scenes, developing techniques of painting in oil without doing elaborate drawings first, which speeded up the process and pleased patrons eager to display their acquisition.
(noun) It is the artistic style of the sixteenth-century painters in which artists sometimes distorted figures, exaggerated musculature, and heightened color to express emotion and drama more intently.
She (1593-1693) achieved international renown for her paintings in the later 16th century. She was trained by her father and was favored in the seventeenth century. She became known for her portraits of strong, biblical and mythological heroines
It was the cultural advancements during around the 14th-16th centuries in Italy. A little before this, the economy became stable which led to the renaissance being able to happen. this time was right after the Medeival/Middle/Dark Ages so it was like a reformation and the rebirth of Italy. the 5 major city-states during this time were Venice, Florence, the Papal states, the Kingdom of Naples and Milan.
This time period was like the Dorian Age, and were a period of time right before the Renaissance [about the 13th century] in which the Black Plague came and killed about half the population in Italy.
They believed in the combination of classical and christian cultures. Through this combo they hoped to achieve and ethical way of life. Were also known as Northern Humanists. there program for social reform was based on christian ideals. Stressed the use of reason and not just dogma. Believed humans were fundamentally good, were corrupted by sin and this could be fixed through education.
A who humanist believed humans were essentially selfish and out to advance their own interests only. this is portrayed in The Prince. he did not advocate for amoral behavior but went with the motto the end justifies the means when it came to politics. He rested on 2 ideas. 1. that a permanent order could not be founded on the basis of G-d. 2. politics has it's own set of laws and should have it's own science. Machiavellian came to mean someone who is politically devious, corrupt and basically follows Machiavelli's description of the prince... end justifies the means, fear etc.
Raphael Santi/ Sanzio
(1483-1520) An italian painter and architect. One of the greatest Renaissance artists was hired by Pope Julis II to revive the glory of rome.
(1406-1457) an Italian Humanist and critic. views pleasure of the senses as the highest good. Believed to be the father of modern historical criticism by scholars. He proved an 8th century document given to the papacy giving them jurisdiction over vast territories to have been forged (this weakened papal claims to authority). set an example of how one should critique and added to the secular spirit of the renaissance.
(1313-1375) author of The Decameron . Portray a worldy, sensual, acquisitive society. Justified the accumulation and enjoyment of wealth with references to ancient authors.
Sir Thomas More
(1478-1535) An Englishman. Originally was Trained as a lawyer. Studies English social and intellectual history and in this area towered above others. Became interested in the classics. had a warm christian family which welcomed humanists from all over. was sent to Flanders as an ambassador by Henry VIII. At this point he wrote Utopia "nowhere". He describes an ideal society on a far offshore island. Book suggests that war is started through property owning. the key to reforming the individual is to the reformation of the social institutions. this idea was viewed as very radical in the 16th century.
Believed Europe was entering a golden age. He reflects ideals of northern Europe ideals.
Created in 1454 by Johann Gutenberg, Johann Fust and Peter schoffer from expirementation in Mainz. Revolutionizes communication of all kind. letters are now able to be arranged in any order you want them to be in. People now form parties since people are now able to express opinions anonymously.
First major book printed with the movable print. Was made by Johann Gutenberg. brought radical changes to the printing network. Was also called the 42-line Bible.
The period during the 1400s in reference to the Italian art and literature of that time (creativity and art during that period).
When a group of people rules, usually is made up of a family or group of nobles.
(1521-1555) This was a series of 5 wars between Charles V king of Germany (Habsburg) vs. (Valios) kings of France. France tried to keep Germany divided. This advanced the cause of Protestantism. Finally in 1555 Charles V agrees to the Peace of Augsburg which establishes the permanent religious division of Germany into Lutheran and Catholic churches.
Giovanni Pico Della Mirandola
He was one of the leading scholars studying the works of Plato in Greek in the Florentine or Platonic Academy. He wrote, " ON the Dignity of Man" and stressed that a man possesses great dignity because he was made as Adam in the image of God. His book was written in a Christian perspective.
Wrote The Book of the Courtier which specified necessary qualities a gentleman must have to lead a non-contemplative and active life in the Middle ages. Sports, conversation, dance, music, weaponry, Latin, Greek, and a personal demeanor were the outline for a gentleman. This book greatly influenced Western ideas about correct behavior.
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
1438 Charles VII created the first permanent royal army and published this document giving the french major control over the appointment of bishops, and depriving the pope of the french ecclesiastical revenues.
Wars of the Roses
(1455-1471)adherents of the ducal houses of York and Lancaster waged civil war. It was called war of the roses because the symbol of the Yorkists were white roses and the Landcastrians had red ones. This hurt trade,agriculture,domestic industries and the monarchy sank.
A group of people where were heavily taxed and excluded from the government. They used armed forces and violence to take over the city governments. They then established republican governments in many cities. They treated the people under them as they were treated ( heavily taxed, excluded from the government...). Their rule was temporary and signori and oligarchy governments began to pop up all over Italy.
A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them.
In 1519 he succeeded his grandfather Maximilian as Holy Roman emperor. He was part of the Habsburg-Valois Wars. The Italian city states, under Charles, did not have a centralized government to coordinate big issues. He also summoned the Diet of Worms.
Ciompi Revolts of 1378
Was the period when the poor and propertyless revolted in Flanders. This greatly affected the labor in Florence, but because of their economic structure, they remained stable.
Professional fighting men of Renaissance Italy - mercenaries fighting for city-states. Out for individual - changed sides for right price. ex. of individualism. Machiavelli warned against dependency on these for military defense. Advocated a militia instead.
(1434- 1494) Were a great banking family in Florence in the 15th century. Ruled government of Florence from behind the scenes.
Studies the Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature. Emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities.
Was an Italian goldsmith,sculptor, painter, soldier and musician, who also wrote a famous autobiography. He was one of the most important artists of Mannerism. The fact that he wrote an autobiography showed the value of individualism that people would think to tell thier own stories.Autobiography is an excellent record of life in Renaissance Italy and reveals why he is the prime example of "virtu".
Court of the Star Chamber
Was an English court of law that sat at the royal Palace of Westminster until 1641 and was created by Henry VII. It was made up of Privy Counsellors, as well as common-law judges and supplemented the activities of the common-law and equity courts in both civil and criminal matters. The court was set up to ensure the fair enforcement of laws against prominent people, those so powerful that ordinary courts could never convict them of their crimes. Court sessions were held in secret, with no indictments, no right of appeal, no juries, and no witnesses. Evidence was presented in writing. Over time it evolved into a political weapon, a symbol of the misuse and abuse of power by the English monarchy and courts.
Northern Italian cities with an association of free men looking for complete political and economic independence from nobles. The merchants that created the communes would regulate trade, taxes, build and maintain city walls and keep civil order
one man rulers or despots. The despot usually pretended to be observing the law when really he was manipulating it to hide their illegal doings.
He predicted the French invasion. He was a Friar that disliked paganism, moral vice of the city, and undemocratic govt of the Medici and the corruption of the pope. He condemned sodomy (gays). He was the religious leader of Florence and helped bring down the Medici family. Eventually he was excommunicated and executed.
More materialistic ideals over spiritual ideals. People became less religious and non-sectarian. The court system was created. The people broke away from the church
Stressed personality, uniqueness, genius and full development of one's capabilities and talent. Gave people a thirst for fame and desire for success
This was tax on salt collected from the fourteenth century until later. This appeared in France with Charles VII.
Justices of the Peace
English local officials in the shires appointed by the crown and given wide authority in local government.
Gens or Nation
The court of a monarch, or at some periods an important nobleman, is a term for the extended household and all those who regularly attended on the ruler or central figure.
How many sons did Henry VIII have?
Napoleon set up a blockade—a forcible closing of ports—to prevent all trade and communication between Great Britain and other European nations.
who dominated European history from 1799 to 1815?
why is it necessary to have a hospital and animals pens at the St. Gall Monastery, Switzerland
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