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Lipids and Membranes
Terms in this set (40)
What are some functions of lipids?
Energy storage/transport (triacylglycerols)
Cellular binding/recognition (glycolipids)
Signaling (steroid hormones)
Digestion (bile salts)
How many major categories of lipids are there?
What are omega fatty acids?
Polyunsaturated fatty acids that we have to get from our diet
Higher levels of omega 6 are associated with:
What decreases the solubility of fatty acids?
Longer chains with fewer double bonds
Do saturated fatty acids take more or less energy to melt?
More energy - they are tightly packed together
Where are triacylglycerols stored?
What is a better fuel storage than glycogen?
Unsaturated fatty acids are ____ at room temperature?
What occurs during partial dehydrogenation?
Double bonds are converted to single bonds, which increases shelf life, which forms trans fat (increases LDL)
Phospholipids have what kind of backbone?
What are the types of membrane lipids?
What helps determine blood type?
Different types of sugar components of glycosphingolipids
Which type of membrane lipids can contain sugars?
What are sterols?
Lipids containing 4 fused C rings
What kind of lipids can be used in signaling and as cofactors?
Eicosanoids - prostaglandins, thromboxanes, Leukotrines, lipoxins
What do prostaglandins do?
Dilute blood vessels
Stimulation smooth muscle contraction in uterus
Cause inflammation and pain
What do thromboxanes do?
Form blood clots
What do Leukotrines do?
Stimulate smooth muscle contraction in lungs
What do lipoxins do?
Act as anti-inflammatory agents
What are some fat-soluble vitamins?
What does vitamin D3 do?
Regulates calcium uptake
What does vitamin A1 do?
Important in vision
What does vitamin E do?
What does vitamin K do?
Lipid bilayers are impermeable to what kind of solutes?
What is formed when the hydrophobic regions of membranes are exposed to water?
They form vesicles/liposomes
Membranes are composed of:
How are lipids distributed in the belayer?
What is the main lipid component of membranes?
What stabilizes the membrane?
Where are glycolipids found in membranes?
Outer leaflet of plasma membrane and inner leaflet of organelles
Glycolipids contribute to what?
What affects lipid bilayer thickness?
Cholesterol (increases thickness)
How do substances move through membrane channels?
What are aquaporins?
Channel proteins that move water into and out of cells
What do membrane transporters do?
Bind to substrates indirectly, causing changes in their confirmations
How do substances pass through uniporters?
How do substances pass through cotransporters?
Secondary active transport
How do substances pass through ATP pumps?
Primary active transport
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